M. Victoria Criado

University of Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires F.D., Argentina

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Publications (7)11.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The commercial quality of malting barley is dependent on the content and composition of grain proteins which are subjected to nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) control. In nutrient deficient soils, grain protein content is mainly a consequence of the remobilization efficiency. In order to evaluate the effect of N and S soil availability on phloem amino acid and sugar export rates and B- and C-hordein gene expression during grain filling, a factorial combination of N and S fertilization assay was carried out under field conditions. Besides, several carbon (C) and N metabolites were analyzed in leaves and spikes. We observed that, even under soil N and S availabilities that do not limit yield, N and S fertilization induced significant changes in N and C metabolism. N phloem remobilization was promoted by S fertilization independently of N fertilization and C remobilization was also promoted by S fertilization but only in N fertilized plants. The B- and C-hordein gene expression correlated positively with sugar and amino acid exudation rate, respectively. Our results suggest an important role of the export rate of sugars and amino acids in the regulation of grain prolamine expression.
    Journal of Cereal Science 01/2014; · 2.09 Impact Factor
  • Irma N Roberts, Carla Caputo, María Victoria Criado, Christiane Funk
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    ABSTRACT: Senescence is the final developmental stage of every plant organ, which leads to cell death. It is a highly regulated process, involving differential gene expression and outstanding increment in the rate of protein degradation. Senescence-associated proteolysis enables the remobilization of nutrients, such as nitrogen (N), from senescent tissues to developing organs or seeds. In addition to the nutrient recycling function, senescence-associated proteases are also involved in the regulation of the senescence process. Nearly, all protease families have been associated with some aspects of plant senescence, and numerous reports addressing the new identification of senescence-associated proteases are published every year. Here, we provide an updated report with the most recent information published in the field, focusing on senescence-associated proteases presumably involved in N remobilization.
    Physiologia Plantarum 01/2012; 145(1):130-9. · 3.66 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The induction of two subtilisin-like proteases (P1 and P2) associated with stress-induced senescence in young plants was investigated in adult wheat plants during the grain-filling period. Western blot analysis of flag leaf extracts showed that P1 was induced very late in the life cycle of the plants (9 days post-anthesis) and that 7 days later it reached a 2.5-fold increase with respect to the initial value at anthesis. On the other hand, the P2 signal was already detected previous to anthesis and increased soon after anthesis, reaching a fourfold increase by the end of the grain-filling period. The induction of P1 and P2 temporally correlates with the degradation of the Rubisco small and large subunits in the flag leaf, as well as with nitrogen (N) accumulation in the ears. At the same time, a decrease in the endogenous concentration of the cytokinins isopentenyladenine and isopentenyladenosine (iP + iPA) in the leaves was observed. In detached leaves senescing in the dark, the levels of both proteases were affected by 6-benzylaminopurine application: the induction of P1 was completely prevented, whereas the induction of P2 was reduced. Our findings demonstrate that both P1 and P2 are expressed in leaves of adult plants and are induced during natural senescence. These results enable us to postulate their participation in N remobilization to developing grains during monocarpic senescence and their regulation by a cytokinin-mediated mechanism.
    Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 01/2011; · 1.31 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nitrogen (N) remobilization in wheat (Triticum aestivum) plants is crucial because it determines the grain protein concentration and the baking quality of flour. In order to evaluate the influence of cytokinins on N remobilization during N starvation, we analyzed various N remobilization parameters in wheat plants that were watered with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) either with or without KNO(3). Besides, the effects of BAP on protein synthesis were evaluated, and the size and ultrastructure of chloroplasts of BAP-treated plants were studied. BAP supply inhibited N remobilization of plants independently of N supply as shown by the increase in protein, Rubisco, chlorophyll, sugar and starch concentrations in the older leaves, the decrease in amino acid and sugar export to the phloem, and the decrease in protein, Rubisco and chlorophyll concentrations in the younger leaves. Besides, BAP supply increased nitrate reductase activity and decreased nitrate concentration, thus suggesting an increased assimilatory capacity. The increase in protein concentration could be explained mainly by a significant decrease in protein degradation and, to a lesser extent, by an increase in protein synthesis. Finally, an increase both in the size of the chloroplast and in the plastoglobuli and starch contents in BAP-supplied plants was observed. We propose that cytokinins retain the sink activity of the older leaves by inhibiting amino acid and sugar export to the phloem and stimulating assimilate accumulation in the chloroplasts of the older leaves. Besides, BAP may increase protein concentration of the older leaves both by decreasing protein degradation and maintaining protein synthesis even under stress conditions.
    Journal of plant physiology 07/2009; 166(16):1775-85. · 2.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The possible regulation of amino acid remobilization via the phloem in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) by the primary enzyme in nitrogen (N) assimilation and re-assimilation, glutamine synthetase (GS, E.C. 6.3.1.2) was studied using two conditions known to alter N phloem transport, N deficiency and cytokinins. The plants were grown for 15 days in controlled conditions with optimum N supply and then N was depleted from and/or 6-benzylaminopurine was added to the nutrient solution. Both treatments generated an induction of GS1, monitored at the level of gene expression, protein accumulation and enzyme activity, and a decrease in the exudation of amino acids to the phloem, obtained with EDTA technique, which correlated negatively. GS inhibition by metionine sulfoximide (MSX) produced an increase of amino acids exudation and the inhibitor successfully reversed the effect of N deficiency and cytokinin addition over phloem exudation. Our results point to an important physiological role for GS1 in the modulation of amino acids export levels in wheat plants.
    Plant Physiology and Biochemistry. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: In a previous work we demonstrated that the suppression of blue light in shaded leaves of wheat increases their senescence rate and the development of oxidative stress symptoms. In order to better understand the interaction between the oxidative metabolism and light spectral quality in the regulation of leaf senescence, we studied the evolution of H2O2 concentration, protein oxidation, proteolytic activity and cytokinin content in excised leaves, either illuminated (control, “C”) or shaded under blue (“B”, high blue light transmission) or green (“G”, very low blue light transmission) light filters. H2O2 concentration significantly increased during the first 9 h after treatment initiation, an effect that was consistently higher in treatments B and C. Leaves from these treatments showed lower chlorophyll and protein degradation rates, lower concentration of oxidized proteins, and maintained higher levels of the cytokinin isopentenyl-adenosine than those from treatment G. When moderate H2O2 concentrations were supplied during 6–9 h after the onset of the shade treatments, senescence rate in treatment G was delayed, while the opposite effect was observed in the presence of the H2O2 scavengers catalase and, to a lesser extent, dimethylthiourea. These effects were accompanied by an increment or a decrement, respectively, of catalase activity, suggesting that the early changes in H2O2 homeostasis in leaves from treatments B and C may contribute to the prevention rather than to the induction of further oxidative damage. Altogether our results show that the suppression of blue light transmission in shaded leaves act as a stress signal that increases their sensitivity to oxidative stress and accelerates cell death.
    Plant Science. 01/2009;
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    ABSTRACT: The sequence of events and the signals that regulate the remobilization of nitrogen (N) reserves during senescence induced by N starvation were studied in leaf 3, the last fully expanded leaf, in 17-day-old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants. The first event observed was a rapid decrease in the isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) concentration during the first 24 h of N starvation. No differences in t-zeatin riboside and dihydrozeatin riboside concentrations were observed until the end of the assay. During the following 6 days, a decrease in soluble amino acids, chlorophyll, and protein, as well as an increase in soluble sugar concentration and endoproteolytic activity, could be observed. At day 3 of the experiment, the abscisic acid (ABA) concentration in the leaves of N-deprived plants started to increase. After 6 days of N deprivation there was a rise in oxidative stress, as indicated by the increase in malondialdehyde concentration, as well as a decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. To analyze interactions with leaf development, the first, second, third, and fourth leaves were studied. iPA concentration decreased in all the leaf stages, including leaf 4, which was not fully expanded. A linear correlation between iPA and protein concentration was determined. These results suggest that the sharp fall in iPA could be the earliest event that induces protein degradation during the development of senescence induced by N deficiency, and that only later is ABA accumulated and oxidative stress developed.
    Journal of Plant Growth Regulation 01/2007; 26(4):301-307. · 1.99 Impact Factor