[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exocrine insufficiency frequently develops in patients with pancreatic cancer owing to tumour ingrowth and pancreatic duct obstruction. Surgery might restore this function by removing the primary disease and restoring duct patency, but it may also have the opposite effect, as a result of resection of functional parenchyma and anatomical changes. This study evaluated the course of pancreatic function, before and after pancreatic resection.
This prospective cohort study included patients with tumours in the pancreatic region requiring pancreatic resection in a tertiary referral centre between March 2010 and August 2012. Starting before surgery, exocrine function was determined monthly by measuring faecal elastase 1 levels (normal value over 0·200 µg per g faeces). Endocrine function, steatorrhoea-related symptoms and bodyweight were also evaluated before and after surgery. Subjects were followed from diagnosis until 6 months after surgery, or until death.
Twenty-nine patients were included, 12 with pancreatic cancer, 14 with ampullary carcinoma and three with bile duct carcinoma (median tumour size 2·6 cm). Twenty-six patients underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and three distal pancreatectomy. Thirteen patients had exocrine insufficiency at preoperative diagnosis. After a median follow-up of 6 months, this had increased to 24 patients. Diabetes was present in seven patients at diagnosis, and developed in one additional patient within 1 month after surgery.
Most patients with tumours in the pancreatic region requiring pancreatic resection either had exocrine insufficiency at diagnosis or became exocrine-insufficient soon after surgical resection.
British Journal of Surgery 12/2013; 101(2). · 4.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: In chronic pancreatitis, malabsorption of fat is common due to loss of exocrine function. Consequently, these patients are at risk to acquire deficiencies of the fat-soluble vitamins, which may result in a decreased bone mineral density (BMD) and the development of osteopenia and osteoporosis. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled all patients diagnosed with chronic pancreatitis, who visited our outpatient clinic between March and November 2011. Data were collected regarding demographic characteristics, symptoms, and pancreatic function. Serum concentrations of vitamins A, E, K, and D were determined, and BMD was assessed by means of bone densitometry. Results were analyzed according to pancreatic function status and enzyme use, and compared to reference data, when available. RESULTS: Forty patients were included (43% female; mean age of 52). Alcohol abuse was the major cause of pancreatitis (50%). Twenty-eight patients were exocrine insufficient (70%), of whom 19 used pancreatic enzymes. Vitamin A, D, E, and K deficiencies were present in 3, 53, 10, and 63% of patients, respectively. Osteopenia and osteoporosis were observed in 45% and 10% of patients. A decreased BMD was more frequently observed than expected, based on reference data, even in exocrine sufficient patients. CONCLUSIONS: Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins and a decreased BMD are frequently present in chronic pancreatitis, even in exocrine sufficient patients. Consequently, all patients with chronic pancreatitis should be routinely screened for fat-soluble vitamin deficiencies and a decreased BMD.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In cancer of the pancreatic head region, exocrine insufficiency is a well-known complication, leading to steatorrhea, weight loss, and malnutrition. Its presence is frequently overlooked, however, because the primary attention is focused on cancer treatment. To date, the risk of developing exocrine insufficiency is unspecified. Therefore, we assessed this function in patients with tumors of the pancreatic head, distal common bile duct, or ampulla of Vater.
Between March 2010 and August 2012, we prospectively included patients diagnosed with cancer of the pancreatic head region at our tertiary center. To preclude the effect of a resection, we excluded operated patients. Each month, the exocrine function was determined with a fecal elastase test. Furthermore, endocrine function, steatorrhea-related symptoms, and body weight were evaluated. Patients were followed for 6 months, or until death.
Thirty-two patients were included. The tumor was located in the pancreas in 75%, in the bile duct in 16%, and in the ampullary region in 9%, with a median size of 2.5 cm. At diagnosis, the prevalence of exocrine insufficiency was 66%, which increased to 92% after a median follow-up of 2 months (interquartile range, 1 to 4 mo).
Most patients with cancer of the pancreatic head region were already exocrine insufficient at diagnosis, and within several months, this function was impaired in almost all cases. Given this high prevalence, physicians should be focused on diagnosing and treating exocrine insufficiency, to optimize the nutritional status and physical condition, especially for those patients undergoing palliative chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 01/2013; 48(5):e43-6. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: After pancreatic surgery, up to 80 % of patients will develop exocrine insufficiency. For enzyme supplementation to be effective, prescribing an adequate dose of pancreatic enzymes is mandatory but challenging because the required dose varies. Data on the practice of enzyme replacement therapy after surgery are lacking, and therefore, we conducted this analysis.
An anonymous survey was distributed to members of the Dutch and German patient associations for pancreatic disorders. The target population consisted of patients with chronic pancreatitis or pancreatic cancer who had undergone pancreatic surgery and were using enzymes to treat exocrine insufficiency. Results were compared to a similar group of non-operated patients.
Ninety-one cases were analyzed (84 % underwent a resection procedure). The median daily enzyme dose was 6, and 25 % took three or less capsules. Despite treatment, 68 % of patients reported steatorrhea-related symptoms, 48 % adhered to a non-indicated dietary fat restriction, and only 33 % had visited a dietician. The outcome was equally poor for the 91 non-operated patients.
Most patients suffering from exocrine insufficiency after pancreatic surgery are undertreated. To improve efficacy, physicians should be more focused on treating exocrine insufficiency and educate patients to adjust the dose according to symptoms and their diet.
Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 06/2012; 16(8):1487-92. · 2.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Treating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency with pancreatic enzymes is challenging because there is no fixed dose regimen. The required dose varies per patient, depending on the residual pancreatic function, the gut lumen physiology, and the fat content of each meal. Using a sufficient dose of enzymes is crucial to prevent weight loss, nutritional deficiencies, and to ameliorate steatorrhea-related symptoms. Data regarding the practise of enzyme replacement therapy are lacking. Therefore, we evaluated if patients with exocrine insufficiency caused by chronic pancreatitis receive proper treatment in the Netherlands.
An anonymous survey was distributed to the members of the Dutch Association of Patients with Pancreatic Disorders. The survey focused on enzyme use, steatorrhea-related symptoms, dietary consultation, and food restrictions. Responding patients were included if they had chronic pancreatitis and were treated for exocrine insufficiency with pancreatic enzymes.
The survey was returned by 178 members who suffered from chronic pancreatitis, 161 of whom (90%) met the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 56 years and 53% were male. The median enzyme intake was 6 capsules per day and 25% of patients took 3 or less capsules. Remarkably, 70% of patients still reported steatorrhea-related symptoms, despite treatment. Only 25% of cases were referred to a dietician and 58% kept a restriction of fat (either instructed by a dietician or self-imposed).
Many patients with exocrine insufficiency caused by chronic pancreatitis are under-treated in the Netherlands, a country with a well-organized healthcare system. To improve treatment efficacy, patients should be educated in adjusting the enzyme dosage according to steatorrhea-related symptoms and dietary fat intake. Moreover, patients should be referred to a well-trained, specialized dietician.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is a serious condition which occurs in several diseases including chronic pancreatitis (CP), cystic fibrosis, pancreatic cancer, and as a result of pancreatic surgery. The lack or absence of pancreatic enzymes leads to an inadequate absorption of fat, proteins, and carbohydrates, causing steatorrhoea and creathorrhea which results in abdominal discomfort, weight loss, and nutritional deficiencies. To avoid malnutrition related morbidity and mortality, it is pivotal to commence pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) as soon as EPI is diagnosed. Factors as early acidic inactivation of ingested enzymes, under dosage, and patient incompliance may prevent normalisation of nutrient absorption, in particular of fat digestion. This review focuses on the current status of how to diagnose and treat EPI.
Best practice & research. Clinical gastroenterology 06/2010; 24(3):337-47. · 2.48 Impact Factor