[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined anti-tumor effects of zoledronic acid (ZOL), one of the bisphosphonates agents clinically used for preventing loss of bone mass, on human mesothelioma cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene. ZOL-treated cells showed activation of caspase-3/7, -8 and -9, and increased sub-G1 phase fractions. A combinatory use of ZOL and cisplatin (CDDP), one of the first-line anti-cancer agents for mesothelioma, synergistically or additively produced the cytotoxicity on mesothelioma cells. Moreover, the combination achieved greater anti-tumor effects on mesothelioma developed in the pleural cavity than administration of either ZOL or CDDP alone. ZOL-treated cells as well as CDDP-treated cells induced p53 phosphorylation at Ser 15, a marker of p53 activation, and up-regulated p53 protein expression levels. Down-regulation of p53 levels with siRNA however did not influence the ZOL-mediated cytotoxicity but negated the combinatory effects by ZOL and CDDP. In addition, ZOL treatments augmented cytotoxicity of adenoviruses expressing the p53 gene on mesothelioma. These data demonstrated that ZOL-mediated augmentation of p53, which was not linked with ZOL-induced cytotoxicity, played a role in the combinatory effects with a p53 up-regulating agent, and suggests a possible clinical use of ZOL to mesothelioma with anti-cancer agents.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e60297. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFNs) have been tested for the therapeutic effects in various types of malignancy, but mechanisms of the anti-tumors effects and the differential biological activities among IFN members are dependent on respective cell types. In this study, we examined growth inhibitory activities of type I and III IFNs on 5 kinds of human mesothelioma cells bearing wild-type p53 gene, and showed that type I IFNs but not type III IFNs decreased the cell viabilities. Moreover, growth inhibitory activities and up-regulated expression levels of the major histocompatibility complexes class I antigens were greater with IFN-β than with IFN-α treatments. Cell cycle analyses demonstrated that type I IFNs increased S- and G2/M-phase populations, and subsequently sub-G1-phase fractions. The cell cycle changes were also greater with IFN-β than IFN-α treatments, and these data collectively showed that IFN-β had stronger biological activities than IFN-α in mesothelioma. Type I IFNs-treated cells increased p53 expression and the phosphorylation levels, and activated apoptotic pathways. A combinatory use of IFN-β and cisplatin or pemetrexed, both of which are the current first-line chemotherapeutic agents for mesothelioma, produced synergistic anti-tumor effects, which were also evidenced by increased sub-G1-phase fractions. These data demonstrated firstly to our knowledge that IFN-β produced synergistic anti-tumor effects with cisplatin or pemetrexed on mesothelioma through up-regulated p53 expression.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e72709. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We examined whether zoledronic acid (ZOL), the third generation of bisphosphonates, produced cytotoxic effects on human mesothelioma cells in vitro and in vivo, and investigated a possible involvement of p53, Ras, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways.
Cytotoxicity and cell cycles were assessed with a colorimetric assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Expression levels of apoptosis-linked proteins and prenylation of small guanine-nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins were tested with p53-small interfering RNA, an ERK kinase1/2-inhibitor, and prenyl alcohols. The antitumor activity was examined in an orthotopic animal model.
ZOL treatments suppressed growth of mesothelioma cells bearing the wild-type p53 gene through apoptosis induction accompanied by activation of caspases, or S-phase arrest by up-regulated cyclin A and B1. ZOL induced p53 phosphorylation and subsequent activation of the downstream pathways. Down-regulated p53 expression with the small interfering RNA, however, showed that both apoptosis and S-phase arrest were irrelevant to the p53 activation. Geranylgeranyl but not farnesyl pyrophosphate inhibited ZOL-induced apoptosis and S-phase arrest, and the geranylgeraniol supplement decreased ZOL-mediated Rap1A but not Ras unprenylation. Inhibition of ERK1/2 pathways suppressed ZOL-induced apoptosis but not S-phase arrest. We further demonstrated that ZOL, administrated intrapleurally, inhibited the tumor growth in the pleural cavity.
These data indicate that ZOL induces apoptosis or S-phase arrest, both of which are independent of p53 activation and Ras unprenylation, and suggest that ZOL is a possible therapeutic agent to mesothelioma partly through non-Ras- and ERK1/2-mediated pathways.
Journal of thoracic oncology: official publication of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer 04/2012; 7(5):873-82. · 4.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Besides amino acid decarboxylation, the ADP biosynthetic pathway was reported to enhance survival under extremely acidic conditions in Escherichia coli (Sun et al., J. Bacteriol. 193∶ 3072-3077, 2011). E. coli has two pathways for ATP synthesis from ADP: glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation. We found in this study that the deletion of the F(1)Fo-ATPase, which catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate using the electro-chemical gradient of protons generated by respiration in E. coli, decreased the survival at pH 2.5. A mutant deficient in hemA encoding the glutamyl tRNA reductase, which synthesizes glutamate 1-semialdehyde also showed the decreased survival of E. coli at pH 2.5. Glutamate 1-semialdehyde is a precursor of heme synthesis that is an essential component of the respiratory chain. The ATP content decreased rapidly at pH 2.5 in these mutants as compared with that of their parent strain. The internal pH was lowered by the deletion of these genes at pH 2.5. These results suggest that respiration and the F(1)Fo-ATPase are still working at pH 2.5 to enhance the survival under such extremely acidic conditions.
PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(12):e52577. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli has three major K(+) uptake systems, Trk, Kup, and Kdp, which have been studied extensively at near neutral pH. However, the function of these transporters under acidic conditions is not well understood, although growth and survival under acidic conditions are important for bacterial pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the expression and activity of Kdp under acidic conditions and found that the transport activity of Kdp is decreased at low pH and that the expression of kdp is regulated by the internal K(+) concentration in a pH-independent manner. Consequently, the low activity of Kdp was compensated for by the induction of its elevated expression by low K(+) accumulation via Kdp at acidic pH.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The roles of OmpC and OmpF in acidic resistance (AR) were examined. When ompC and ompF were deleted, AR was decreased. The decreased level of AR seen in the mutant that was deficient in ompC and ompF was elevated by the addition of glutamate, but not by the addition of arginine or lysine. The expression levels of adiA and cadB were diminished by the deletion of ompC and ompF, and the conversion of arginine to agmatine and lysine to cadaverine by intact cells were reduced in the mutant. The expression of gadA/gadB was not affected by the deletion of ompC and ompF. These results suggest that the transport of arginine, lysine, and their decarboxylated products through OmpC and/or OmpF is essential for the survival of Escherichia coli cells under extremely acidic conditions.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In solid tumor and inflammation loci, low pH conditions have been observed as a consequence of either a lack of sufficient vascularization or excess activity of tumor cells, and T cells have been reported to infiltrate tumors and inflammation sites. However, it remains unclear how extracellular acidic environments affect immune cell function. A previous report proposed that a different signal transduction cascade might occur under low pH conditions in Jurkat T cells (Fukamachi T, Saito H, Kakegawa T, Kobayashi H. Different proteins are phosphorylated under acidic environments in Jurkat cells. Immunol Lett 2002;82:155-8). In this study, we investigated the protein phosphotyrosine level in Jurkat and Jurkat mutant cells under different pH conditions. The ZAP-70 phosphorylation level increased under acidic environments. P38 MAPK was more activated at acidic pH. The level of active p38 was low in mutant P116 deficient in ZAP-70, and interestingly the level remained consistently low at all pH values tested. The activation of ERK was not stimulated at low pH. These results suggest that extracellular low pH stimulates or enhances TCR signaling via ZAP-70 and p38.