[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreatic islet transplantation is an attractive therapy for the treatment of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. However, the low efficiency of this procedure necessitating sequential transplantations of islets with the use of 2-3 donors for a single recipient, mainly due to the early loss of transplanted islets, hampers its clinical application. Previously, we have shown in mice that a large amount of HMGB1 is released from islets soon after their transplantation and that this triggers innate immune rejection with activation of DC, NKT cells and neutrophils to produce IFN-γ, ultimately leading to the early loss of transplanted islets. Thus, HMGB1 release plays an initial pivotal role in this process; however, its mechanism remains unclear. Here we demonstrate that release of HMGB1 from transplanted islets is due to hypoxic damage resulting from Ca(2+) influx into β cells through the Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX). Moreover, the hypoxia-induced β cell damage was prevented by pretreatment with an NCX-specific inhibitor prior to transplantation, resulting in protection and long-term survival of transplanted mouse and human islets when grafted into mice. These findings suggest a novel strategy with potentially great impact to improve the efficiency of islet transplantation in clinical settings by targeting donor islets rather than recipients.
American Journal of Transplantation 06/2013; · 6.19 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The effects of SEA0400, a Na(+) /Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX) blocker, on dynamic factors and arrhythmogenic alternans in 1-month myocardial infarction (MI) hearts remain unknown. METHODS: Simultaneous voltage and intracellular Ca(2+) (Ca(i) ) optical mapping was performed in 12 rabbit hearts with MI for 1 month and six normal rabbit hearts as control. Western-blot studies were performed in both groups in an additional six hearts for each. Action potential duration (APD) restitution was constructed and arrhythmogenic alternans was induced by dynamic pacing. SEA0400 (0.03, 3 μM) was administered after baseline studies. RESULTS: SEA0400 suppressed pacing-induced ventricular premature beats in a concentration-dependent manner. SEA0400 at 0.03 μM steepened APD restitution slopes and enhanced spatially discordant alternans (SDA), which became insignificant at 3 μM. The VF inducibility was seven of nine at baseline, nine of nine at 0.03 μM SEA0400, and five of nine at 3 μM SEA0400 (P = NS). Significant upregulation of NCX in the remote but not periinfarct zone and less degree downregulation of DHP1α in the remote versus periinfarct zone may play a role in enhancing SDA induction by SEA0400 in 1-month MI hearts. CONCLUSIONS: In 1-month MI hearts, SEA0400 suppresses pacing-induced ventricular premature beats, but also is proarrhythmic by steepening APD restitution and enhancing SDA via NCX inhibition. Heterogeneous upregulation of NCX and downregulation of DHP1α may contribute to SDA augmentation by SEA0400 in this model. The insignificant effect of SEA0400 on VF inducibility suggests that suppression of both reentry and triggered activity is required to suppress VF induction in this model.
Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology 02/2013; · 1.75 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Previous studies suggest that metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptors are involved in psychiatric disorders. In this study, we examined the effects of the selective metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor agonist MGS0028 on behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking the pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an experimental model of psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. We found that PACAP-deficient mice showed impairments in the novel object recognition test and these impairments were improved by MGS0028 (0.1 mg/kg). Similarly, MGS0028 improved hyperactivity and jumping behaviors, but did not reverse increased immobility times in the forced swim test in PACAP-deficient mice. These results suggest that MGS0028 may be a potential, novel treatment for psychiatric disorders.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent insulinotropic G-protein-coupled receptor ligand, for which morphoregulative roles in pancreatic islets have recently been suggested. Here, we evaluated the effects of pancreatic overexpression of PACAP on morphometric changes of islets in a severe type II diabetes model. Following cross-breeding of obese-diabetic model KKAy mice with mice overexpressing PACAP in their pancreatic β-cells, the resulting KKAy mice with or without PACAP transgene (PACAP/+:Ay/+ or Ay/+ mice) were fed with a high-fat diet up to the age of 11 months. Pancreatic sections from 5- to 11-month-old littermates were examined. Histomorphometric analyses revealed significant suppression of islet mass expansion in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 11 months, but no significant difference between PACAP/+ and +/+ (wild-type) mice, as previously reported. The suppressed islet mass in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice was due to a decrease in islet density but not islet size. In addition, the density of tiny islets (<0.001 mm2) and of insulin-positive clusters in ductal structures were markedly decreased in PACAP/+:Ay/+ mice compared with Ay/+ mice at 5 months of age. In contrast, PACAP overexpression caused no significant effects on the level of aldehyde-fuchsin reagent staining (a measure of β-cell granulation) or the volume and localization of glucagon-positive cells in the pancreas. These results support previously reported inhibitory effects of PACAP on pancreatic islet mass expansion, and suggest it has persistent suppressive effects on pancreatic islet density which may be related with ductal cell-associated islet neogenesis in type II diabetes.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Regulation of microglial migration is not well understood. In this study, we proposed that Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE-1) is important in microglial migration. NHE-1 protein was co-localized with cytoskeletal protein ezrin in lamellipodia of microglia and maintained its more alkaline intracellular pH (pHi). Chemoattractant bradykinin (BK) stimulated microglial migration by increasing lamellipodial area and protrusion rate, but reducing lamellipodial persistence time. Interestingly, blocking NHE-1 activity with its potent inhibitor HOE 642 not only acidified microglia, abolished the BK-triggered dynamic changes of lamellipodia, but also reduced microglial motility and microchemotaxis in response to BK. In addition, NHE-1 activation resulted in intracellular Na(+) loading as well as intracellular Ca(2+) elevation mediated by stimulating reverse mode operation of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchange (NCXrev). Taken together, our study shows that NHE-1 protein is abundantly expressed in microglial lamellipodia and maintains alkaline pHi in response to BK stimulation. In addition, NHE-1 and NCXrev play a concerted role in BK-induced microglial migration via Na(+) and Ca(2+) signaling.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e74201. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger (NCX), an ion-transporter located in the plasma membrane of neuronal cells, contributes to intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. Within the brain, three isoforms (NCX1, NCX2, and NCX3) are widely distributed. However, it is not clear to what extent these isoforms are involved in ischemic brain damage in mammals. We therefore used genetically altered mice and isoform-selective NCX inhibitors in a model of transient focal ischemia to investigate the role of each NCX isoform in ischemic brain damage. NCX isoform-mutant mice (NCX1(+/-), NCX2(+/-), and NCX3(+/-)) and wild-type mice were subjected to 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 h of reperfusion. One of three NCX inhibitors [SN-6, KB-R7943, or SEA0400 (3 or 10 mg·kg(-1), i.p.)] was administered to ddY mice at 30 min before more prolonged (4-h) MCAO followed by 24 h of reperfusion. After transient MCAO reperfusion, the cerebral infarcts in NCX1(+/-) mice, but not those in NCX2(+/-) or NCX3(+/-) mice, were significantly smaller than those in wild-type mice. SN-6 and SEA0400, which are more selective for the NCX1 isoform, significantly reduced the infarct volume at 10 mg/kg. In contrast, KB-R7943, which is more selective for NCX3, did not. These results suggest that the NCX1 isoform may act preferentially (vs. the NCX2 and NCX3 isoforms) to exacerbate the cerebral damage caused by ischemic insult in mice, and that NCX1-selective inhibitors warrant investigation as a potential therapeutic agents for stroke.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 11/2012; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists have an antidepressant-like effect, but the exact mechanism still remains unclear. This study examined the effects of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists in chronic corticosterone-treated mice which could be used as an animal model of depression. In the forced swim test, the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists MGS0039 (1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) and LY341495 (0.3 mg/kg, i.p) significantly reduced the increased immobility time of mice pretreated with corticosterone (20 mg/kg, s.c.) for 21 days, while desipramine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) and fluoxetine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) did not. The antidepressant-like effect of LY341495 was not blocked by the α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole propionate (AMPA) receptor antagonist NBQX (10 mg/kg, i.p.). Systemic administration of LY341495 did not affect basal release of glutamate, dopamine or serotonin in the prefrontal cortex of the control or chronic corticosterone-treated mice. Chronic corticosterone markedly enhanced high K(+)-induced release of dopamine, but not serotonin or glutamate, in the prefrontal cortex. This neurochemical change was blocked by systemic administration of MGS0039 and LY341495, but not desipramine or fluoxetine. These results suggest that chronic corticosterone-treated mice could be used as an animal model of treatment-resistant depression. This study also suggests that the prefrontal dopaminergic system is involved in the antidepressant-like effect of mGlu2/3 receptor antagonists in the chronic corticosterone-induced depression model.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The serotonin 5-HT(7) receptor has been linked to various psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia, anxiety and depression, and is antagonized by antipsychotics such as risperidone, clozapine and lurasidone. In this study, we examined whether inhibiting the 5-HT(7) receptor could reverse behavioral abnormalities in mice lacking pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an experimental mouse model for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia. The selective 5-HT(7) antagonist SB-269970 effectively suppressed abnormal jumping behavior in PACAP-deficient mice. SB-269970 tended to alleviate the higher immobility in the forced swim test in PACAP-deficient mice, although SB-269970 reduced the immobility also in wild-type mice. In addition, we found that mutant mice had impaired performance in the Y-maze test, which was reversed by SB-269970. In the mutant mouse brain, 5-HT(7) protein expression did not differ from wild-type mice. In primary embryonic hippocampal neurons, the 5-HT(7) agonist AS19 increased neurite length and number. Furthermore, SB-269970 significantly inhibited the increase in neurite extension mediated by the 5-HT(1A/7) agonist 8-OH-DPAT. These results indicate that 5-HT(7) receptor blockade ameliorates psychomotor and cognitive deficits in PACAP-deficient mice, providing additional evidence that the 5-HT(7) receptor is a rational target for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 07/2012; 48(3):473-81. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Computer simulations have predicted that the balance of various electrogenic sarcolemmal ion currents may control the amplitude and phase of beat-to-beat alternans of membrane potential (V(m)). However, experimental evidence for the mechanism by which alternans of calcium transients produces alternation of V(m) (V(m)-ALT) is lacking.
To provide experimental evidence that Ca-to-V(m) coupling during alternans is determined by the balanced influence of 2 Ca-sensitive electrogenic sarcolemmal ionic currents: I(NCX) and I(Ca).
V(m)-ALT and Ca-ALT were measured simultaneously from isolated guinea pig myocytes (n = 41) by using perforated patch and Indo-1(AM) fluorescence, respectively. There were 3 study groups: (1) control, (2) I(NCX) predominance created by adenoviral-induced NCX overexpression, and (3) I(Ca) predominance created by I(NCX) inhibition (SEA-0400) or enhanced I(Ca) (As(2)O(3)). During alternans, 14 of 14 control myocytes demonstrated positive Ca-to-V(m) coupling, consistent with I(NCX), but not I(Ca), as the major electrogenic current in modulating action potential duration. Positive Ca-to-V(m) coupling was maintained during I(NCX) predominance in 8 of 8 experiments with concurrent increase in Ca-to-V(m) gain (P <.05), reaffirming the role of increased forward-mode electrogenic I(NCX). Conversely, I(Ca) predominance produced negative Ca-to-V(m) coupling in 14 of 19 myocytes (P < .05) and decreased Ca-to-V(m) gain compared with control (P <.05). Furthermore, computer simulation demonstrated that Ca-to-V(m) coupling changes from negative to positive because of a shift from I(Ca) to I(NCX) predominance with increasing pacing rate.
These data provide the first direct experimental evidence that coupling in phase and magnitude of Ca-ALT to V(m)-ALT is strongly determined by the relative balance of the prominence of I(NCX) vs I(Ca) currents.
Heart rhythm: the official journal of the Heart Rhythm Society 06/2012; 9(10):1698-705. · 4.56 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 20-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (20-HETE), an arachidonic acid metabolite known to be produced after cerebral ischemia, has been implicated in ischemic and reperfusion injury by mediating vasoconstriction. To develop a positron emission tomography (PET) probe for 20-HETE synthase imaging, which might be useful for monitoring vasoconstrictive processes in patients with brain ischemia, we synthesized a (11)C-labeled specific 20-HETE synthase inhibitor, N'(4-dimethylaminohexyloxy)phenyl imidazole ([(11)C]TROA). Autoradiographic study showed that [(11)C]TROA has high-specific binding in the kidney and liver consistent with the previously reported distribution of 20-HETE synthase. Using transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, PET study showed significant increases in the binding of [(11)C]TROA in the ipsilateral hemisphere of rat brains after 7 and 10 days, which was blocked by co-injection of excess amounts of TROA (10 mg/kg). The increased [(11)C]TROA binding on the ipsilateral side returned to basal levels within 14 days. In addition, quantitative real-time PCR revealed that increased expression of 20-HETE synthase was only shown on the ipsilateral side on day 7. These results indicate that [(11)C]TROA might be a useful PET probe for imaging of 20-HETE synthase in patients with cerebral ischemia.
Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism: official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism 06/2012; 32(9):1737-46. · 5.46 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Inadequate compensatory insulin secretion is observed during the development of type 2 diabetes and deteriorates over time in a manner that is difficult to reverse. Here, we found that plasma glucose levels in genetically diabetic KKA(y) mice fed a high-fat diet were markedly increased in young mice. However, the levels started to decrease at 22 weeks of age and returned to normal levels at around 40 weeks of age. These changes were accompanied by a marked increase in insulin levels from week 25 onwards. Decreased energy intake and suppressed fat pad accumulation were observed at 44-45 weeks of age compared with those at 19-22 weeks of age. β cell-specific overexpression of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP), an insulinotropic neuropeptide, decreased the insulin levels required to compensate for hyperglycemia. Glucose disposal was significantly enhanced despite impaired insulin sensitivity in 41-44-week-old A(y) mice without or with PACAP overexpression. In conclusion, the present results provide further evidence that PACAP is involved in the regulation of hyperinsulinemia and islet hyperplasia in type 2 diabetes. Our results also indicate that A(y) mice fed a high-fat diet constitute an animal model suitable to study compensatory islet hyperplasia.
Journal of Molecular Neuroscience 04/2012; 48(3):647-53. · 2.89 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We have developed a new simple method to induce serotonergic neurons from embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem cells. When ES or induced pluripotent stem cells were cultured on a thick gel layer of Matrigel, most colonies extended TuJ1-positive neurites. We found that noggin, a known antagonist of bone morphogenic protein, induces ES cells to express genes involved in serotonergic differentiation, such as Nkx2.2, Pet-1, Sonic hedgehog, tryptophan hydroxylase 2, and serotonin transporter, as well as increases high potassium-induced release of serotonin. To concentrate serotonergic neurons, ES cells carrying Pet-1-enhancer-driven enhanced green fluorescent protein were differentiated and sorted into about 80% pure cultures of serotonergic neurons. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings showed a voltage-dependent current in dissociated neurons. This simplified method provides an alternative option for serotonergic differentiation of pluripotent stem cells and will likely contribute a deeper understanding regarding the nature of serotonergic neurons and open new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
Journal of Neurochemistry 03/2012; 122(1):81-93. · 3.97 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Isolation-induced abnormal behaviors are useful animal models for assessing potential anti-psychotic drugs. This study examined the effect of MGS0028, a selective metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, on abnormal behaviors such as hyperactivity, aggression, and deficits of prepulse inhibition in isolation-reared mice. MGS0028 attenuated hyperactivity and aggressive behaviors in isolation-reared mice. The agonist also reversed isolation rearing-induced deficits of prepulse inhibition. On the other hand, MGS0028 did not affect locomotor activity and prepulse inhibition in group-reared mice. These results suggest that the metabotropic glutamate 2/3 receptor agonist, MGS0028, is a potential compound for the treatment of psychiatric disorders.
Journal of Pharmacological Sciences 02/2012; 118(2):295-8. · 2.15 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) have been implicated in severe cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac deaths. However, the mechanism(s) for EAD genesis, especially regarding the relative contribution of Ca(2+) wave (CaW) vs. L-type Ca current (I(Ca,L)), still remains controversial. In the present study, we simultaneously recorded action potentials (APs) and intracellular Ca(2+) images in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes and systematically compared the properties of EADs in the following two pharmacological models: 1) hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2); 200 μM); and 2) isoproterenol (100 nM) and BayK 8644 (50 nM) (Iso + BayK). We assessed the rate dependency of EADs, the temporal relationship between EADs and corresponding CaWs, the distribution of EADs over voltage, and the effects of blockers of I(Ca,L), Na/Ca exchangers, and ryanodine receptors. The most convincing evidence came from the AP-clamp experiment, in which the cell membrane clamp was switched from current clamp to voltage clamp using a normal AP waveform without EAD; CaWs disappeared in the H(2)O(2) model, but persisted in the Iso + BayK model. We postulate that, although CaWs and reactivation of I(Ca,L) may act synergistically in either case, reactivation of I(Ca,L) plays a predominant role in EAD genesis under oxidative stress (H(2)O(2) model), while spontaneous CaWs are a predominant cause for EADs under Ca(2+) overload condition (Iso + BayK model).
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a neuropeptide acting as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator, or neurotrophic factor. PACAP is widely expressed throughout the brain and exerts its functions through the PACAP-specific receptor (PAC(1)). Recent studies reveal that genetic variants of the PACAP and PAC(1) genes are associated with mental disorders, and several behavioral abnormalities of PACAP knockout (KO) mice are reported. However, an insufficient number of backcrosses was made using PACAP KO mice on the C57BL/6J background due to their postnatal mortality. To elucidate the effects of PACAP on neuropsychiatric function, the PACAP gene was knocked out in F1 hybrid mice (C57BL/6J × 129SvEv) for appropriate control of the genetic background. The PACAP KO mice were then subjected to a behavioral test battery. PACAP deficiency had no significant effects on neurological screen. As shown previously, the mice exhibited significantly increased locomotor activity in a novel environment and abnormal anxiety-like behavior, while no obvious differences between genotypes were shown in home cage (HC) activity. In contrast to previous reports, the PACAP KO mice showed normal prepulse inhibition (PPI) and slightly decreased depression-like behavior. Previous study demonstrates that the social interaction (SI) in a resident-intruder test was decreased in PACAP KO mice. On the other hand, we showed that PACAP KO mice exhibited increased SI in Crawley's three-chamber social approach test, although PACAP KO had no significant impact on SI in a HC. PACAP KO mice also exhibited mild performance deficit in working memory in an eight-arm radial maze (RM) and the T-maze (TM), while they did not show any significant abnormalities in the left-right discrimination task in the TM. These results suggest that PACAP has an important role in the regulation of locomotor activity, social behavior, anxiety-like behavior and, potentially, working memory.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience 01/2012; 6:58. · 4.76 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Astrocytes are electrically nonexcitable cells that display increases in cytosolic calcium ion (Ca²+) in response to various neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. However, the physiological role of astrocytic Ca²+ signaling remains controversial. We show here that astrocytic Ca²+ signaling ex vivo and in vivo stimulated the Na+,K+-ATPase (Na+- and K+-dependent adenosine triphosphatase), leading to a transient decrease in the extracellular potassium ion (K+) concentration. This in turn led to neuronal hyperpolarization and suppressed baseline excitatory synaptic activity, detected as a reduced frequency of excitatory postsynaptic currents. Synaptic failures decreased in parallel, leading to an increase in synaptic fidelity. The net result was that astrocytes, through active uptake of K+, improved the signal-to-noise ratio of synaptic transmission. Active control of the extracellular K+ concentration thus provides astrocytes with a simple yet powerful mechanism to rapidly modulate network activity.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a multifunctional neuropeptide with well-known neuroprotective and neurotrophic effects. The involvement of PACAP in sensory processing has also been documented, but little is known about its effects in the auditory system. PACAP and its specific receptor (PAC1) are present in the cochlea and in brain structures involved in auditory pathways. Recently, we have shown that PACAP protects cochlear cells against oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. The endolymphatic Ca(2+) concentration controlled by Ca(2+) buffers of the hair cells is essential for the normal hearing processes. In this study we examined the localization of PAC1 receptor and Ca(2+) buffering proteins (parvalbumin, calretinin, calbindin) in the inner ear of 5-day-old PACAP-deficient mice compared with wild-type mice in order to get a closer insight into the effect of endogenous PACAP in the cochlear function. We did not find differences in the distribution pattern of PAC1 receptors between the two groups, but wild-type animals showed significantly higher PAC1 receptor expression. In contrast, inner and outer hair cells of PACAP-deficient mice showed more pronounced parvalbumin, calbindin, and calretinin immunopositivity compared with wild-type mice. Elevated endolymphatic Ca(2+) is deleterious for cochlear function, while the high concentration of Ca(2+) buffers in hair cells may offer protection. The increased immunoreactivity of Ca(2+) binding proteins in the absence of PACAP provide further evidence the important role of PACAP in the hearing processes.
Neurotoxicity Research 12/2011; 21(4):435-44. · 2.87 Impact Factor