[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A collaboration between the W. M. Keck Observatory (WMKO) in Hawaii and the
NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) in California, the Keck Observatory
Archive (KOA) was commissioned in 2004 to archive observing data from WMKO,
which operates two classically scheduled 10 m ground-based telescopes. The
observing data from Keck is not suitable for direct ingestion into the archive
since the metadata contained in the original FITS headers lack the information
necessary for proper archiving. Coupled with different standards among
instrument builders and the heterogeneous nature of the data inherent in
classical observing, in which observers have complete control of the
instruments and their observations, the data pose a number of technical
challenges for KOA. We describe the methodologies and tools that we have
developed to successfully address these difficulties, adding content to the
FITS headers and "retrofitting" the metadata in order to support archiving Keck
data, especially those obtained before the archive was designed. With the
expertise gained from having successfully archived observations taken with all
eight currently active instruments at WMKO, we have developed lessons learned
from handling this complex array of heterogeneous metadata that help ensure a
smooth ingestion of data not only for current but also future instruments, as
well as a better experience for the archive user.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) and the W. M. Keck
Observatory (WMKO) operate an archive for the Keck Observatory. At the end of
2013, KOA completed the ingestion of data from all eight active observatory
instruments. KOA will continue to ingest all newly obtained observations, at an
anticipated volume of 4 TB per year. The data are transmitted electronically
from WMKO to IPAC for storage and curation. Access to data is governed by a
data use policy, and approximately two-thirds of the data in the archive are
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Keck Observatory Archive (KOA), which began curating and serving
data in 2004, was developed many years after the W. M. Keck Observatory
(WMKO) came into operations. Since much of the data produced from
instruments on the twin Keck telescopes were never designed with the
archive in mind, the metadata contained in the original FITS headers
were not adequate for proper archiving. Some examples of the challenges
facing the process of making the data suitable for archiving include:
assigning data to the correct owner and program, especially on nights
split between two or more PIs; distinguishing science files from
calibration files; and identifying the type of calibration. We present
some software techniques that prepare and evaluate the data, adding
content to the FITS headers and "retrofitting" the metadata in order to
support archiving Keck legacy data. We also describe tools developed to
ensure a smooth ingestion of data for current and future instruments. We
present briefly our method for controlling and monitoring the data
transfer between WMKO in Hawaii and the NASA Exoplanet Science Institute
(NExScI) in California, where the data are physically hosted.
Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering 09/2012; · 0.20 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: NGC 3147, NGC 4698 and 1ES 1927+654 are active galaxies that are classified as Seyfert 2s, based on the line ratios of strong narrow emission lines in their optical spectra. However, they exhibit rapid X-ray spectral variability and/or little indication of obscuration in X-ray spectral fitting, contrary to expectation from the active galactic nucleus (AGN) unification model. Using optical spectropolarimetry with LRIS and near-infrared spectroscopy with NIRSPEC at the W. M. Keck Observatory, we conducted a deep search for hidden polarized broad H-alpha and direct broad Pa-beta or Br-gamma emission lines in these objects. We found no evidence for any broad emission lines from the active nucleus of these galaxies, suggesting that they are unobscured, completely "naked" AGNs that intrinsically lack broad-line regions. Comment: 5 pages in emulateapj; ApJL vol. 726, 2011 January 10; v2: minor cosmetic corrections to text to match published version
The Astrophysical Journal Letters 12/2010; · 5.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The NASA Exoplanet Science Institute (NExScI) maintains a series of
archival services in support of NASA’s planet finding and
characterization goals. Two of the larger archival services at NExScI
are the Keck Observatory Archive (KOA) and the NASA Star and Exoplanet
Database (NStED). KOA, a collaboration between the W. M. Keck
Observatory and NExScI, serves raw data from the High Resolution Echelle
Spectrograph (HIRES) and extracted spectral browse products. As of June
2009, KOA hosts over 28 million files (4.7 TB) from over 2,000 nights.
In Spring 2010, it will begin to serve data from the Near-Infrared
Echelle Spectrograph (NIRSPEC). NStED is a general purpose archive with
the aim of providing support for NASA’s planet finding and
characterization goals, and stellar astrophysics. There are two
principal components of NStED: a database of (currently) all known
exoplanets, and images; and an archive dedicated to high precision
photometric surveys for transiting exoplanets. NStED is the US portal to
the CNES mission CoRoT, the first space mission dedicated to the
discovery and characterization of exoplanets. These archives share a
common software and hardware architecture with the NASA/IPAC Infrared
Science Archive (IRSA). The software architecture consists of standalone
utilities that perform generic query and retrieval functions. They are
called through program interfaces and plugged together to form
applications through a simple executive library.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report spectropolarimetry of 30 radio-selected broad absorption line (BAL) quasars with the Keck Observatory, 25 from the sample of Becker et al. (2000). Both high and low-ionization BAL quasars are represented, with redshifts ranging from 0.5 to 2.5. The spectropolarimetric properties of radio-selected BAL quasars are very similar to those of radio-quiet BAL quasars: a sizeable fraction (20%) show large continuum polarization (2-10%) usually rising toward short wavelengths, emission lines are typically less polarized than the continuum, and absorption line troughs often show large polarization jumps. There are no significant correlations between polarization properties and radio properties, including those indicative of system orientation, suggesting that BAL quasars are not simply normal quasars seen from an edge-on perspective.
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 06/2010; · 14.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the detection of extremely broad, double-peaked, highly polarized Halpha emission lines in the nuclei of the well-known Seyfert 2 galaxies NGC 2110 and NGC 5252. These hidden broad Halpha emission lines, visible only in scattered light, are shown to display significant variability in strength and profile on timescales of <~ 1 yr. That the broad emission line exhibits variability in polarized flux also suggests that the scattering region must be very compact, possibly confined in a small number of electron clouds <~ 1 lt-yr in size. Our observational constraints place these clouds within ~10 pc of the nucleus with temperatures < 10^6 K and densities ~ 10^7 cm^-3, consistent with a region just outside the obscuring torus between the broad-line region and narrow-line region. These scattering clouds could arise from the clumpy torus itself. These findings and other properties indicate that NGC 2110 and NGC 5252 are the hidden counterparts to the broad-line double-peaked emission-line AGNs, whose examples include Arp 102B and 3C 332. Comment: 11 pages in emulateapj; ApJ vol. 711, 2010 March 10; v2: minor corrections to text for consistency with published version
The Astrophysical Journal 01/2010; · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present Keck spectropolarimetry of two rare low-ionization broad absorption line (BAL) quasars (QSOs), FIRST J084044.5+363328 and FIRST J155633.8+351758, that also exhibit narrow absorption lines from metastable excited levels of Fe II ("iron Lo-BALs"). These QSOs were discovered in optical follow-ups to a deep radio survey; FIRST J155633.8+351758 is radio-loud, the first BAL QSO so identified. FIRST J084044.5+363328 is highly polarized and exhibits many features found in other BAL QSOs. The continuum is ≈ 4% polarized near the 2000 Å rest frame, falling to ≈ 2% at longer wavelengths, at a position angle of ≈ 50°. The emission lines are unpolarized. The polarization rises to ≈ 8% in the low-ionization troughs of Mg II λ2800 and Al III λ1860. The polarization and its position angle vary in a complicated manner across the metastable Fe II absorption lines, which suggests that more than one mechanism is at work or that the system geometry is complex. FIRST J155633.8+351758 may be the most highly polarized BAL QSO known, and it exhibits other unusual polarization properties compared with those of other highly polarized BAL QSOs. The continuum is ≈ 13% polarized near the 2000 Å rest frame, falling to ≈ 7% at longer wavelengths, at a position angle of 153°. The emission lines are polarized like the continuum, but in the absorption troughs the polarization drops to zero. Currently available data cannot yet discriminate among the possible lines of sight to BAL QSOs (edge-on, pole-on, or random).
The Astrophysical Journal 01/2009; 487(2):L113. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the dynamical origin of the structures observed in the scattered-light images of the resolved debris disk around HD 141569A. The disk has two conspicuous spiral rings and two large-scale spiral arms. We explore the roles of radiation pressure from the central star, gas drag from the gas disk, and the tidal forces from two nearby stars in creating and maintaining these structures. The disk's color, scattering function, and infrared emission suggest that submicron-sized grains dominate the dust population observed in scattered light. CO observations indicate the presence of up to 60 M⊕ of gas. The dust grains are subject to the competing effects of expulsive radiation pressure (β > 1, where β is the ratio of the radiation and gravitational forces) and retentive gas drag. We use a simple one-dimensional axisymmetric model to show that the presence of the gas helps confine the dust and that a broad ring of dust is produced if a central hole exists in the disk. This model also suggests that the disk is in a transient, excited dynamical state, as the observed dust creation rate applied over the age of the star is inconsistent with submillimeter mass measurements. We model in two dimensions the effects of a flyby encounter between the disk and a binary star in a prograde, parabolic, coplanar orbit. We track the spatial distribution of the disk's gas, planetesimals, and dust. We conclude that the surface density distribution reflects the planetesimal distribution for a wide range of parameters. Our most viable model features a disk with initial radius 400 AU, a gas mass of 50 M⊕, and β = 4 and suggests that the system is being observed within 4000 yr of the flyby periastron. The model reproduces some features of HD 141569A's disk, such as a broad single ring and large spiral arms, but it does not reproduce the observed multiple spiral rings or disk asymmetries nor the observed clearing in the inner disk. For the latter, we consider the effect of a 5MJ planet in an eccentric orbit on the planetesimal distribution of HD 141569A.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 627(2):986. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the analysis of the faint galaxy population in the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Early Release Observation fields VV 29 (UGC 10214) and NGC 4676. These observations cover a total area of 26.3 arcmin2 and have depths close to that of the Hubble Deep Fields in the deepest part of the VV 29 image, with 10 σ detection limits for point sources of 27.8, 27.6, and 27.2 AB magnitudes in the gF475W, VF606W, and IF814W bands, respectively. Measuring the faint galaxy number count distribution is a difficult task, with different groups arriving at widely varying results even on the same data set. Here we attempt to thoroughly consider all aspects relevant for faint galaxy counting and photometry, developing methods that are based on public software and that are easily reproducible by other astronomers. Using simulations we determine the best SExtractor parameters for the detection of faint galaxies in deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, paying special attention to the issue of deblending, which significantly affects the normalization and shape of the number count distribution. We confirm, as claimed by Bernstein, Freedman, & Madore, that Kron-like magnitudes, such as the ones generated by SExtractor, can miss more than half of the light of faint galaxies, what dramatically affects the slope of the number counts. We show how to correct for this effect, which depends sensitively not only on the characteristics of the observations, but also on the choice of SExtractor parameters. We present catalogs for the VV 29 and NGC 4676 fields with photometry in the F475W, F606W, and F814W bands. We also show that combining the Bayesian software BPZ with superb ACS data and new spectral templates enables us to estimate reliable photometric redshifts for a significant fraction of galaxies with as few as three filters. After correcting for selection effects, we measure slopes of 0.32 ± 0.01 for 22 < gF475W < 28, 0.34 ± 0.01 for 22 < VF606W < 27.5, and 0.33 ± 0.01 for 22 < mF814W < 27. The counts do not flatten (except perhaps in the F475W filter), up to the depth of our observations. Our results agree well with those of Bernstein, Freedman, & Madore, who used different data sets and techniques, and show that it is possible to perform consistent measurements of galaxy number counts if the selection effects are properly considered. We find that the faint counts mAB > 25.5 can be well approximated in all our filters by a passive luminosity evolution model based on the COMBO-17 luminosity function (α = -1.5), with a strong merging rate following the prescription of Glazebrook et al., * (1 + Qz), with Q = 4.
The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 12/2008; 150(1):1. · 14.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We study the internal color properties of a morphologically selected sample of spheroidal galaxies taken from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) Early Release Observation program of UGC 10214 ("the Tadpole"). By taking advantage of the unprecedented high resolution of the ACS in this very deep data set, we are able to characterize spheroids at subarcsecond scales. Using the V606 and I814 bands, we construct V - I color maps and extract color gradients for a sample of spheroids at I814 < 24 mag. We assess the ability of the ACS to make resolved color studies of galaxies by comparing its results with the multicolor data from the Hubble Deep Fields (HDFs). Here we report that with ACS WFC data using less than ~1/10 the exposure of the WFPC2 HDFs, it is possible to confidently carry out resolved studies of faint galaxies at similar magnitude limits. We also investigate the existence of a population of morphologically classified spheroids that show extreme variation in their internal color properties, similar to the ones reported in the HDFs. These are displayed as blue cores and inverse color gradients with respect to those accounted for from metallicity variations. Following the same analysis, we find a similar fraction of early-type systems (~30%-40%) that show nonhomologous internal colors, suggestive of recent star formation activity. We present two statistics for quantifying the internal color variation in galaxies and tracing blue cores, from which we estimate the ratio of nonhomogeneous to homogeneous internal colors as a function of redshift up to z 1.2. We find that it can be described as about constant as a function of redshift, with a small increase with redshift for the fraction of spheroids that present strong color dispersions. The implications of a constant fraction at all redshifts suggests the existence of a relatively permanent population of evolving spheroids up to z 1. We discuss the implications of this in the context of spheroidal formation.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 612(1):202. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present new measurements of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) and its dependence on local galaxy density, color, morphology, and clustocentric radius for the massive z = 0.83 cluster MS 1054-0321. Our analyses are based on imaging performed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the F606W, F775W, and F850LP passbands and extensive spectroscopic data obtained with the Keck Low-Resolution Imaging Spectrograph. Our main results are based on a spectroscopically selected sample of 143 cluster members with morphological classifications derived from the ACS observations. Our three primary findings are (1) the faint-end slope of the LF is steepest in the bluest filter, (2) the LF in the inner part of the cluster (or highest density regions) has a flatter faint-end slope, and (3) the fraction of early-type galaxies is higher at the bright end of the LF, and gradually decreases toward fainter magnitudes. These characteristics are consistent with those in local galaxy clusters, indicating that, at least in massive clusters, the common characteristics of cluster LFs are established at z = 0.83. These results provide additional support for the hypothesis that the formation of galaxies in MS 1054-0321 began at redshifts considerably greater than unity. We also find a 2 σ deficit of intrinsically faint, red galaxies (i775 - z850 ≥ 0.5, Mi > -19) in this cluster. Although the significance is marginal, this trend may suggest that faint, red galaxies (which are common in z < 0.1 rich clusters) have not yet been created in this cluster at z = 0.83. The giant-to-dwarf ratio in MS 1054-0321 starts to increase inwards of the virial radius or when Σ > 30 Mpc-2, coinciding with the environment where the galaxy star formation rate and the morphology-density relation start to appear. A physical process that begins to become effective at around the virial radius or Σ ~ 30 Mpc-2 may thus be responsible for the evolution of color and luminosity of cluster galaxies.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 621(1):188. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present deep optical imaging of the z = 4.1 radio galaxy TN J1338-1942, obtained using the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope, as well as ground-based near-infrared imaging data from the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Very Large Telescope (VLT). The radio galaxy is known to reside within a large galaxy overdensity (both in physical extent and density contrast). There is good evidence that this "protocluster" region is the progenitor of a present-day rich galaxy cluster. TN J1338 is the dominant galaxy in the protocluster in terms of size and luminosity (in both the optical and near-infrared) and therefore seems destined to evolve into the brightest cluster galaxy. The high spatial resolution ACS images reveal several kiloparsec-scale features within and around the radio galaxy. The continuum light is aligned with the radio axis and is resolved into two clumps in the i775 and z850 bands. These components have luminosities ~109 L☉ and sizes of a few kpc. The estimated nebular continuum, scattered light, synchrotron- and inverse Compton-scattering contributions to the aligned continuum light are only a few percent of the observed total, indicating that the observed flux is likely dominated by forming stars. The estimated star formation rate for the whole radio galaxy is ~200 M☉ yr-1. A simple model in which the jet has triggered star formation in these continuum knots is consistent with the available data. A striking, but small, linear feature is evident in the z850 aligned light and may be indicative of a large-scale shock associated with the advance of the radio jet. The rest of the aligned light also seems morphologically consistent with star formation induced by shocks associated with the radio source, as seen in other high-z radio galaxies (e.g., 4C 41.17). An unusual feature is seen in Lyα emission. A wedge-shaped extension emanates from the radio galaxy perpendicularly to the radio axis. This "wedge" naturally connects to the surrounding asymmetric, large-scale (~100 kpc) Lyα halo. We posit that the wedge is a starburst-driven superwind associated with the first major epoch of formation of the brightest cluster galaxy. The shock and wedge are examples of feedback processes due to both active galactic nucleus and star formation in the earliest stages of massive galaxy formation.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 630(1):68. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have discovered three globular clusters beyond the Holmberg radius in Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys images of the gas-rich dark matter-dominated blue compact dwarf galaxy NGC 2915. The clusters, all of which start to resolve into stars, have MV606 = -8.9 to -9.8 mag, significantly brighter than the peak of the luminosity function of Milky Way globular clusters. Their colors suggest a metallicity [Fe/H] ≈ -1.9 dex, typical of metal-poor Galactic globular clusters. The specific frequency of clusters is at a minimum normal, compared to spiral galaxies. However, since only a small portion of the system has been surveyed, it is more likely that the luminosity and mass normalized cluster content is higher, like that seen in elliptical galaxies and galaxy clusters. This suggests that NGC 2915 resembles a key phase in the early hierarchical assembly of galaxies—the epoch when much of the old stellar population has formed but little of the stellar disk. Depending on the subsequent interaction history, such systems could go on to build up larger elliptical galaxies, evolve into normal spirals, or in rare circumstances remain suspended in their development to become systems like NGC 2915.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 599(2):L83. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigate the evolution in the distribution of surface brightness, as a function of size, for elliptical and S0 galaxies in the two clusters RDCS J1252.9-2927 (z = 1.237) and RX J0152.7-1357 (z = 0.837). We use multicolor imaging with the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the Hubble Space Telescope to determine these sizes and surface brightnesses. Using three different estimates of the surface brightnesses, we find that we reliably estimate the surface brightness for the galaxies in our sample with a scatter of <0.2 mag and with systematic shifts of 0.05 mag. We construct samples of galaxies with early-type morphologies in both clusters. For each cluster, we use a magnitude limit in a band that closely corresponds to the rest-frame B, to magnitude limit of MB = -18.8 at z = 0, and select only those galaxies within the color-magnitude sequence of the cluster or by using our spectroscopic redshifts. We measure evolution in the rest-frame B surface brightness and find -1.41 ± 0.14 mag from the Coma Cluster of galaxies for RDCS J1252.9-2927 and -0.90 ± 0.12 mag of evolution for RX J0152.7-1357, or an average evolution of (-1.13 ± 0.15)z mag. Our statistical errors are dominated by the observed scatter in the size-surface brightness relation, σ = 0.42 ± 0.05 mag for RX J0152.7-1357 and σ = 0.76 ± 0.10 mag for RDCS J1252.9-2927. We find no statistically significant evolution in this scatter, although an increase in the scatter could be expected. Overall, the pace of luminosity evolution we measure agrees with that of the fundamental plane of early-type galaxies, implying that the majority of massive early-type galaxies observed at z 1 formed at high redshifts.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 626(2):809. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The color-magnitude relation has been determined for the RDCS J0910+5422 cluster of galaxies at redshift z = 1.106. Cluster members were selected from the Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (HST ACS) images, combined with ground-based near-IR imaging and optical spectroscopy. The observed early-type color-magnitude relation (CMR) in i775 - z850 versus z850 shows an intrinsic scatter in color of 0.060 ± 0.009 mag, within 1' from the cluster X-ray emission center. Both the elliptical and the S0 galaxies show small scatter about the CMR of 0.042 ± 0.010 and 0.044 ± 0.020 mag, respectively. From the scatter about the CMR, a mean luminosity-weighted age > 3.3 Gyr (zf ≈ 3) is derived for the elliptical galaxies, assuming a simple stellar population modeling (single-burst solar metallicity). Strikingly, the S0 galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 are systematically bluer in i775 - z850, by 0.07 ± 0.02 mag, than the ellipticals. The ellipticity distribution as a function of color indicates that the face-on S0s in this particular cluster have likely been classified as elliptical. Thus, if anything, the offset in color between the elliptical and S0 populations may be even more significant. The color offset between S0 and E galaxies corresponds to an age difference of ≈1 Gyr for a single-burst solar-metallicity model. A solar-metallicity model with an exponential decay in star formation will reproduce the offset for an age of 3.5 Gyr; i.e., the S0s have evolved gradually from star-forming progenitors. The early-type population in this cluster appears to be still forming. The blue early-type disk galaxies in RDCS J0910+5422 likely represent the direct progenitors of the more evolved S0s that follow the same red sequence as elliptical galaxies in other clusters. Thirteen red galaxy pairs are observed, and the galaxies associated in pairs constitute ~40% of the CMR galaxies in this cluster.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 639(1):81. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We present the first Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) observations of young star clusters in the colliding/merging galaxy UGC 10214. The observations were made as part of the Early Release Observation (ERO) program for the newly installed ACS during service mission SM3B for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Many young star clusters can be identified in the tails of UGC 10214, with ages ranging from ~3 to 10 Myr. The extreme blue V-I (F606W-F814W) colors of the star clusters found in the tail of UGC 10214 can only be explained if strong emission lines are included with a young stellar population. This has been confirmed by our Keck spectroscopy of some of these bright blue stellar knots. The most luminous and largest of these blue knots has an absolute magnitude of MV = -14.45, with a half-light radius of 161 pc, and if it is a single star cluster, it would qualify as a super star cluster (SSC). Alternatively, it could be a superposition of multiple scaled OB associations or clusters. With an estimated age of ~4-5 Myr, its derived mass is less than 1.3 × 106 M☉. Thus, the young stellar knot is unbound and will not evolve into a normal globular cluster. The bright blue clusters and associations are much younger than the dynamical age of the tail, providing strong evidence that star formation occurs in the tail long after it was ejected. UGC 10214 provides a nearby example of processes that contributed to the formation of halos and intracluster media in the distant and younger universe.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 585(2):750. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We measure the morphology-density relation (MDR) and morphology-radius relation (MRR) for galaxies in seven z ~ 1 clusters that have been observed with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on board the Hubble Space Telescope. Simulations and independent comparisons of our visually derived morphologies indicate that ACS allows one to distinguish between E, S0, and spiral morphologies down to z850 = 24, corresponding to L/L* = 0.21 and 0.30 at z = 0.83 and 1.24, respectively. We adopt density and radius estimation methods that match those used at lower redshift in order to study the evolution of the MDR and MRR. We detect a change in the MDR between 0.8 < z < 1.2 and that observed at z ~ 0, consistent with recent work; specifically, the growth in the bulge-dominated galaxy fraction, fE+S0, with increasing density proceeds less rapidly at z ~ 1 than it does at z ~ 0. At z ~ 1 and Σ ≥ 500 galaxies Mpc-2, we find fE+S0 = 0.72 ± 0.10. At z ~ 0, an E+S0 population fraction of this magnitude occurs at densities about 5 times smaller. The evolution in the MDR is confined to densities Σ 40 galaxies Mpc-2 and appears to be primarily due to a deficit of S0 galaxies and an excess of Sp+Irr galaxies relative to the local galaxy population. The fE-density relation exhibits no significant evolution between z = 1 and 0. We find mild evidence to suggest that the MDR is dependent on the bolometric X-ray luminosity of the intracluster medium. Implications for the evolution of the disk galaxy population in dense regions are discussed in the context of these observations.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 623(2):721. · 6.28 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Using an i - z dropout criterion, we determine the space density of z ~ 6 galaxies from two deep ACS GTO fields with deep optical-IR imaging. A total of 23 objects are found over 46 arcmin2, or ~0.5 ± 0.1 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB ~ 27.3 (6 σ), or a completeness-corrected ~0.5 ± 0.2 objects arcmin-2 down to zAB ~ 26.5 (including one probable z ~ 6 active galactic nucleus). Combining deep ISAAC data for our RDCS 1252-2927 field (JAB ~ 25.7 and Ks,AB ~ 25.0; 5 σ) and NICMOS data for the Hubble Deep Field-North (J110,AB and H160,AB ~ 27.3, 5 σ), we verify that these dropouts have relatively flat spectral slopes, as one would expect for star-forming objects at z ~ 6. Compared with the average-color (β = -1.3) U-dropout in the Steidel et al. z ~ 3 sample, i-dropouts in our sample range in luminosity from ~1.5L* (zAB ~ 25.6) to ~0.3L* (zAB ~ 27.3) with the exception of one very bright candidate at z850,AB ~ 24.2. The half-light radii vary from 009 to 021, or 0.5 kpc to 1.3 kpc. We derive the z ~ 6 rest-frame UV luminosity density (or star formation rate density) by using three different procedures. All three procedures use simulations based on a slightly lower redshift (z ~ 5) V606-dropout sample from Chandra Deep Field-South ACS images. First, we make a direct comparison of our findings with a no-evolution projection of this V-dropout sample, allowing us to automatically correct for the light lost at faint magnitudes or lower surface brightnesses. We find 23% ± 25% more i-dropouts than we predict, consistent with no strong evolution over this redshift range. Adopting previous results to z ~ 5, this works out to a mere 20% ± 29% drop in the luminosity density from z ~ 3 to z ~ 6. Second, we use the same V-dropout simulations to derive a detailed selection function for our i-dropout sample and compute the UV-luminosity density [(7.2 ± 2.5) × 1025 ergs s-1 Hz-1 Mpc-3 down to zAB ~ 27]. We find a 39% ± 21% drop over the same redshift range (z ~ 3-6), consistent with the first estimate. This is our preferred value and suggests a star formation rate of 0.0090 ± 0.0031 M☉ yr-1 Mpc-3 to zAB ~ 27, or ~0.036 ± 0.012 M☉ yr-1 Mpc-3 by extrapolating the luminosity function to the faint limit, assuming α = -1.6. Third, we follow a very similar procedure, except that we assume no incompleteness, and find a rest-frame continuum luminosity that is ~2-3 times lower than our other two determinations. This final estimate is to be taken as a lower limit and is important if there are modest changes in the colors or surface brightnesses from z ~ 5 to z ~ 6 (the other estimates assume no large changes in the intrinsic selectability of objects). We note that all three estimates are well within the canonical range of luminosity densities necessary for reionization of the universe at this epoch by star-forming galaxies.
The Astrophysical Journal 12/2008; 595(2):589. · 6.28 Impact Factor