Jean C Manson

U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Washington, D. C., DC, United States

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Publications (80)485.46 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: It is now 18 years since the first identification of a case of vCJD in the UK. Since that time there has been much speculation over how vCJD might impact on human health. To date there have been 177 cases reports in the UK and a further 51 cases worldwide in 11 different countries. Since establishing that BSE and vCJD are of the same strain of agent, we have also shown that there is broad similarity between UK and non-UK vCJD cases on first passage to mice. Transgenic mouse studies have indicated that all codon 129 genotypes are susceptible to vCJD and that genotype may influence whether disease appears in a clinical or asymptomatic form, supported by the appearance of the first case of potential asymptomatic vCJD infection in a PRNP 129MV patient. Following evidence of blood transfusion as a route of transmission, we have ascertained that all blood components and leucoreduced blood, in a sheep model of vCJD have the ability to transmit disease. Importantly, we recently established that a PRNP 129MV patient blood recipient with an asymptomatic infection with limited PrP(Sc) deposition in the spleen could readily transmit disease into mice, demonstrating the potential for peripheral infection in the absence of clinical disease. This, along with the recent appendix survey which identified 16 positive appendices in a study of 32 441 cases, underlines the importance of continued CJD surveillance and maintaining control measures already in place to protect human health.
    Prion 05/2014; 8(3). · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and variant Creutzfeldt Jacob disease (vCJD) in humans have previously been shown to be caused by the same strain of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agent. It is hypothesised that the agent spread to humans following consumption of food products prepared from infected cattle. Despite evidence supporting zoonotic transmission, mouse models expressing human prion protein (HuTg) have consistently shown poor transmission rates when inoculated with cattle BSE. Higher rates of transmission have however been observed when these mice are exposed to BSE which has been experimentally transmitted through sheep or goats, indicating that humans may potentially be more susceptible to BSE from small ruminants. Here we demonstrate that increased transmissibility of small ruminant BSE to HuTg mice was not due to replication of higher levels of infectivity in sheep brain tissue, and is instead due to other specific changes in the infectious agent.
    Journal of General Virology 05/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The risks posed to human health by individual animal prion diseases cannot be determined a priori and are difficult to address empirically. The fundamental event in prion disease pathogenesis is thought to be the seeded conversion of normal prion protein to its pathologic isoform. We used a rapid molecular conversion assay (protein misfolding cyclic amplification) to test whether brain homogenates from specimens of classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical BSE (H-type BSE and L-type BSE), classical scrapie, atypical scrapie, and chronic wasting disease can convert normal human prion protein to the abnormal disease-associated form. None of the tested prion isolates from diseased animals were as efficient as classical BSE in converting human prion protein. However, in the case of chronic wasting disease, there was no absolute barrier to conversion of the human prion protein.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 01/2014; 20(1):88-97. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The molecular mechanisms involved in human cellular susceptibility to prion infection remain poorly defined. This is due, in part, to the absence of any well characterized and relevant cultured human cells susceptible to infection with human prions, such as those involved in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. In variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, prion replication is thought to occur first in the lymphoreticular system and then spread into the brain. We have, therefore, examined the susceptibility of a human tonsil-derived follicular dendritic cell-like cell line (HK) to prion infection. HK cells were found to display a readily detectable, time-dependent increase in cell-associated abnormal prion protein (PrP(TSE)) when exposed to medium spiked with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain homogenate, resulting in a coarse granular perinuclear PrP(TSE) staining pattern. Despite their high level of cellular prion protein expression, HK cells failed to support infection, as judged by longer term maintenance of PrP(TSE) accumulation. Colocalization studies revealed that exposure of HK cells to brain homogenate resulted in increased numbers of detectable lysosomes and that these structures immunostained intensely for PrP(TSE) after exposure to Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease brain homogenate. Our data suggest that human follicular dendritic-like cells and perhaps other human cell types are able to avoid prion infection by efficient lysosomal degradation of PrP(TSE).
    American Journal Of Pathology 10/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Misfolding and aggregation of proteins is a common pathogenic mechanism of a group of diseases called proteinopathies. The formation and spread of proteinaceous lesions within and between individuals was first described in prion diseases and proposed as the basis of its infectious nature. Recently a similar "prion-like" mechanism of transmission has been proposed in other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. We investigated if misfolding and aggregation of corrupted prion protein (PrP(TSE)) is always associated with horizontal transmission of disease. Knock-in transgenic mice (101LL) expressing mutant PrP (PrP-101L) that are susceptible to disease but do not develop any spontaneous neurological phenotype were inoculated with (i) brain extracts containing PrP(TSE) from healthy 101LL mice with PrP plaques in the corpus callosum or (ii) mice overexpressing PrP-101L with neurological disease, severe spongiform encephalopathy and formation of proteinase-K-resistant PrP(TSE). In all instances, 101LL mice developed PrP plaques in the area of inoculation and vicinity in the absence of clinical disease or spongiform degeneration of the brain. Importantly 101LL mice did not transmit disease on serial passage ruling out the presence of subclinical infection. Thus, in both experimental models formation of PrP(TSE) is not infectious. These results have implications for the interpretation of tests based on the detection of protein aggregates and suggest that de novo formation of PrP(TSE) in the host does not always result in a transmissible prion disease. In addition, these results question the validity of assuming that all diseases due to protein misfolding can be transmitted between individuals.
    Journal of Virology 09/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood transfusion has been identified as a source of human-to-human transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Three cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been identified following red cell transfusions from donors who subsequently developed variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and an asymptomatic red cell transfusion recipient, who did not die of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, has been identified with prion protein deposition in the spleen and a lymph node, but not the brain. This individual was heterozygous (MV) at codon 129 of the prion protein gene (PRNP), whereas all previous definite and probable cases of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease have been methionine homozygotes (MM). A critical question for public health is whether the prion protein deposition reported in peripheral tissues from this MV individual correlates with infectivity. Additionally it is important to establish whether the PRNP codon 129 genotype has influenced the transmission characteristics of the infectious agent. Brain and spleen from the MV blood recipient were inoculated into murine strains that have consistently demonstrated transmission of the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent. Mice were assessed for clinical and pathological signs of disease and transmission data were compared with other transmission studies in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, including those on the spleen and brain of the donor to the index case. Transmission of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease was observed from the MV blood recipient spleen, but not from the brain, whereas there was transmission from both spleen and brain tissues from the red blood cell donor. Longer incubation times were observed for the blood donor spleen inoculum compared with the blood donor brain inoculum, suggesting lower titres of infectivity in the spleen. The distribution of vacuolar pathology and abnormal prion protein in infected mice were similar following inoculation with both donor and recipient spleen homogenates, providing initial evidence of similar transmission properties after propagation in PRNP codon 129 MV and MM individuals. These studies demonstrate that spleen tissue from a PRNP MV genotype individual can propagate the variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease agent and that the infectious agent can be present in the spleen without CNS involvement.
    Brain 02/2013; · 10.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The agents responsible for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, contain as a major component PrP(Sc), an abnormal conformer of the host glycoprotein PrP(C). TSE agents are distinguished by differences in phenotypic properties in the host, which nevertheless can contain PrP(Sc) with the same amino-acid sequence. If PrP alone carries information defining strain properties, these must be encoded by post-translational events. Here we investigated whether the glycosylation status of host PrP affects TSE strain characteristics. We inoculated wild-type mice with three TSE strains passaged through transgenic mice with PrP devoid of glycans at the first, second or both N-glycosylation sites. We compared the infectious properties of the emerging isolates with TSE strains passaged in wild-type mice by in vivo strain typing and by the standard scrapie cell assay in vitro. Strain-specific characteristics of the 79A TSE strain changed when PrP(Sc) was devoid of one or both glycans. Thus infectious properties of a TSE strain can be altered by post-translational changes to PrP which we propose result in the selection of mutant TSE strains.
    The EMBO Journal 02/2013; · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has been reported in 12 countries. We hypothesized that a common strain of agent is responsible for all vCJD cases, regardless of geographic origin. To test this hypothesis, we inoculated strain-typing panels of wild-type mice with brain material from human vCJD case-patients from France, the Netherlands, Italy, and the United States. Mice were assessed for clinical disease, neuropathologic changes, and glycoform profile; results were compared with those for 2 reference vCJD cases from the United Kingdom. Transmission to mice occurred from each sample tested, and data were similar between non-UK and UK cases, with the exception of the ranking of mean clinical incubation times of mouse lines. These findings support the hypothesis that a single strain of infectious agent is responsible for all vCJD infections. However, differences in incubation times require further subpassage in mice to establish any true differences in strain properties between cases.
    Emerging Infectious Diseases 10/2012; 18(10):1574-9. · 6.79 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The susceptibility of sheep to prion infection is linked to variation in the PRNP gene, which encodes the prion protein. Common polymorphisms occur at codons 136, 154 and 171. Sheep which are homozygous for the A136R154Q171 allele are the most susceptible to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE). The effect of other polymorphisms on BSE susceptibility is unknown. We orally infected ARQ/ARQ Cheviot sheep with equal amounts of BSE brain homogenate and a range of incubation periods was observed. When we segregated sheep according to the amino acid (L or F) encoded at codon 141 of the PRNP gene, the shortest incubation period was observed in LL141 sheep whilst incubation periods in FF141 and LF141 sheep were significantly longer. No statistically significant differences existed in the expression of total prion protein or the disease-associated isoform in BSE-infected sheep within each genotype subgroup. This suggested that the amino acid encoded at codon 141 likely affects incubation times through direct effects on protein misfolding rates.
    Journal of General Virology 09/2012; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    04/2012; , ISBN: 978-953-51-0499-5
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    ABSTRACT: The association between bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) has demonstrated that cattle transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) can pose a risk to human health and raises the possibility that other ruminant TSEs may be transmissible to humans. In recent years, several novel TSEs in sheep, cattle and deer have been described and the risk posed to humans by these agents is currently unknown. In this study, we inoculated two forms of atypical BSE (BASE and H-type BSE), a chronic wasting disease (CWD) isolate and seven isolates of atypical scrapie into gene-targeted transgenic (Tg) mice expressing the human prion protein (PrP). Upon challenge with these ruminant TSEs, gene-targeted Tg mice expressing human PrP did not show any signs of disease pathology. These data strongly suggest the presence of a substantial transmission barrier between these recently identified ruminant TSEs and humans.
    Journal of General Virology 04/2012; 93(Pt 7):1624-9. · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), molecular typing based on the size of the protease resistant core of the disease-associated prion protein (PrP(Sc) ) and the M/V polymorphism at codon 129 of the PRNP gene correlates with the clinico-pathologic subtypes. Approximately 95% of the sporadic 129MM CJD patients are characterized by cerebral deposition of type 1 PrP(Sc) and correspond to the classic clinical CJD phenotype. The rare 129MM CJD patients with type 2 PrP(Sc) are further subdivided in a cortical and a thalamic form also indicated as sporadic fatal insomnia. We observed two young patients with MM2-thalamic CJD. Main neuropathological features were diffuse, synaptic PrP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex and severe neuronal loss and gliosis in the thalamus and olivary nucleus. Western blot analysis showed the presence of type 2A PrP(Sc) . Challenge of transgenic mice expressing 129MM human PrP showed that MM2-thalamic sporadic CJD (sCJD) was able to transmit the disease, at variance with MM2-cortical sCJD. The affected mice showed deposition of type 2A PrP(Sc) , a scenario that is unprecedented in this mouse line. These data indicate that MM2-thalamic sCJD is caused by a prion strain distinct from the other sCJD subtypes including the MM2-cortical form.
    Brain Pathology 01/2012; 22(5):662-9. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is increasing evidence of molecular and cellular links between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and prion diseases. The cellular prion protein, PrP(C), modulates the post-translational processing of the AD amyloid precursor protein (APP), through its inhibition of the β-secretase BACE1, and oligomers of amyloid-β bind to PrP(C) which may mediate amyloid-β neurotoxicity. In addition, the APP intracellular domain (AICD), which acts as a transcriptional regulator, has been reported to control the expression of PrP(C). Through the use of transgenic mice, cell culture models and manipulation of APP expression and processing, this study aimed to clarify the role of AICD in regulating PrP(C). Over-expression of the three major isoforms of human APP (APP(695), APP(751) and APP(770)) in cultured neuronal and non-neuronal cells had no effect on the level of endogenous PrP(C). Furthermore, analysis of brain tissue from transgenic mice over-expressing either wild type or familial AD associated mutant human APP revealed unaltered PrP(C) levels. Knockdown of endogenous APP expression in cells by siRNA or inhibition of γ-secretase activity also had no effect on PrP(C) levels. Overall, we did not detect any significant difference in the expression of PrP(C) in any of the cell or animal-based paradigms considered, indicating that the control of cellular PrP(C) levels by AICD is not as straightforward as previously suggested.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(2):e31754. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • CAB Reviews Perspectives in Agriculture Veterinary Science Nutrition and Natural Resources 12/2011;
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    ABSTRACT: Prion diseases are characterised by the accumulation of PrP(Sc), an abnormally folded isoform of the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)), in affected tissues. Following peripheral exposure high levels of prion-specific PrP(Sc) accumulate first upon follicular dendritic cells (FDC) in lymphoid tissues before spreading to the CNS. Expression of PrP(C) is mandatory for cells to sustain prion infection and FDC appear to express high levels. However, whether FDC actively replicate prions or simply acquire them from other infected cells is uncertain. In the attempts to-date to establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis it was not possible to dissociate the Prnp expression of FDC from that of the nervous system and all other non-haematopoietic lineages. This is important as FDC may simply acquire prions after synthesis by other infected cells. To establish the role of FDC in prion pathogenesis transgenic mice were created in which PrP(C) expression was specifically "switched on" or "off" only on FDC. We show that PrP(C)-expression only on FDC is sufficient to sustain prion replication in the spleen. Furthermore, prion replication is blocked in the spleen when PrP(C)-expression is specifically ablated only on FDC. These data definitively demonstrate that FDC are the essential sites of prion replication in lymphoid tissues. The demonstration that Prnp-ablation only on FDC blocked splenic prion accumulation without apparent consequences for FDC status represents a novel opportunity to prevent neuroinvasion by modulation of PrP(C) expression on FDC.
    PLoS Pathogens 12/2011; 7(12):e1002402. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In Alzheimer disease amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides derived from the amyloid precursor protein (APP) accumulate in the brain. Cleavage of APP by the β-secretase BACE1 is the rate-limiting step in the production of Aβ. We have reported previously that the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) inhibited the action of BACE1 toward human wild type APP (APP(WT)) in cellular models and that the levels of endogenous murine Aβ were significantly increased in PrP(C)-null mouse brain. Here we investigated the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying this observation. PrP(C) interacted directly with the prodomain of the immature Golgi-localized form of BACE1. This interaction decreased BACE1 at the cell surface and in endosomes where it preferentially cleaves APP(WT) but increased it in the Golgi where it preferentially cleaves APP with the Swedish mutation (APP(Swe)). In transgenic mice expressing human APP with the Swedish and Indiana familial mutations (APP(Swe,Ind)), PrP(C) deletion had no influence on APP proteolytic processing, Aβ plaque deposition, or levels of soluble Aβ or Aβ oligomers. In cells, although PrP(C) inhibited the action of BACE1 on APP(WT), it did not inhibit BACE1 activity toward APP(Swe). The differential subcellular location of the BACE1 cleavage of APP(Swe) relative to APP(WT) provides an explanation for the failure of PrP(C) deletion to affect Aβ accumulation in APP(Swe,Ind) mice. Thus, although PrP(C) exerts no control on cleavage of APP(Swe) by BACE1, it has a profound influence on the cleavage of APP(WT), suggesting that PrP(C) may be a key protective player against sporadic Alzheimer disease.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 07/2011; 286(38):33489-500. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) P102L disease is a familial form of a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) that can present with or without vacuolation of neuropil. Inefficient disease transmission into 101LL transgenic mice was previously observed from GSS P102L without vacuolation. However, several aged, healthy mice had large plaques composed of abnormal prion protein (PrP(d)). Here we perform the ultrastructural characterization of such plaques and compare them with PrP(d) aggregates found in TSE caused by an infectious mechanism. PrP(d) plaques in 101LL mice varied in maturity, with some being composed of deposits without visible amyloid fibrils. PrP(d) was present on cell membranes in the vicinity of all types of plaques. In contrast to the unicentric plaques seen in infectious murine scrapie, the plaques seen in the current model were multicentric and were initiated by protofibrillar forms of PrP(d) situated on oligodendroglia, astrocytes and neuritic cell membranes. We speculate that the initial conversion process leading to plaque formation begins with membrane-bound PrP(C) but that subsequent fibrillization does not require membrane attachment. We also observed that the membrane alterations consistently seen in murine scrapie and other infectious TSEs were not present in 101LL mice with plaques, suggesting differences in the pathogenesis of these conditions.
    Brain Pathology 06/2011; 22(1):58-66. · 4.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to prion infection involves interplay between the prion strain and host genetics, but expression of the host-encoded cellular prion protein is a known prerequisite. Here we consider human embryonic stem cell (hESC) susceptibility by characterizing the genetics and expression of the normal cellular prion protein and by examining their response to acute prion exposure. Seven hESC lines were tested for their prion protein gene codon 129 genotype and this was found to broadly reflect that of the normal population. hESCs expressed prion protein mRNA, but only low levels of prion protein accumulated in self-renewing populations. Following undirected differentiation, up-regulation of prion protein expression occurred in each of the major embryonic lineages. Self-renewing populations of hESCs were challenged with infectious human and animal prions. The exposed cells rapidly and extensively took up this material, but when the infectious source was removed the level and extent of intracellular disease-associated prion protein fell rapidly. In the absence of a sufficiently sensitive test for prions to screen therapeutic cells, and given the continued use of poorly characterized human and animal bioproducts during hESC derivation and cultivation, the finding that hESCs rapidly take up and process abnormal prion protein is provocative and merits further investigation
    J Pathol. 04/2011; 223(5).
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    ABSTRACT: Susceptibility to prion infection involves interplay between the prion strain and host genetics, but expression of the host-encoded cellular prion protein is a known prerequisite. Here we consider human embryonic stem cell (hESC) susceptibility by characterizing the genetics and expression of the normal cellular prion protein and by examining their response to acute prion exposure. Seven hESC lines were tested for their prion protein gene codon 129 genotype and this was found to broadly reflect that of the normal population. hESCs expressed prion protein mRNA, but only low levels of prion protein accumulated in self-renewing populations. Following undirected differentiation, up-regulation of prion protein expression occurred in each of the major embryonic lineages. Self-renewing populations of hESCs were challenged with infectious human and animal prions. The exposed cells rapidly and extensively took up this material, but when the infectious source was removed the level and extent of intracellular disease-associated prion protein fell rapidly. In the absence of a sufficiently sensitive test for prions to screen therapeutic cells, and given the continued use of poorly characterized human and animal bioproducts during hESC derivation and cultivation, the finding that hESCs rapidly take up and process abnormal prion protein is provocative and merits further investigation. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    The Journal of Pathology 02/2011; 223(5):635 - 645. · 7.59 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

3k Citations
485.46 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2013
    • U.S. Food and Drug Administration
      • Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research
      Washington, D. C., DC, United States
  • 1998–2013
    • The University of Edinburgh
      • • Division of Neurobiology
      • • Roslin Institute
      • • Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies
      • • School of Clinical Sciences and Community Health
      • • Institute of Cell Biology
      Edinburgh, SCT, United Kingdom
  • 2007–2012
    • University of Leeds
      • • Faculty of Biological Sciences
      • • School of Molecular and Cellular Biology
      Leeds, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 1998–2012
    • The Roslin Institute
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2011
    • Hospital Universitario Marques de Valdecilla
      Santander, Cantabria, Spain
  • 2006–2007
    • Western General Hospital
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2003–2007
    • Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council
      Swindon, England, United Kingdom
  • 1992–2004
    • Institute for Animal Health
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Edinburgh, Scotland, United Kingdom
  • 2002
    • Newcastle University
      Newcastle-on-Tyne, England, United Kingdom
  • 1996
    • University of Zurich
      Zürich, Zurich, Switzerland