[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Mre11/Rad50/NBS1 (MRN) complex is thought to be a critical sensor that detects damaged DNA and recruits ATM to DNA foci for activation. However, it remains to be established how the MRN complex regulates ATM recruitment to the DNA foci during DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here we show that Skp2 E3 ligase is a key component for the MRN complex-mediated ATM activation in response to DSBs. Skp2 interacts with NBS1 and triggers K63-linked ubiquitination of NBS1 upon DSBs, which is critical for the interaction of NBS1 with ATM, thereby facilitating ATM recruitment to the DNA foci for activation. Finally, we show that Skp2 deficiency exhibits a defect in homologous recombination (HR) repair, thereby increasing IR sensitivity. Our results provide molecular insights into how Skp2 and the MRN complex coordinate to activate ATM, and identify Skp2-mediatetd NBS1 ubiquitination as a vital event for ATM activation in response to DNA damage.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cullin/RING ubiquitin ligases (CRL) comprise the largest subfamily of ubiquitin ligases. CRLs are involved in cell cycle regulation, DNA replication, DNA damage response (DDR), development, immune response, transcriptional regulation, circadian rhythm, viral infection, and protein quality control. One of the main functions of CRLs is to regulate the DDR, a fundamental signaling cascade that maintains genome integrity. In this review, we will discuss the regulation of CRL ubiquitin ligases and their roles in control of the DDR.