Gregory A Jicha

University of Kentucky, Lexington, Kentucky, United States

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Publications (69)409.09 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a high-morbidity brain disease in the elderly but risk factors are largely unknown. We report the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) with HS-Aging pathology as an endophenotype. In collaboration with the Alzheimer's Disease Genetics Consortium, data were analyzed from large autopsy cohorts: (#1) National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC); (#2) Rush University Religious Orders Study and Memory and Aging Project; (#3) Group Health Research Institute Adult Changes in Thought study; (#4) University of California at Irvine 90+ Study; and (#5) University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Center. Altogether, 363 HS-Aging cases and 2,303 controls, all pathologically confirmed, provided statistical power to test for risk alleles with large effect size. A two-tier study design included GWAS from cohorts #1-3 (Stage I) to identify promising SNP candidates, followed by focused evaluation of particular SNPs in cohorts #4-5 (Stage II). Polymorphism in the ATP-binding cassette, sub-family C member 9 (ABCC9) gene, also known as sulfonylurea receptor 2, was associated with HS-Aging pathology. In the meta-analyzed Stage I GWAS, ABCC9 polymorphisms yielded the lowest p values, and factoring in the Stage II results, the meta-analyzed risk SNP (rs704178:G) attained genome-wide statistical significance (p = 1.4 × 10(-9)), with odds ratio (OR) of 2.13 (recessive mode of inheritance). For SNPs previously linked to hippocampal sclerosis, meta-analyses of Stage I results show OR = 1.16 for rs5848 (GRN) and OR = 1.22 rs1990622 (TMEM106B), with the risk alleles as previously described. Sulfonylureas, a widely prescribed drug class used to treat diabetes, also modify human ABCC9 protein function. A subsample of patients from the NACC database (n = 624) were identified who were older than age 85 at death with known drug history. Controlling for important confounders such as diabetes itself, exposure to a sulfonylurea drug was associated with risk for HS-Aging pathology (p = 0.03). Thus, we describe a novel and targetable dementia risk factor.
    Acta Neuropathologica 04/2014; · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Adults with Down syndrome (DS) are at high risk for developing Alzheimer's disease after the age of 40 years. To detect white matter (WM) changes in the brain linked to dementia, fractional anisotropy (FA) from diffusion tensor imaging was used. We hypothesized that adults with DS without dementia (DS n = 10), DS with dementia (DSAD n = 10) and age matched non-DS subjects (CTL n = 10) would show differential levels of FA and an association with scores from the Brief Praxis Test and the Severe Impairment Battery. WM integrity differences in DS compared with CTL were found predominantly in the frontal lobes. Across all DS adults, poorer Brief Praxis Test performance correlated with reduced FA in the corpus callosum as well as several association tracts, primarily within frontoparietal regions. Our results demonstrate significantly lower WM integrity in DS compared with controls, particularly in the frontal tracts. DS-related WM integrity reductions in a number of tracts were associated with poorer cognition. These preliminary results suggest that late myelinating frontal pathways may be vulnerable to aging in DS.
    Neurobiology of aging 02/2014; · 5.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction The Uniform Data Set (UDS) neuropsychological battery is frequently used in clinical studies. However, practice effects, effectiveness as a measure of global cognitive functioning, and detection of mild cognitive impairment have not been examined. Methods A normative total score for the UDS has been developed. Linear discriminant analysis determined classification accuracy in identifying cognitively normal and impaired groups. Practice effects were examined in cognitively normal and cognitively impaired groups. Results The total score differentiates between cognitively normal participants and those with dementia, but does not accurately identify individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Mean total scores for test-exposed participants were significantly higher than test-naive participants in both the normal and MCI groups and were higher, but not significantly so, in the dementia group. Conclusion The total score’s classification accuracy discriminates between cognitively normal versus participants who have dementia. The total score appears subject to practice effects.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 01/2014; · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) often is an early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). MCI is characterized by cognitive decline departing from normal cognitive aging but that does not significantly interfere with daily activities. This study explores the potential of scalp EEG for early detection of alterations from cognitively normal status of older adults signifying MCI and AD. Resting 32-channel EEG records from 48 age-matched participants (mean age 75.7 years)—15 normal controls (NC), 16 early MCI, and 17 early stage AD—are examined. Regional spectral and complexity features are computed and used in a support vector machine model to discriminate between groups. Analyses based on three-way classifications demonstrate discrimination accuracies of 83.9%-96.8% for MCI vs. NC (p-value < 0.0029), 71.9%-96.9% for AD vs. NC (p-value < 0.0333), and 87.9%-90.9% for AD vs. MCI (p-value < 0.0136), depending on the EEG protocol condition employed. These results demonstrate the great promise for scalp EEG spectral and complexity features as noninvasive biomarkers for detection of MCI and early AD.
    Computer methods and programs in biomedicine 01/2014; · 1.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: To evaluate the relationship between self-reported head injury and cognitive impairment, dementia, mortality, and Alzheimer's disease (AD)-type pathological changes. Methods: Clinical and neuropathological data from participants enrolled in a longitudinal study of aging and cognition (n = 649) were analyzed to assess the chronic effects of self-reported head injury. Results: The effect of self-reported head injury on the clinical state depended on the age at assessment: for a 1-year increase in age, the OR for the transition to clinical mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at the next visit for participants with a history of head injury was 1.21 and 1.34 for the transition from MCI to dementia. Without respect to age, head injury increased the odds of mortality (OR = 1.54). Moreover, it increased the odds of a pathological diagnosis of AD for men (OR = 1.47) but not women (OR = 1.18). Men with a head injury had higher mean amyloid plaque counts in the neocortex and entorhinal cortex than men without. Conclusions: Self-reported head injury is associated with earlier onset, increased risk of cognitive impairment and dementia, increased risk of mortality, and AD-type pathological changes. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders 12/2013; 37(5-6):294-306. · 2.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the effects of early- to midlife musical training on cognition in older adults. A musical training survey examined self-reported musical experience and objective knowledge in 237 cognitively intact participants. Responses were classified into low-, medium-, and high-knowledge groups. Linear mixed models compared the groups' longitudinal performance on the Animal Naming Test (ANT; semantic verbal fluency) and Logical Memory Story A Immediate Recall (LMI; episodic memory) controlling for baseline age, time since baseline, education, sex, and full-scale IQ. Results indicate that high-knowledge participants had significantly higher LMI scores at baseline and over time compared to low-knowledge participants. The ANT scores did not differ among the groups. Ability to read music was associated with higher mean scores for both ANT and LMI over time. Early- to midlife musical training may be associated with improved late-life episodic and semantic memory as well as a useful marker of cognitive reserve.
    American Journal of Alzheimer s Disease and Other Dementias 12/2013; · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hippocampal sclerosis of ageing is a prevalent brain disease that afflicts older persons and has been linked with cerebrovascular pathology. Arteriolosclerosis is a subtype of cerebrovascular pathology characterized by concentrically thickened arterioles. Here we report data from multiple large autopsy series (University of Kentucky Alzheimer's Disease Centre, Nun Study, and National Alzheimer's Coordinating Centre) showing a specific association between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and arteriolosclerosis. The present analyses incorporate 226 cases of autopsy-proven hippocampal sclerosis of ageing and 1792 controls. Case-control comparisons were performed including digital pathological assessments for detailed analyses of blood vessel morphology. We found no evidence of associations between hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology and lacunar infarcts, large infarcts, Circle of Willis atherosclerosis, or cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Individuals with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology did not show increased rates of clinically documented hypertension, diabetes, or other cardiac risk factors. The correlation between arteriolosclerosis and hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology was strong in multiple brain regions outside of the hippocampus. For example, the presence of arteriolosclerosis in the frontal cortex (Brodmann area 9) was strongly associated with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing pathology (P < 0.001). This enables informative evaluation of anatomical regions outside of the hippocampus. To assess the morphology of brain microvasculature far more rigorously than what is possible using semi-quantitative pathological scoring, we applied digital pathological (Aperio ScanScope) methods on a subsample of frontal cortex sections from hippocampal sclerosis of ageing (n = 15) and control (n = 42) cases. Following technical studies to optimize immunostaining methods for small blood vessel visualization, our analyses focused on sections immunostained for smooth muscle actin (a marker of arterioles) and CD34 (an endothelial marker), with separate analyses on grey and white matter. A total of 43 834 smooth muscle actin-positive vascular profiles and 603 798 CD34-positive vascular profiles were evaluated. In frontal cortex of cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing, smooth muscle actin-immunoreactive arterioles had thicker walls (P < 0.05), larger perimeters (P < 0.03), and larger vessel areas (P < 0.03) than controls. Unlike the arterioles, CD34-immunoreactive capillaries had dimensions that were unchanged in cases with hippocampal sclerosis of ageing versus controls. Arteriolosclerosis appears specific to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing brains, because brains with Alzheimer's disease pathology did not show the same morphological alterations. We conclude that there may be a pathogenetic change in aged human brain arterioles that impacts multiple brain areas and contributes to hippocampal sclerosis of ageing.
    Brain 11/2013; · 9.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Study of repeated learning mechanisms has been limited in amnestic mild cognitive impairment, a preclinical stage of Alzheimer disease modifiable by cognitive rehabilitation. We assessed repeated contextual working memory decline as an indicator of amnestic mild cognitive impairment in a sample of 45 older adults recruited from the tertiary care setting. Results indicated that contextual working memory impairment distinguished adults with preclinical disease from those without impairment despite similar overall cognitive performance, and comparison of the indicator with standard-of-care neuropsychological measures indicated discriminant validity. Contextual working memory impairment may represent a novel predictor of Alzheimer disease conversion risk.
    Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology 09/2013; · 2.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Leptin signaling has received considerable attention in the Alzheimer disease (AD) field. Within the past decade, the peptide hormone has been demonstrated to attenuate tau hyperphosphorylation in neuronal cells and to be modulated by amyloid-β. Moreover, a role in neuroprotection and neurogenesis within the hippocampus has been shown in animal models. To further characterize the association between leptin signaling and vulnerable regions in AD, we assessed the profile of leptin and the leptin receptor in AD and control patients. We analyzed leptin levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and the concentration and localization of leptin and leptin receptor in the hippocampus. Significant elevations in leptin levels in both CSF and hippocampal tissue of AD patients, compared to age-matched control cases, indicate a physiological upregulation of leptin in AD. However, the level of leptin receptor mRNA decreased in AD brain and the leptin receptor protein was localized to neurofibrillary tangles, suggesting a severe discontinuity in the leptin signaling pathway. Collectively, our results suggest that leptin resistance in the hippocampus may play a role in the characteristic changes associated with the disease. These findings are the first to demonstrate such dysregulated leptin-signaling circuitry and provide novel insights into the possible role of aberrant leptin signaling in AD. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Journal of Neurochemistry 07/2013; · 3.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hippocampal sclerosis of aging (HS-Aging) is a causative factor in a large proportion of elderly dementia cases. The current definition of HS-Aging rests on pathologic criteria: neuronal loss and gliosis in the hippocampal formation that is out of proportion to AD-type pathology. HS-Aging is also strongly associated with TDP-43 pathology. HS-Aging pathology appears to be most prevalent in the oldest-old: autopsy series indicate that 5-30 % of nonagenarians have HS-Aging pathology. Among prior studies, differences in study design have contributed to the study-to-study variability in reported disease prevalence. The presence of HS-Aging pathology correlates with significant cognitive impairment which is often misdiagnosed as AD clinically. The antemortem diagnosis is further confounded by other diseases linked to hippocampal atrophy including frontotemporal lobar degeneration and cerebrovascular pathologies. Recent advances characterizing the neurocognitive profile of HS-Aging patients have begun to provide clues that may help identify living individuals with HS-Aging pathology. Structural brain imaging studies of research subjects followed to autopsy reveal hippocampal atrophy that is substantially greater in people with eventual HS-Aging pathology, compared to those with AD pathology alone. Data are presented from individuals who were followed with neurocognitive and neuroradiologic measurements, followed by neuropathologic evaluation at the University of Kentucky. Finally, we discuss factors that are hypothesized to cause or modify the disease. We conclude that the published literature on HS-Aging provides strong evidence of an important and under-appreciated brain disease of aging. Unfortunately, there is no therapy or preventive strategy currently available.
    Acta Neuropathologica 07/2013; · 9.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 allele correlates with increased risk of Alzheimer disease (AD) and increased parenchymal amyloid plaques. We tested how the APOE genotype correlated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) by analyzing 371 brains for parenchymal and meningeal CAA in 4 brain regions (frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital neocortex). The overall severity of CAA was highest in the occipital lobe. APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4/4 brains (n = 22) had the highest levels of CAA across regions. In the occipital lobe, nearly all APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4/4 cases were scored with the highest level of CAA (meninges, 95% of cases; parenchyma, 81%). In this brain region as in others, APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]3/4 brains (n = 115) showed consistently less CAA than APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4/4 brains (meninges, 43%; parenchyma, 43%). APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]3/3 brains (n = 182) showed even less CAA (meninges, 19%; parenchyma, 19%). Interestingly, APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]2/3 cases (n = 42) had more CAA than APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]3/3 (meninges, 44%; parenchyma, 32%), despite a reduced risk for AD in the APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]2/3 individuals. APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4/4 brains also had the fewest regions without CAA, whereas APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]3/3 brains had the most. Ordinal regression analyses demonstrated significant impacts of APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]2 and APOE-[Latin Small Letter Open E]4 on CAA at least in some brain regions. These data demonstrate that APOE genotype correlations with Aβ deposition in CAA only incompletely correspond to other AD-linked brain pathologies.
    Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology. 06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia are often investigated without accounting for the competing risk of mortality, which can bias results and lead to spurious conclusions, particularly regarding protective factors. Here, we apply a semi-Markov modeling approach to 531 participants in the University of Kentucky Biologically Resilient Adults in Neurological Studies (BRAiNS) longitudinal cohort, over one-third of whom died without transitioning to a cognitively impaired clinical state. A semi-Markov approach enables a statistical study of clinical state transitions while accounting for the competing risk of death and facilitates insights into both the odds that a risk factor will affect clinical transitions as well as the age at which the transition to MCI or dementia will occur. Risk factors assessed in the current study were identified by matching those reported in the literature with the data elements collected on participants. The presence of Type II diabetes at baseline shortens the time it takes cognitively intact individuals to transition to MCI by seven years on average while use of estrogen replacement therapy at enrollment (baseline) decreases the time required to convert from MCI to dementia by 1.5 years. Finally, smoking and being overweight do not promote transitions to impaired states but instead hasten death without a dementia. In contrast, conventional statistical analyses based on Cox proportional hazards models fail to recognize diabetes as a risk, shows that being overweight increases the risk of clinical MCI, and that high blood pressure at baseline increases the risk of a dementia.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 03/2013; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a degenerative neurological disorder at the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This work is a pilot study aimed at developing a simple scalp-EEG-based method for screening and monitoring MCI and AD. Specifically, the use of graphical analysis of inter-channel coherence of resting EEG for the detection of MCI and AD at early stages is explored. Resting EEG records from 48 age-matched subjects (mean age 75.7 years)-15 normal controls (NC), 16 with early-stage MCI, and 17 with early-stage AD-are examined. Network graphs are constructed using pairwise inter-channel coherence measures for delta-theta, alpha, beta, and gamma band frequencies. Network features are computed and used in a support vector machine model to discriminate among the three groups. Leave-one-out cross-validation discrimination accuracies of 93.6% for MCI vs. NC (p < 0.0003), 93.8% for AD vs. NC (p < 0.0003), and 97.0% for MCI vs. AD (p < 0.0003) are achieved. These results suggest the potential for graphical analysis of resting EEG inter-channel coherence as an efficacious method for noninvasive screening for MCI and early AD.
    Annals of Biomedical Engineering 03/2013; · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To test for an association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ϵ4 allele and dementias with synucleinopathy. DESIGN Genetic case-control association study. SETTING Academic research. PATIENTS Autopsied subjects were classified into 5 categories: dementia with high-level Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (NCs) but without Lewy body disease (LBD) NCs (AD group; n = 244), dementia with LBDNCs and high-level ADNCs (LBD-AD group; n = 224), dementia with LBDNCs and no or low levels of ADNCs (pure DLB [pDLB] group; n = 91), Parkinson disease dementia (PDD) with no or low levels of ADNCs (n = 81), and control group (n = 269). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE The APOE allele frequencies. RESULTS The APOE ϵ4 allele frequency was significantly higher in the AD (38.1%), LBD-AD (40.6%), pDLB (31.9%), and PDD (19.1%) groups compared with the control group (7.2%; overall χ24 = 185.25; P = 5.56 × 10-39), and it was higher in the pDLB group than the PDD group (P = .01). In an age-adjusted and sex-adjusted dominant model, ϵ4 was strongly associated with AD (odds ratio, 9.9; 95% CI, 6.4-15.3), LBD-AD (odds ratio, 12.6; 95% CI, 8.1-19.8), pDLB (odds ratio, 6.1; 95% CI, 3.5-10.5), and PDD (odds ratio, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.7-5.6). CONCLUSIONS The APOE ϵ4 allele is a strong risk factor across the LBD spectrum and occurs at an increased frequency in pDLB relative to PDD. This suggests that ϵ4 increases the likelihood of presenting with dementia in the context of a pure synucleinopathy. The elevated ϵ4 frequency in the pDLB and PDD groups, in which the overall brain neuritic plaque burden was low, indicates that apoE might contribute to neurodegeneration through mechanisms unrelated to amyloid processing.
    JAMA neurology. 02/2013; 70(2):223-8.
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    ABSTRACT: Parkinsonism has occasionally been reported as a consequence of infectious diseases. The present study examines the clinical and pathological correlates of parkinsonism across birth cohorts in relation to critical exposure to the encephalitis lethargica epidemic in the early 1900s. The study population consisted of 678 participants in the Nun Study, of whom 432 died and came to autopsy. Qualitative indices of substantia nigra (SN) depigmentation were verified in a subset of 40 randomly selected subjects using quantitative stereological techniques. SN depigmentation, detected neuropathologically, was correlated with clinical parameters of Parkinson disease, age, and birth cohort. SN depigmentation was detected in 57 (13.2%) of the cohort. Although qualitative SN depigmentation correlated modestly with age (p = 0.02), it correlated best with birth cohort (p = 0.009) for women born in the years 1895-1899. Quantitative measures of SN depigmentation were increased in this birth cohort compared to age matched subjects from flanking birth cohorts 1890-1894 and 1900-1904 (p < 0.001). SN depigmentation correlated with speed of 6- and 50-foot walk (p < 0.0001), up and go test (p < 0.0001), and hand coordination (p < 0.0001). Subjects in the birth cohort 1895-1899 would have been in their late teens and 20s at the onset and during the peak of the encephalitis lethargica epidemic. These were precisely the age ranges of persons who were most often affected by the illness. These data suggest the possibility that the coexistence of parkinsonism and SN depigmentation in this birth cohort may have resulted from the yet undetermined infectious agent responsible for encephalitis lethargica. ANN NEUROL 2012;72:912-917.
    Annals of Neurology 12/2012; 72(6):912-7. · 11.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Pancreatitis is a complex, progressively destructive inflammatory disorder. Alcohol was long thought to be the primary causative agent, but genetic contributions have been of interest since the discovery that rare PRSS1, CFTR and SPINK1 variants were associated with pancreatitis risk. We now report two associations at genome-wide significance identified and replicated at PRSS1-PRSS2 (P < 1 × 10(-12)) and X-linked CLDN2 (P < 1 × 10(-21)) through a two-stage genome-wide study (stage 1: 676 cases and 4,507 controls; stage 2: 910 cases and 4,170 controls). The PRSS1 variant likely affects disease susceptibility by altering expression of the primary trypsinogen gene. The CLDN2 risk allele is associated with atypical localization of claudin-2 in pancreatic acinar cells. The homozygous (or hemizygous in males) CLDN2 genotype confers the greatest risk, and its alleles interact with alcohol consumption to amplify risk. These results could partially explain the high frequency of alcohol-related pancreatitis in men (male hemizygote frequency is 0.26, whereas female homozygote frequency is 0.07).
    Nature Genetics 11/2012; · 35.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Mutations in the GBA gene occur in 7% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and are a well-established susceptibility factor for PD, which is characterized by Lewy body disease (LBD) neuropathologic changes (LBDNCs). We sought to determine whether GBA influences risk of dementia with LBDNCs, Alzheimer disease (AD) neuropathologic changes (ADNCs), or both. METHODS: We screened the entire GBA coding region for mutations in controls and in subjects with dementia and LBDNCs and no or low levels of ADNCs (pure dementia with Lewy bodies [pDLB]), LBDNCs and high-level ADNCs (LBD-AD), and high-level ADNCs but without LBDNCs (AD). RESULTS: Among white subjects, pathogenic GBA mutations were identified in 6 of 79 pDLB cases (7.6%), 8 of 222 LBD-AD cases (3.6%), 2 of 243 AD cases (0.8%), and 3 of 381 controls (0.8%). Subjects with pDLB and LBD-AD were more likely to carry mutations than controls (pDLB: odds ratio [OR] = 7.6; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8-31.9; p = 0.006; LBD-AD: OR = 4.6; CI = 1.2-17.6; p = 0.025), but there was no significant difference in frequencies between the AD and control groups (OR = 1.1; CI = 0.2-6.6; p = 0.92). There was a highly significant trend test across groups (χ(2)(1) = 19.3; p = 1.1 × 10(-5)), with the likelihood of carrying a GBA mutation increasing in the following direction: control/AD < LBD-AD < pDLB. CONCLUSIONS: GBA is a susceptibility gene across the LBD spectrum, but not in AD, and appears to convey a higher risk for PD and pDLB than for LBD-AD. PD and pDLB might be more similar to one another in genetic determinants and pathophysiology than either disease is to LBD-AD.
    Neurology 10/2012; · 8.25 Impact Factor
  • Nikki Ivanchak, Kristen Fletcher, Gregory A Jicha
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    ABSTRACT: Attentional deficits are frequently seen in isolation as the presenting sign and symptom of neurodegenerative disease, manifest as mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Persistent ADHD in the geriatric population could well be misconstrued as MCI, leading to the incorrect assumption that such persons are succumbing to a neurodegenerative disease process. Alternatively, the molecular, neuroanatomic, or neurochemical abnormalities seen in ADHD may contribute to the development of de novo late life neurodegenerative disease. The present review examines the issue of causality vs confound regarding the association of ADHD with MCI, suggesting that both are tenable hypotheses.
    Current Psychiatry Reports 08/2012; 14(5):552-60. · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation in periodontal disease has been suggested as a potential risk factor in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The purpose of this study was to examine serum antibody levels to bacteria of periodontal disease in participants who eventually converted to AD compared with the antibody levels in control subjects. Serum samples from 158 participants in the Biologically Resilient Adults in Neurological Studies research program at the University of Kentucky were analyzed for immunoglobulin G antibody levels to seven oral bacteria associated with periodontitis, including Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Campylobacter rectus, Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Tannerella forsythia, and Prevotella intermedia. All 158 participants were cognitively intact at baseline venous blood draw. In all, 81 of the participants developed either mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or AD or both, and 77 controls remained cognitively intact in the years of follow-up. Antibody levels were compared between controls and subjects with AD at baseline draw and after conversion and controls and subjects with MCI at baseline draw and after conversion using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. AD and MCI participants were not directly compared. Linear regression models were used to adjust for potential confounding. Antibody levels to F nucleatum and P intermedia were significantly increased (α = 0.05) at baseline serum draw in the patients with AD compared with controls. These results remained significant when controlling for baseline age, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and apolipoprotein epsilon 4 status. This study provides initial data that demonstrate elevated antibodies to periodontal disease bacteria in subjects years before cognitive impairment and suggests that periodontal disease could potentially contribute to the risk of AD onset/progression. Additional cohort studies profiling oral clinical presentation with systemic response and AD and prospective studies to evaluate any cause-and-effect association are warranted.
    Alzheimer's & dementia: the journal of the Alzheimer's Association 05/2012; 8(3):196-203. · 14.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinicopathologic correlation studies are critically important for the field of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. Studies on human subjects with autopsy confirmation entail numerous potential biases that affect both their general applicability and the validity of the correlations. Many sources of data variability can weaken the apparent correlation between cognitive status and AD neuropathologic changes. Indeed, most persons in advanced old age have significant non-AD brain lesions that may alter cognition independently of AD. Worldwide research efforts have evaluated thousands of human subjects to assess the causes of cognitive impairment in the elderly, and these studies have been interpreted in different ways. We review the literature focusing on the correlation of AD neuropathologic changes (i.e. β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles) with cognitive impairment. We discuss the various patterns of brain changes that have been observed in elderly individuals to provide a perspective for understanding AD clinicopathologic correlation and conclude that evidence from many independent research centers strongly supports the existence of a specific disease, as defined by the presence of Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. Although Aβ plaques may play a key role in AD pathogenesis, the severity of cognitive impairment correlates best with the burden of neocortical neurofibrillary tangles.
    Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 04/2012; 71(5):362-81. · 4.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
409.09 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2014
    • University of Kentucky
      • • Sanders-Brown Center on Aging
      • • Sanders-Brown Center on Aging/Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center
      Lexington, Kentucky, United States
  • 2013
    • The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2008
    • Mayo Clinic - Rochester
      • Department of Neurology
      Rochester, MN, United States
  • 2006
    • Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research
      • Department of Neurology
      Scottsdale, AZ, United States
  • 2002
    • Albert Einstein College of Medicine
      New York City, New York, United States