Xiao-Hua Yu

University of South China, Heng-nan, Hunan, China

Are you Xiao-Hua Yu?

Claim your profile

Publications (11)28.1 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), the sole member in type II IFN predominantly secreted by macrophages and T cells, is a critical regulator of immune function and provides a robust first line of defense against invading pathogens. Binding of IFN-γ to its receptor complex can activate a variety of downstream signaling pathways, particularly the Janus kinase (JAK)/signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT), to induce gene transcription within the target cells. This pro-inflammatory mediator is highly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and promotes foam cell formation, but its effects on the atherogenesis are complex, with both pro- and anti-atherogenic properties. IFN-γ also contributes to the development of myocardial infarction and stroke, the two main atherosclerotic diseases. Inhibition of IFN-γ signaling may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and help treat atherosclerotic diseases. Since IFN-γ may also exert anti-atherogenic effects, the safety and efficacy of anti-IFN-γ treatment still require careful evaluation in the clinical setting. In the current review, we summarize recent progression on regulation and signaling pathways of IFN-γ, and highlight its roles in foam cell formation, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction as well as stroke. An increased understanding of these processes will help to develop novel IFN-γ-centered therapies for atherosclerotic diseases. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    12/2014;
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a well-known toxic gas with the characteristic smell of rotten eggs. It is synthesized endogenously in mammals from the sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine by the action of several distinct enzymes: cystathionine-γ-lyase (CSE), cystathionine-ß-synthase (CBS), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) along with cysteine aminotransferase (CAT). In particular, CSE is considered to be the major H2S-producing enzyme in the cardiovascular system. As the third gasotransmitter next to nitric oxide (NO) and carbon monoxide (CO), H2S plays an important role in the regulation of vasodilation, angiogenesis, inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis. Growing evidence has demonstrated that this gas exerts a significant protective effect against the progression of cardiovascular diseases by a number of mechanisms such as vasorelaxation, inhibition of cardiovascular remodeling and resistance to form foam cells. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the physiological functions of H2S and its protection against several major cardiovascular diseases, and to explore its potential health and therapeutic benefits. A better understanding will help develop novel H2S-based therapeutic interventions for these diseases.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 07/2014; 437. · 2.85 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin-17 (IL-17) A, the most important cytokine of the IL-17 family predominantly secreted by T helper 17 (Th17) cells, plays a critical role in the development of inflammatory diseases. Its receptor is an obligate heterodimer composed of IL-17 receptor (IL-17R) A and C, the main members of the IL-17R family. Binding of IL-17A to the IL-17RA/C complex can activate a variety of downstream signaling pathways such as nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB), activator protein 1 (AP1) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) to induce the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IL-17A also promotes mRNA stability. Growing evidence shows that IL-17A is involved in lipid metabolism and the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory arterial disease driven by both innate and adaptive immune responses to modified lipoproteins. In the current review, we describe recent progress on regulation and signaling of IL-17A, and highlight its impacts on lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 02/2014; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Post-lysosomal cholesterol trafficking is an important, but poorly understood process that is essential to maintain lipid homeostasis. Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1), an integral membrane protein on the limiting membrane of late endosome/lysosome (LE/LY), is known to accept cholesterol from NPC2 and then mediate cholesterol transport from LE/LY to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and plasma membrane in a vesicle- or oxysterol-binding protein (OSBP)-related protein 5 (ORP5)-dependent manner. Mutations in the NPC1 gene can be found in the majority of NPC patients, who accumulate massive amounts of cholesterol and other lipids in the LE/LY due to a defect in intracellular lipid trafficking. Liver X receptor (LXR) is the major positive regulator of NPC1 expression. Atherosclerosis is the pathological basis of coronary heart disease, one of the major causes of death worldwide. NPC1 has been shown to play a critical role in the atherosclerotic progression. In this review, we have summarized the role of NPC1 in regulating intracellular cholesterol trafficking and atherosclerosis.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Cholesterol is essential for the growth and function of all mammalian cells, but abnormally increased blood cholesterol is a major risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters G5 (ABCG5) and G8 (ABCG8) form an obligate heterodimer that limits intestinal absorption and facilitates biliary secretion of cholesterol and phytosterols. Consistent with their function, ABCG5 and ABCG8 are located on the apical membrane of enterocytes and hepatocytes. Liver X receptor is the major positive regulator of ABCG5 and ABCG8 expression. Mutations in either of the two genes cause sitosterolemia, a condition in which cholesterol and plant sterols accumulate in the circulation leading to premature cardiovascular disease. Overexpression of ABCG5 and ABCG8 in mice retards diet-induced atherosclerosis because of reduced circulating and hepatic cholesterol. In the current review, we summarize recent developments and propose a future framework that provides new perspectives on the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 11/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Apelin is an adipokine that has been identified as an endogenous ligand for the orphan receptor APJ. Apelin and APJ are expressed in a diverse range of tissues with particular preponderance for the heart and vasculature. Apelin has powerful positive inotropic actions and causes endothelium- and nitric oxide-dependent vasodilatation. Growing evidence shows that apelin/APJ system functions as a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and is involved in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases. Targeting apelin/APJ axis produces protection against cardiovascular diseases. In the current review we have summarized recent data concerning the role and therapeutic potential of apelin/APJ in several major cardiovascular diseases. An increased understanding of the cardiovascular actions of apelin/APJ system will help to develop novel therapeutic interventions for cardiovascular diseases.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 09/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease characterized by the deposition of excessive cholesterol in the arterial intima. Macrophage foam cells play a critical role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. The generation of these cells is associated with imbalance of cholesterol influx, esterification and efflux. CD36 and scavenger receptor class A (SR-A) are mainly responsible for uptake of lipoprotein-derived cholesterol by macrophages. Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) and neutral cholesteryl ester hydrolase (nCEH) regulate cholesterol esterification. ATP-binding cassette transporters A1(ABCA1), ABCG1 and scavenger receptor BI (SR-BI) play crucial roles in macrophage cholesterol export. When inflow and esterification of cholesterol increase and/or its outflow decreases, the macrophages are ultimately transformed into lipid-laden foam cells, the prototypical cells in the atherosclerotic plaque. The aim of this review is to describe what is known about the mechanisms of cholesterol uptake, esterification and release in macrophages. An increased understanding of the process of macrophage foam cell formation will help to develop novel therapeutic interventions for atherosclerosis.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 06/2013; · 2.54 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim:To investigate the effects of the major component of high-density lipoprotein apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) on the development of atherosclerosis in LPS-challenged ApoE-/- mice and the underlying mechanisms.Methods:Male ApoE-KO mice were daily injected with LPS (25 μg, sc) or PBS for 4 weeks. The LPS-challenged mice were intravenously injected with rAAV-apoA-I-GFP or rAAV-GFP. After the animals were killed, blood, livers and aortas were collected for biochemical and histological analyses. For ex vivo experiments, the abdominal cavity macrophages were harvested from each treatment group of mice, and cultured with autologous serum, then treated with LPS.Results:Chronic administration of LPS in ApoE-/- mice significantly increased the expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1), increased infiltration of inflammatory cells, and enhanced the development of atherosclerosis. In LPS-challenged mice injected with rAAV-apoA-I-GFP, viral particles and human apoA-I were detected in the livers, total plasma human apoA-I levels were grammatically increased; HDL-cholesterol level was significantly increased, TG and TC were slightly increased. Furthermore, overexpression of apoA-I significantly suppressed the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells, and decreased the extent of atherosclerotic lesions. Moreover, overexpression of apoA-I significantly increased the expression of the cytokine mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin (TTP), and phosphorylation of JAK2 and STAT3 in aortas. In ex vivo mouse macrophages, the serum from mice overexpressing apoA-I significantly increased the expression of TTP, accompanied by accelerated decay of mRNAs of the inflammatory cytokines.Conclusion:ApoA-I potently suppresses LPS-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting the inflammatory response possibly via activation of STAT3 and upregulation of TTP.
    Acta Pharmacologica Sinica 04/2013; · 2.35 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim: Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), the major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), has been recently found to suppress inflammation. This study was to investigate the effects and potential mechanisms of apoA-I on the CD40/CD40 ligand (CD40L) proinflammatory signaling pathway.Methods: Human THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells were treated with sCD40L alone or in the presence of apoA-I. Secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was performed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). The proteins and mRNA expression were examined by western-blot and real-time PCR analysis, respectly Cholesterol efflux was assessed by liquid scintillation counting. Cholesterol depletion of macrophages was performed with methylated β-cyclodextrin.Results: ApoA-I inhibits the inflammatory response stimulated by soluble CD40L (sCD40L) in macrophages. In addition, apoA-I inhibited the sCD40L-stimulated activation of nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB). The apoA-I-induced NF-kB deactivation was related to the decreased recruitment of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6), a crucial adapter protein for CD40 in macrophages, to lipid rafts after being treated by sCD40L. When interfering the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1), a major cholesterol transporter for apoA-I in macrophages, it could significantly diminish the effect of apoA-I on the sCD40L-stimulated inflammatory response.Conclusion: ApoA-I suppresses CD40 proinflammatory signaling in macrophages by preventing TRAF-6 translocation to lipid rafts through ABCA1-dependent regulation of free cholesterol (FC) efflux, which may present a novel mechanism of apoA-I-mediated inflammation inhibition in macrophages.
    Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 07/2012; 19(9):823-36. · 2.93 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Interleukin (IL)-18 and IL-12 synergize for the production of interferon (IFN)-γ, which can downregulate ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IL-18 and/or IL-12 on ABCA1 expression. IL-18 combined with IL-12 decreased ABCA1 expression and cellular cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells, whereas IL-18 or IL-12 alone had no effect. IL-12 increased IL-18 receptor (IL-18R) expression, which was suppressed by small interfering RNA (siRNA) for signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. IL-18R but not IL-12 receptor siRNA completely reversed the effects of IL-18 and IL-12 on ABCA1 expression and cellular cholesterol efflux. Treatment with IL-18 plus IL-12 markedly augmented nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB but had no effect on expression and activity of liver X receptor α. IL-18 and IL-12 also significantly increased zinc finger protein 202 (ZNF202) levels and IFN-γ secretion. Furthermore, siRNA for ZNF202 or IFN-γ significantly impaired IL-18/IL-12-induced suppression of ABCA1, whereas NF-κB siRNA treatment blocked IL-18/IL-12' action on ZNF202 levels, IFN-γ secretion, and ABCA1 expression. IL-18 and IL-12 together can decrease ABCA1 expression and cellular cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells through the IL-18R/NF-κB signaling pathway.
    Circulation Journal 04/2012; 76(7):1780-91. · 3.58 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) has been involved in the atherosclerotic process through regulation of local expression of IGF-1 that mediates the activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 (PI3-K) and Akt kinase (Akt) signaling cascades which lead to constitutive nitric oxide formation, with its attending vasodilator, antiplatelet and insulin-sensitizing actions. In addition, IGF-1 may decreased cholesterol efflux through reductions of expression in ABCA1 and SR-B1 by the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway. In the current study, we examined whether PAPP-A was involved in LXRα regulation and in expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 or SR-B1 through the IGF-I-mediated signaling pathway (IGF/PI3-K/Akt). Results showed that PAPP-A significantly decreased expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI at both transcriptional and translational levels in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. Cellular cholesterol content was increased while cholesterol efflux was decreased by PAPP-A treatment. Moreover, LXRα which can regulate the expression of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-B1, was also down-regulated by PAPP-A treatment. LXRα-specific activation by LXRα agonist almost rescued the down-regulation of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-B1 expression by PAPP-A. In addition, PAPP-A can induce the IGF-1/PI3-K/Akt pathway in macrophages. Furthermore, our results indicate that the decreased levels observed in LXRα, ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-B1 mRNA and protein levels upon treating cells with PAPP-A were strongly impaired with the PI3-K inhibitors or IGF-1R siRNA while the MAPK cascade inhibitor did not execute this effect, indicating that the process of ABCA1, ABCG1 and SR-BI degradation by PAPP-A involves the IGF-1/PI3-K/Akt pathway. In conclusion, PAPP-A may first down-regulate expression of LXRα through the IGF-1/PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway and then decrease expression of ABCA1, ABCG1, SR-B1 and cholesterol efflux in THP-1 macrophage-derived foam cells. Therefore, our study provided one of the mechanisms for understanding the critical effect of PAPP-A in pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.
    Atherosclerosis 03/2012; 222(2):344-54. · 3.71 Impact Factor