Hanna Seppänen

University of Tampere, Tampere, Western Finland, Finland

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Publications (5)21.73 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The long-term morphological changes induced by a single episode of alcoholic pancreatitis are not known. Our aim was to study these morphological changes in secretin-stimulated magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (S-MRCP) after the first episode of alcohol-associated acute pancreatitis and to evaluate the risk factors and possible protective factors potentially associated with later chronic findings. We have previously reported 2-year follow-up results in pancreatic morphology. This study extends the follow-up to 9 years. In this prospective follow-up study, S-MRCP imaging was performed for 44 (41 M, 3 F; mean age, 46 (25-68) years) patients after their first episode of alcohol-associated pancreatitis. Pancreatic morphology was evaluated at 3 months and at 2, 7, and 9 years after hospitalization. Recurrent attacks of pancreatitis were studied and pancreatic function was monitored by laboratory tests. Patients' alcohol consumption was evaluated with questionnaires, laboratory markers, and self-estimated alcohol consumption via interview. Smoking and body mass index were annually recorded. At 3 months, 32 % of the patients had normal findings in S-MRCP, 52 % had acute, and 16 % had chronic changes. At 7 years, S-MRCP was performed on 36 patients with normal findings in 53 %, the rest (47 %) having chronic findings. Pancreatic cyst was present in 36 %, parenchymal changes in 28 %, and atrophy in 28 % of the cases. There were no new changes in the pancreas in the attending patients between 7 and 9 years (18 patients). Of the patients with only acute findings at 3 months, 60 % resolved to normal in 7 years, but the rest (40 %) showed chronic changes later on. The initial attack was mild in 65 %, moderate in 25 %, and severe in 10 % of the patients. Patients with mild first attack had fewer chronic changes at 7 years compared to patients with moderate or moderate and severe together (p = 0.03, p = 0.01). Of the patients in the seventh year of S-MRCP, 22 % had suffered a recurrent episode of acute pancreatitis (mean, 22 (2-60) months) and 11 % had a clinical diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis. At 7 years, 88 % of the patients with recurrences had chronic findings in S-MRCP versus 36 % with nonrecurrent pancreatitis (p = 0.02). Six (17 %) patients abstained from alcohol throughout follow-up (mean, 8.7 (7-9.1) years), but even one of these developed pancreatic atrophy. Out of the non-abstinent patients who did not suffer recurrences, 4/22 (18 %) had developed new findings during at follow-up S-MRCP (NS). In univariate analysis, heavy smoking showed no correlation with increased chronic changes compared to nonsmoking. Morphological pancreatic changes increase with recurrent episodes of acute pancreatitis. Patients with mild first attack have fewer chronic changes in the pancreas in the long term. However, even a single episode of acute alcoholic pancreatitis may induce chronic morphological changes in long-term follow-up.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 09/2013; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether enteroviral infection might trigger acute pancreatitis in patients made susceptible due to high alcohol consumption. Patients with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis were analyzed for signs of simultaneous or preceding enteroviral infection. We studied the serum samples of 40 patients hospitalized for alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis and 40 controls recruited from an alcohol detoxification center. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to detect enterovirus RNA and diagnose acute viremia. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin A (IgA) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) enteroviral antibodies were measured using enzyme immunoassay to detect subacute and previous infections. The samples were considered positive when the antibody titers were ≥ 15 IU. Furthermore, using RT-PCR, we studied pancreatic biopsy samples obtained during surgery from nine patients with chronic pancreatitis, one patient with acute pancreatitis and ten control patients with pancreatic carcinoma for evidence of persisting enteroviral RNA in the pancreatic tissue. No enterovirus RNA indicating acute viremia was detected by RT-PCR in the serum samples of any patient or control. A high incidence of positive antibody titers was observed in both study groups: IgM antibodies had positive titers in 5/40 (13%) vs 4/40 (10%), P = 0.723; IgG in 15/40 (38%) vs 19/40 (48%), P = 0.366; and IgA in 25/40 (63%) vs 33/40 (83%), P = 0.045, patients and controls, respectively. Ten (25%) patients had severe pancreatitis and two (5%) required treatment in intensive care. The median length of hospitalization was 7 d (range: 3-47 d). The severity of acute pancreatitis or the length of hospitalization was not associated with enteroviral IgM, IgG or IgA antibodies. Five pancreatic biopsy samples tested positive with RT-PCR, three (8%) in the control group and two (5%) in the patient group (P = 0.64). The rate of enteroviral infection is not increased in patients with alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis when compared to alcoholics with similar high alcohol use.
    World Journal of Gastroenterology 06/2013; 19(24):3819-23. · 2.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: AIMS: To determine the recurrence of pancreatitis and subsequent pancreatic function in patients who stop drinking after the first episode of alcohol-associated pancreatitis. METHODS: Of a total of 118 patients suffering from their first alcohol-associated pancreatitis, 18 (all men, age median 47 (27-71) years) met the inclusion criterion for abstinence during follow-up. The criterion for abstinence was alcohol consumption <24 g per 2 months (self-estimated), which is in line with questionnaires eliciting alcohol consumption and dependency (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test < 8 and Short Alcohol Dependence Data < 9). Recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis were studied. Smoking, body mass index and laboratory tests detecting heavy consumption of alcohol were recorded. Blood and faecal tests were studied to assess endocrine and exocrine pancreatic function. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up time of 5.15 (1.83-9.13) years and a total of 92.7 patient-years, there were no recurrent attacks of acute pancreatitis among the 18 abstainers. Two patients had diabetes prior to and one was diagnosed immediately after the first episode of acute pancreatitis. One patient had impaired glucose metabolism at 2 years. Two patients had low insulin secretion in glucagon-C-peptide test, one at 4 years and the other at 5 years. Only one patient (6%) maintained low elastase-1 activity during the abstinence follow-up. Of the 100 non-abstainers, 34% had at least one recurrence during the follow-up. CONCLUSION: Regardless of the mediator mechanisms of acute alcoholic pancreatitis, abstinence after the first episode protects against recurrent attacks. Pancreatic dysfunction is also rare among abstinent patients.
    Alcohol and Alcoholism 03/2013; · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hyperlipidemia is one known etiology of acute pancreatitis. Alcohol use is known to induce changes in lipid metabolism and might alter the serum lipid and fatty acid profile. We hypothesized that these changes may explain individual susceptibility of developing acute pancreatitis. We compared lipid and fatty acid profiles of patients with acute alcoholic pancreatitis and alcoholic controls. 19 patients with their first alcoholic pancreatitis and 20 controls were included. Late follow-up samples were obtained from 16 patients. Serum lipids were analyzed enzymatically and the fatty acid profile using gas chromatography. The concentrations of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and HDL-cholesterol were markedly lower in patients than in controls during the acute disease but normalized after follow-up. Patients had statistically significantly lower fatty acid proportions of saturated C14:0, polyunsaturated C18:2, C18:3 and C20:3 of the n-6-series and C18:3 of the n-3-series than controls. In contrast, patients had higher percentages of saturated C16:0 and monounsaturated C18:1n9 fatty acids than controls. Mead acid, C20:3n9, marker of essential fatty acid deficiency, was lower in patients than in controls. C14:0, C20:3n6, C18:3n3 and C20:3n9 remained altered after follow-up. Serum lipid and fatty acid levels were significantly altered during the acute disease and returned toward normal after 18-24 months, suggesting that the changes are secondary to acute pancreatitis. They are unlikely to be the much sought 'trigger factor' of pancreatic necro-inflammation. However, further studies are warranted to fully establish this point.
    Pancreatology 01/2012; 12(1):44-8. · 2.04 Impact Factor
  • Gastroenterology 01/2011; 140(5). · 12.82 Impact Factor