Bruce Shadbolt

The Canberra Hospital, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia

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Publications (47)109.56 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Background/Aims: Indomethacin and ibuprofen are administered to close a patent ductus arteriosus during active glomerulogenesis. Light and electron microscopic glomerular changes with no change in glomerular number were seen following indomethacin and ibuprofen treatment during glomerulogenesis at 14 days after birth in a neonatal rat model. This present study aimed to determine whether longstanding renal structural changes are present at 30 days and 6 months (equivalent to human adulthood). Methods: Rat pups were administered indomethacin or ibuprofen antenatally on day18-20 (indomethacin 0.5 mg/kg/dose; ibuprofen 10 mg/kg/dose) or postnatally intraperitoneally from day 1 to 3 or day 1 to 5 (indomethacin 0.2 mg/kg/dose; ibuprofen 10 mg/kg/dose). Control groups received no treatment or normal saline intraperitoneally. Pups were sacrificed at 30 days of age and 6 months of age. Tissue blocks from right kidneys were prepared for light and electron microscopic examination, while total glomerular number was determined in left kidneys using unbiased stereology. Results: Eight pups were included in each group from 14 maternal rats. At 30 days and 6 months there were persistent EM abnormalities of the glomerular basement membrane in those receiving postnatal indomethacin and ibuprofen. There were no significant LM findings at 30 days or 6 months. At 6 months there were significantly fewer glomeruli in those receiving postnatal indomethacin but not ibuprofen (p=0.003) Conclusions: Indomethacin administered during glomerulogenesis appears to reduce the number of glomeruli in adulthood. Alternative options for closing a PDA should be considered including ibuprofen as well as emerging therapies such as paracetamol.
    American journal of physiology. Renal physiology 09/2014; · 3.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) agents are used as induction and maintenance therapy in ulcerative colitis (UC) refractory to standard therapy and as rescue therapy in acute severe ulcerative colitis (ASUC). To determine long-term outcomes including colectomy rates, predictors of maintenance of response and remission, risk of serious adverse events by reviewing 12-year clinical experience from a single centre in Australia. 71 patients with moderate-severe UC [Mayo score ≥6] (n = 52) and ASUC (n = 19) treated with anti-TNF agents were included. Primary endpoints were colectomy at 12 weeks and colectomy-free survival at last follow-up. Secondary endpoints included clinical response (decrease in Mayo score of ≥3) and remission (Mayo score ≤2). Colectomy at 12 weeks was 1% and colectomy-free survival was 69%. Using full Mayo score, at 3 months, 32/37 (87%) refractory and 9/12 (75%) ASUC patients responded to anti-TNF therapy; 19/37 (51%) refractory and 8/12 (67%) ASUC patients were in remission. Long-term response rates (mean follow-up 37.4 months) were 24/44 (55%) and 11/15 (73%) in refractory and ASUC groups respectively. Long-term remission rates were 43% in refractory and 60% in ASUC patients. 22/71 (31%) underwent colectomy (mean time 50.4 months). Clinical non-response at 3 months was a predictor of colectomy (HR = 9.346; p = 0.001). ASUC predicted long-term maintenance of response (OR 19.4; p=0.013) and remission (OR 6.13; p=0.037). 2/71 patients had serious infections. Anti-TNF therapy is effective in both refractory and ASUC. We argue that early anti-TNF therapy may improve outcome in UC.
    Internal Medicine Journal 02/2014; · 1.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is no evidence from randomized trials for the benefit of routine non-compliant balloon (NCB) post-dilation after stent deployment. Despite being the gold standard, intravascular ultrasound is infrequently performed due to time and cost constraints and a suitable alternative technology is required for routine assessment of stent expansion. The purpose of this study was to assess the contribution of NCB post-dilation in optimizing contemporary stents by using digital stent enhancement (DSE). Methods We treated 120 patients with stent insertion and assessed the stents with DSE before and after NCB use. Optimal expansion was defined as the minimum stent diameter (MSD) ≥ 90% of the nominal stent diameter, an adaptation of the MUSIC and POSTIT trial criteria. Stent deployment was performed at 12 atm pressure followed by routine NCB post-dilation at ≥ 14 atm. Results The mean reference diameter on QCA was 2.75 mm (SD 0.63) and mean stent diameter was 3.15 mm (SD 0.46). At a mean stent deployment pressure of 11.7 atm (SD 2.4), only 21% of stents were optimally expanded. After NCB inflation at a mean of 16.9 atm (SD 2.8), MSD increased by 0.26 mm (SD 0.24), optimal stent expansion increased from 21% to 58% and mean stent symmetry ratio increased from 0.83 to 0.87 (p < 0.0001). Conclusions Contemporary stents are sub-optimally expanded in the majority of cases after standard deployment compared with nominal sizes. Adjunctive NCB post-dilation optimized an additional 37% of stents. DSE analysis can assist in qualitative and quantitative stent assessments and can potentially facilitate a selective NCB post-dilation strategy to achieve optimal stent expansion.
    IJC Heart & Vessels. 01/2014; 3:43–48.
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    ABSTRACT: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in patients with stage 4-5 Chronic Kidney disease (CKD, eGFR < 30). There are only limited data on the risk factors predicting these complications in CKD patients. Our aim was to determine the role of clinical and echocardiographic parameters in predicting mortality and cardiovascular complications in CKD patients. We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 153 CKD patients between 2007 and 2009. All patients underwent echocardiography at baseline and were followed for a mean of 2.6 years using regular clinic visits and review of files and hospital presentations to record the incidence of cardiovascular events and death. Of 153 patients enrolled, 57 (37%) were on dialysis and 45 (78%) of these patients were on haemodialysis. An enlarged LV was present in 32% of patients and in 22% the LVEF was below 55%. LV mass index was increased in 75% of patients. Some degree of diastolic dysfunction was present in 85% of patients and 35% had grade 2 or higher diastolic dysfunction. During follow up 41 patients (27%) died, 15 (39%) from cardiovascular causes. Mortality was 24.2% in the non-dialysis patients versus 31.6% in patients on dialysis (p = ns). On multivariate analysis age >75 years, previous history of MI, diastolic dysfunction and detectable serum troponin T were significant independent predictor of mortality (P < 0.01). Patients with stage 4-5 CKD had a mortality rate of 27% over a mean follow up of 2.6 years. Age >75 years, history of MI, diastolic dysfunction and troponin T were independent predictors of mortality.
    BMC Nephrology 12/2013; 14(1):280. · 1.64 Impact Factor
  • Ahmad Farshid, Leonard Arnolda, Bruce Shadbolt
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Primary PCI (PPCI) is superior to thrombolysis for treatment of acute ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction (STEMI). However, transfer to a PCI centre results in a treatment delay compared to those presenting directly to such hospitals. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of transfer delay on LV function and clinical outcomes in PPCI patients. METHODS: Of 113 consecutive PPCI patients, 69 presented directly to the PCI centre and 44 were transferred. Echocardiography was performed at day 1 and after 6 weeks to assess LV function using the Wall Motion Score Index (WMSI). Patients were followed for a mean of 3.51 years. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in WMSI at day 1 between local and transfer patients (1.52±0.36 and 1.48±0.34 respectively, p=ns). After 6 weeks the WMSI improved significantly in both groups (1.33±0.33 and 1.31±0.31 respectively, p<0.001 for both). On multivariate analysis, pain to balloon time>160min, LAD stenosis and initial TIMI flow 0-1 were significant independent predictors of LV dysfunction. There was no significant difference in clinical events during long term follow up. CONCLUSIONS: Patients transferred for PPCI had similar LV function and clinical outcomes compared to those who presented directly to a PCI hospital.
    Heart Lung &amp Circulation 08/2012; · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is evidence that psychological treatments for postnatal depression are effective in the short-term; however, whether the effects are enduring over time remains an important empirical question. The aim of this study was to investigate the depressive symptoms and interpersonal functioning of participants in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-G) at 2 years posttreatment. The study also examined long-term trajectories, such as whether participants maintained their recovery status, achieved later recovery, recurrence or persistent symptoms. Approximately 2 years posttreatment, all women in the original RCT (N = 50) were invited to participate in a mailed follow-up. A repeated measures analysis of variance assessed differences between the treatment and control conditions on depression and interpersonal scores across five measurement occasions: baseline, mid-treatment, end of treatment and 3-month and 2-year follow-up. Chi-square tests were used to analyse the percentage of participants in the four recovery categories. Mothers who received IPT-G improved more rapidly in the short-term and were less likely to develop persistent depressive symptoms in the long-term. Fifty seven percent of IPT-G mothers maintained their recovery over the follow-up period. Overall, IPT-G participants were significantly less likely to require follow-up treatment. Limitations include the use of self-report questionnaires to classify recovery. The positive finding that fewer women in the group condition experienced a persistent course of depression highlights its possible enduring effects after treatment discontinuation. Further research is needed to improve our long-term management of postnatal depression for individuals who are vulnerable to a recurrent or chronic trajectory.
    Archives of Women s Mental Health 04/2012; 15(3):217-28. · 2.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Postnatal depression (PND) usually causes distressing symptoms for sufferers and significant impairments in relationships. Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy (IPT-G) provides the experienced therapist with a brief, focused, and manualized approach to helping women recover from the debilitating effects of PND. This paper describes the background and development of IPT-G for PND. The evidence for the effectiveness of individual and group IPT formats with this population is summarized. The triad of theories underpinning IPT are discussed with an emphasis on the important role of attachment styles during the transition to parenthood. Its strengths, which include its unique package of targets, tactics, and techniques, are highlighted. The benefits and challenges of IPT-G are also explored, and the results of a randomized controlled trial are summarized. Finally, a case study illustrates how IPT-G specifically addresses the social role transitions, conflicts, losses, and social isolation that mothers commonly experience.
    International journal of group psychotherapy 04/2012; 62(2):221-51. · 0.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction: In Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL), bone marrow histology is the gold standard against which ancillary investigations such as immunophenotyping and gene rearrangement studies are interpreted. There is currently no data on the reproducibility of histological findings. This study was conducted to determine the rates of inter- and intra-observer agreement in histological detection of bone marrow involvement in the two major subtypes of NHL, Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBCL), and Follicular Lymphoma (FL). Methods: The bone marrow slides of randomly selected DLBCL and FL cases were independently examined by two hematologists using standardized reporting criteria on two occasions at least two weeks apart. Samples included both aspirate and trephine biopsy slides. Weighted kappa statistics were used to examine agreement for the discrete measures. Results: Weighted kappa analyses showed variable inter-observer agreement in 38 DLBCL cases [aspirate=0.52; trephine= 0.77] and 38 FL cases [aspirate=0.48; trephine=0.77]. Conclusion: Overall, higher agreement rates were noted with trephine biopsies than with aspirates. Except for the high intra-observer agreement on trephine biopsy assessment in FL, there is poor agreement in histological staging of both FL and DLBCL which demonstrates the limitations of histological diagnosis and the futility of interpreting ancillary tests against histology.
    Clinical and investigative medicine. Medecine clinique et experimentale 01/2012; 35(6):E358. · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: High prevalence rates of suboptimal vitamin D levels have been observed in women who are not considered 'at risk'. The effect of behavioural factors such as sun exposure, attire, sunscreen use and vitamin D supplementation on vitamin D levels in pregnancy is unknown. To determine prevalence and predictive factors of suboptimal vitamin D levels in 2 antenatal clinics in Australia--Campbelltown, NSW and Canberra, ACT. A cross-sectional study of pregnant women was performed with a survey of demographic and behavioural factors and a mid-pregnancy determination of maternal vitamin D levels. The prevalence of vitamin D deficiency (≤25 nmol/L) and insufficiency (26-50 nmol/L) was 35% in Canberra (n=100) and 25.7% in Campbelltown (n=101). The majority of participants with suboptimal D levels had vitamin D insufficiency. Among the vitamin D-deficient women, 38% were Caucasian. Skin exposure was the main behavioural determinant of vitamin D level in pregnancy in univariate analysis. Using pooled data ethnicity, season, BMI and use of vitamin D supplements were the main predictive factors of suboptimal vitamin D. Vitamin D supplementation at 500 IU/day was inadequate to prevent insufficiency. Behavioural factors were not as predictive as ethnicity, season and BMI. As most participants had one of the predictive risk factors for suboptimal vitamin D, a case could be made for universal supplementation with a higher dose of vitamin D in pregnancy and continued targeted screening of the women at highest risk of vitamin D deficiency.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 08/2011; 51(4):353-9. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There are conflicting reports from Europe and North America regarding trends in the incidence of primary brain tumor, whereas the incidence of primary brain tumors in Australia is currently unknown. We aimed to determine the incidence in Australia with age-, sex-, and benign-versus-malignant histology-specific analyses. A multicenter study was performed in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), which has a combined population of >7 million with >97% rate of population retention for medical care. We retrospectively mined pathology databases servicing neurosurgical centers in NSW and ACT for histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008. Data were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness. Incidence rates were age standardized and trends analyzed using joinpoint analysis. A weighted total of 7651 primary brain tumors were analyzed. The overall US-standardized incidence of primary brain tumors was 11.3 cases 100 000 person-years (±0.13; 95% confidence interval, 9.8-12.3) during the study period with no significant linear increase. A significant increase in primary malignant brain tumors from 2000 to 2008 was observed; this appears to be largely due to an increase in malignant tumor incidence in the ≥65-year age group. This collection represents the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Whether the observed increase in malignant primary brain tumors, particularly in persons aged ≥65 years, is due to improved detection, diagnosis, and care delivery or a true change in incidence remains undetermined. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence that can be independent of multiple interstate cancer registries.
    Neuro-Oncology 07/2011; 13(7):783-90. · 6.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Current AJCC/UICC staging of early breast cancer defines tumor stage using the largest focus, adding the suffix "(m)" to indicate multiplicity. This method may underestimate the total tumor burden in multifocal and multicentric breast cancer (MMBC). This study examines other measures of tumor size in MMBC to determine which provides the best fit in a multivariate model for survival outcomes. This prospective cohort study used data from the Australian Capital Territory and New South Wales Breast Cancer Treatment Group database to identify 812 women with ipsilateral invasive breast cancer; 141 of these women had MMBC. The pathology slides of all women with MMBC were reviewed and all foci of invasive breast cancer were re-measured. The measures of interest were the diameter of the largest deposit, the aggregate diameter and the aggregate volume. These measures of tumor size were included with other clinicopathological features of MMBC in a multivariate analysis to assess their relationship with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Tumor size was associated with PFS and OS in MMBC using any of the three measures; however, the diameter of the largest deposit provided the best fit in the multivariate model for OS. Tumor size is an important prognostic factor for MMBC, and the diameter of the largest deposit provides a better fit in a multivariate model for OS than aggregate diameter and aggregate volume. Therefore, tumor size in MMBC should continue to be measured using the diameter of the largest deposit.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 02/2011; 20(3):259-63. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The incidence of primary brain tumors by subtype is currently unknown in Australia. We report an analysis of incidence by tumor subtype in a retrospective multicenter study in the state of New South Wales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT), with a combined population of >7 million with >97% retention rate for medical care. Data from histologically confirmed primary brain tumors diagnosed from January 2000 through December 2008 were weighted for patient outflow and data completeness, and age standardized and analyzed using joinpoint analysis. A significant increasing incidence in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) was observed in the study period (annual percentage change [APC], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-4.6, n = 2275), particularly after 2006. In GBM patients in the ≥65-year group, a significantly increasing incidence for men and women combined (APC, 3.0; 95% CI, 0.5-5.6) and men only (APC, 2.9; 95% CI, 0.1-5.8) was seen. Rising trends in incidence were also seen for meningioma in the total male population (APC, 5.3; 95% CI, 2.6-8.1, n = 515) and males aged 20-64 years (APC, 6.3; 95% CI, 3.8-8.8). Significantly decreasing incidence trends were observed for Schwannoma for the total study population (APC, -3.5; 95% CI, -7.2 to -0.2, n = 492), significant in women (APC, -5.3; 95% CI, -9.9 to -0.5) but not men. This collection is the most contemporary data on primary brain tumor incidence in Australia. Our registries may observe an increase in malignant tumors in the next few years that they are not detecting now due to late ascertainment. We recommend a direct, uniform, and centralized approach to monitoring primary brain tumor incidence by subtype, including the introduction of nonmalignant data collection.
    Surgical Neurology International 01/2011; 2:176. · 1.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the impact of Rhesus (Rh) D prophylaxis on positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) results and ability of a DAT grade to predict an infant's need for phototherapy. Laboratory and infant medical records were reviewed for DAT status, DAT grade, interventions for hyperbilirubinemia including phototherapy, blood transfusion, exchange transfusion and intravenous immunoglobulin. Two epochs of DAT results were reviewed, the first in the era prior to Rh D prophylaxis, the second after introduction of standardised Rh D prophylaxis for Rh negative women. A total of 165 DAT-positive infants' medical records were reviewed. The number of positive DAT results increased from 1.5% to 2.3% (P < 0.0001) following introduction of anti-Rh D prophylaxis, the increase related to an increase in anti-D DATs (7.4% to 32% -P < 0.0001). An infant with a DAT grade of 5-8 was 2.6 times more likely to need phototherapy than an infant with a DAT grade of 2-4 (odds ratio (OR), 2.571; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.225-5.393; P = 0.08) and an infant with a DAT grade of 10-12 was 4.7 times more likely to need phototherapy than an infant with a DAT grade of 2-4 (OR, 4.724; 95% CI, 1.602-13.926, P =0.013). Rh D prophylaxis has increased positive DAT results, which may increase the number of unnecessary bilirubin measurements. A low or high DAT grade is strongly predictive of whether an infant does or does not require phototherapy. However, an intermediate DAT requires concomitant bilirubin measurements to determine phototherapy requirements.
    Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health 10/2010; 47(1-2):40-3. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Studies to date have not identified any reliable predictors for recurrence of primary spontaneous pneumothorax (PSP) on plain chest radiograph (CXR). The aim of this study was to assess whether abnormalities on CXR at first presentation of PSP can be used to predict recurrence of PSP. The study included all patients admitted to The Canberra Hospital between 1998 and 2004. CXRs taken at initial presentation were reviewed retrospectively by an independent radiologist. Radiological abnormalities on CXR included: pleural thickening: blebs/bullae; pleural irregularities and pleural adhesions. One hundred patients were followed up for a mean duration of 57 months. The total rate of recurrence was 54%. Multivariate analysis found that the presence of an abnormality (irrespective of the type) increased the likelihood of recurrence and the risk of recurrence increased with each additional abnormality. Patients having one, two and three or more abnormalities were 3.0 (95% CI=2.09, 3.91, p=0.018), 5.3 (95% CI=4.47, 6.13, p<0.001) and 12.6 (95% CI=11.57, 13.63, p<0.001) times more likely to develop recurrence respectively. In view of these results we now offer surgical treatment at first presentation PSP in patients in whom we identify two or more radiological abnormalities on CXR.
    Heart Lung &amp Circulation 10/2010; 19(10):606-10. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renal volume, but not renal length, has been shown to be positively correlated with renal function. Three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are two modalities used to assess renal volume. The aim of our study was to determine whether 3D ultrasound measurements of renal volume in the neonate are comparable to those of MRI measurements. Preterm and term neonates had an MRI and 3D ultrasound to determine renal volume at the same time as they had an MRI brain scan for other clinical conditions. The preterm neonates were all term corrected age, and the term neonates were 1-4 weeks of age. None of the kidneys examined were abnormal. There were no significant differences in the weight or length of the preterm and term infants at the time of their MRI scan. The left renal length was significantly longer according to MRI measurements than according to 3D ultrasound measurements (p=0.02). Renal volumes of both the left and right kidney were greater when measured by MRI than by 3D ultrasound (p<0.0001, respectively). Total volumes of the kidneys were greater when measured by MRI than by 3D ultrasound (p=0.008). Renal volume in neonates was significantly less when evaluated by 3D ultrasound than by MRI. These results demonstrate that MRI and 3D ultrasound renal volumes are not comparable in the neonatal population and, therefore, the same radiological modality should be used if repeat volume measurements are to be performed.
    Pediatric Nephrology 05/2010; 25(5):913-8. · 2.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The use of Kjelland's forceps is now uncommon, and published maternal and neonatal outcome data are from deliveries conducted more than a decade ago. The role of Kjelland's rotational delivery in the 'modern era' of high caesarean section rates is unclear. To compare the results of attempted Kjelland's forceps rotational delivery with other methods of instrumental delivery in a tertiary hospital. Retrospective review of all instrumental deliveries for singleton pregnancies 34 or more weeks gestation in a four-year birth cohort, with reference to adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. The outcomes of 1067 attempted instrumental deliveries were analysed. Kjelland's forceps were successful in 95% of attempts. Kjelland's forceps deliveries had a rate of adverse maternal outcomes indistinguishable from non-rotational ventouse, and lower than all other forms of instrumental delivery. Kjelland's forceps also had a lower rate of adverse neonatal outcomes than all other forms of instrumental delivery. Prudent use of Kjelland's forceps by experienced operators is associated with a very low rate of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. Training in this important obstetric skill should be reconsidered urgently, before it is lost forever.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 10/2009; 49(5):510-4. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We analysed the outcomes of women with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) from three randomised phase III trials of aromatase inhibitors according to oestrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) status. Both receptors were analysed in 1010 of the 1870 women (54%), including 31 that were ER-/PgR-, which were excluded. Of the remaining 979, 726 (74%) were ER+/PgR+ but 253 were single hormone receptor positive (213 ER+/PgR-, 40 ER-/PgR+). Although there were no differences in clinical benefit or time to progression, the median overall survival of women with ER+/PgR+ tumours was significantly longer than those with single HR positive tumours (800 versus 600 days, p=0.01). In women with ER+ tumours, the median overall survival of those with tumours that were also PgR+ was significantly longer than those that were PgR- (800 versus 625 days, p=0.02). The PgR status is an important prognostic factor for survival in MBC.
    Breast (Edinburgh, Scotland) 10/2009; 18(6):351-5. · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Placental vascular changes associated with maternal disease states may affect fetal vascular development. There is evidence suggesting that being born prematurely is associated with a higher blood pressure (BP) in later life. To determine whether maternal disease state affects BP in the early neonatal period. Cohort study of neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit with exposure to maternal hypertension and diabetes. Inclusion criteria were neonates greater than 27 weeks gestation not ventilated or requiring inotropes for more than 24 h, materna l hypertension (pregnancy induced or essential) or diabetes of any kind requiring treatment, and spontaneous delivery. Exclusion criteria included chromosomal or congenital anomaly and illicit maternal drug use. Oscillometric BP measurements taken until discharge on days 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Placental histopathology was performed. One hundred and ninety infants enrolled, 104 in the control and 86 in the study group. Sixty-five infants were born between 28-31 weeks and 125 infants between 32-41 weeks gestation. Those born between 28-31 weeks with a history of diabetes had a statistically higher systolic, mean and diastolic BP throughout the first 28 days of life (P = 0.001; P = 0.007; P = 0.02). Those born between 32-41 weeks gestation with placental pathology associated with altered uteroplacental perfusion had a higher systolic BP (P = 0.005). Maternal- or pregnancy-associated disease states appear to influence BP in the early neonatal period. Diabetes and altered placental perfusion were associated with higher BP readings. Clinical significance of these statistically elevated BPs in the early neonatal period is unknown.
    Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 09/2009; 49(4):364-70. · 1.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This retrospective study evaluated the recovery of ankle dorsiflexion (ADF) weakness following decompressive surgery in order to identify factors indicative of a better outcome. Fifty-six consecutive patients with ADF weakness secondary to nerve root compression underwent lumbar decompressive surgery. The demographic features, duration and severity of preoperative ADF weakness, associated radicular pain, as well as the radiological and intraoperative findings were recorded. ADF weakness at the time of initial follow-up at 6 weeks following surgery, and the latest follow-up at a median of 24 months was recorded. The patients had a mean age of 50.5 years with equal numbers of men and women. Acute disc prolapse was the compressive pathology in 88%. Clinical foot drop, defined as an ADF power of <3 by manual testing according to the Medical Research Council classification, was present in 66% of patients on presentation. Grade 3 power was present in 27% of patients and 7% had grade 4 power on presentation. The mean ADF power on presentation was 1.8. This improved to a mean of 3.2 at 6 weeks following surgery (p < 0.0001). A further small improvement in ADF power occurred after 6 weeks following surgery to a power of 3.5 at the latest follow-up (p < 0.0001). The degree of ADF weakness at latest follow-up correlates with the deficit at presentation (p <0.001). Younger patients made a better recovery (p = 0.03). No other significant associations between the demographic or clinical features and the recovery of the weakness could be identified. Thus, decompressive surgery was associated with an early improvement in ADF weakness. Only small improvements take place beyond 6 weeks following surgery. The degree of deficit at presentation is predictive of the extent of recovery. Recovery in ADF strength is more evident in younger patients.
    Journal of Clinical Neuroscience 06/2009; 16(8):1024-7. · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extreme prematurity exposes the neonate to a number of potential renal insults that may result in a reduced number of glomeruli and/or renal size. This may predispose these individuals to cardiovascular disease later in life. The objective was to determine using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) whether extreme prematurity results in decreased renal volume. Neonates <29 weeks' gestation and term infants undergoing MRI of the brain were enrolled in the study. An MRI was performed at term corrected age in the premature neonate and within the first 4 weeks of life in the term neonate. Seventeen preterm infants and 13 term infants had MRIs performed. There was no significant difference in weight and length at the time of MRI (p = 0.76 and 0.11, respectively). There was no significant difference in total renal volume or total kidney volume to weight ratio between the preterm and term neonates (p = 0.83 and 0.6, respectively). At term corrected age, extremely premature neonates have the same renal volume as term infants. It is unclear whether renal volume is a good indicator of glomerular number.
    The journal of maternal-fetal & neonatal medicine: the official journal of the European Association of Perinatal Medicine, the Federation of Asia and Oceania Perinatal Societies, the International Society of Perinatal Obstetricians 06/2009; 22(5):435-8. · 1.36 Impact Factor