[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: a b s t r a c t The elastic properties of the vocal folds (VFs) vary as a function of depth relative to the epithelial surface. The poroelastic anisotropic properties of porcine VFs, at various depths, were measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based indentation. The minimum tip diameter to effectively capture the local properties was found to be 25 mm, based on nonlinear laser scanning microscopy data and image analysis. The effects of AFM tip dimensions and AFM cantilever stiffness were systematically investigated. The indenta-tion tests were performed along the sagittal and coronal planes for an evaluation of the VF anisotropy. Hertzian contact theory was used along with the governing equations of linear poroelasticity to calculate the diffusivity coefficient of the tissue from AFM indentation creep testing. The permeability coefficient of the porcine VF was found to be 1.80 7 0.32 Â 10 −15 m 4 /N s.
Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials 07/2013; XXX(XXX):XXX. · 2.37 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehydration may alter vocal fold viscoelastic properties, thereby hampering phonation. The effects of water loss induced by an osmotic pressure potential on vocal fold tissue viscoelastic properties were investigated. Porcine vocal folds were dehydrated by immersion in a hypertonic solution, and quasi-static and low-frequency dynamic traction tests were performed for elongations of up to 50%. Digital image correlation was used to determine local strains from surface deformations. The elastic modulus and the loss factor were then determined for normal and dehydrated tissues. An eight-chain hyperelastic model was used to describe the observed nonlinear stress-stretch behavior. Contrary to the expectations, the mass history indicated that the tissue absorbed water during cyclic extension when submerged in a hypertonic solution. During loading history, the elastic modulus was increased for dehydrated tissues as a function of strain. The response of dehydrated tissues was much less affected when the load was released. This observation suggests that hydration should be considered in micromechanical models of the vocal folds. The internal hysteresis, which is often linked to phonation effort, increased significantly with water loss. The effects of dehydration on the viscoelastic properties of vocal fold tissue were quantified in a systematic way. A better understanding of the role of hydration on the mechanical properties of vocal fold tissue may help to establish objective dehydration and phonotrauma criteria.
Journal of voice: official journal of the Voice Foundation 04/2012; · 0.95 Impact Factor