E Gothié

University of Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Nice, Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur, France

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Publications (8)30.19 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The p42/p44 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway participates in a wide range of cellular programs including proliferation, migration, differentiation, and survival. Specific pharmacological inhibitors, like PD98059 and U0126, are often used to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK signaling. However, these inhibitors are not appropriate to study the function of these kinases in whole organisms. We thus developed an inducible system designed to inhibit p42/p44 MAPK activity through the expression of a phosphatase specific for these two kinases, the MAPK phosphatase 3 (MKP-3). A fibroblast cell line was established in which MKP-3 expression is controlled by tetracycline. Tetracycline-induced MKP-3 resulted in partial de-phosphorylation of p42/p44 MAPKs in serum-stimulated cells. However, we could improve MKP-3 stability and thereby the rate of MAPK de-phosphorylation, when the C-terminal end of MKP-3 was fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). Importantly, the fusion of GFP to MKP-3 did not alter the specificity of the phosphatase towards its MAPK substrates. We further show that conditional expression of MKP-3-GFP in this fibroblast cell line results in the inhibition of: (a) the phosphorylation of the p42/p44 MAPK substrates Elk1 and HIF-1alpha, (b) vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cyclin D1, and c-fos gene transcription in response to MAPK pathway activation, and (c) cell proliferation. Finally, the MKP-3-GFP inducible cell line was transformed by Ha-ras and injected into nude mice. Treatment of mice with the tetracycline analog doxycycline resulted in a large delay in tumor emergence and growth as compared to the untreated control group, indicating that MKP-3-GFP activity is maintained in vivo. Altogether, these results show that inducible expression of MKP-3-GFP constitutes a valuable tool to study the role of p42/p44 MAPKs in various cellular responses in both cultured cell and animal models, a tool that may also be used to block unwanted cell growth in pathological conditions.
    Journal of Cellular Physiology 07/2004; 199(3):441-50. · 4.22 Impact Factor
  • Emmanuel Gothié, Jacques Pouysségur
    Medecine sciences: M/S 01/2002; 18(1). · 0.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis. In normoxia, HIF-1alpha is a short lived protein, whereas hypoxia rapidly increases HIF-1alpha protein levels by relaxing its ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent degradation. In this study, we show that the p42/p44 MAP kinase cascade, known to phosphorylate HIF-1alpha, does not modulate the degradation/stabilization profile of HIF-1alpha. However, we present evidence that the rate of HIF-1alpha degradation depends on the duration of hypoxic stress. We demonstrate that degradation of HIF-1alpha is suppressed by: (i) inhibiting general transcription with actinomycin D or (ii) specifically blocking HIF-1-dependent transcriptional activity. In keeping with these findings, we postulate that HIF-1alpha is targetted to the proteasome via a HIF-1alpha proteasome targetting factor (HPTF) which expression is directly under the control of HIF-1-mediated transcriptional activity. Although HPTF is not yet molecularly identified, it is clearly distinct from the von Hippel-Lindau protein (pVHL).
    FEBS Letters 03/2001; 491(1-2):85-90. · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) plays a central role in oxygen homeostasis. In normoxia, HIF-1α is a short lived protein, whereas hypoxia rapidly increases HIF-1α protein levels by relaxing its ubiquitin–proteasome-dependent degradation. In this study, we show that the p42/p44 MAP kinase cascade, known to phosphorylate HIF-1α, does not modulate the degradation/stabilization profile of HIF-1α. However, we present evidence that the rate of HIF-1α degradation depends on the duration of hypoxic stress. We demonstrate that degradation of HIF-1α is suppressed by: (i) inhibiting general transcription with actinomycin D or (ii) specifically blocking HIF-1-dependent transcriptional activity. In keeping with these findings, we postulate that HIF-1α is targetted to the proteasome via a HIF-1α proteasome targetting factor (HPTF) which expression is directly under the control of HIF-1-mediated transcriptional activity. Although HPTF is not yet molecularly identified, it is clearly distinct from the von Hippel–Lindau protein (pVHL).
    FEBS Letters 01/2001; · 3.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Angiogenesis is associated with a number of pathological situations. In this study, we have focused our attention on the role of p42/p44 MAP (mitogen-activated protein) kinases and hypoxia in the control of angiogenesis. We demonstrate that p42/p44 MAP kinases play a pivotal role in angiogenesis by exerting a determinant action at three levels: i) persistent activation of p42/p44 MAP kinases abrogates apoptosis; ii) p42/p44 MAP kinase activity is critical for controlling proliferation and growth arrest of confluent endothelial cells; and iii) p42/p44 MAP kinases promote VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) expression by activating its transcription via recruitment of the AP-2/Sp1 (activator protein-2) complex on the proximal region (−88/−66) of the VEGF promoter and by direct phosphorylation of hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). HIF-1α plays a crucial role in the control of HIF-1 activity, which mediates hypoxia-induced VEGF expression. We show that oxygen-regulated HIF-1α protein levels are not affected by intracellular localization (nucleus versus cytoplasm). Finally, we propose a model which suggests an autoregulatory feedback mechanism controlling HIF-1α and therefore HIF-1-dependent gene expression.
    Biochemical Pharmacology 11/2000; · 4.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a potent agonist secreted by virtually all cells, controls migration and division of vascular endothelial cells. Disruption of one VEGF allele in mice has revealed a dramatic lethal effect in early embryogenesis, suggesting a key role in vasculogenesis. We analyzed the regulation of VEGF mRNA in normal and transformed CCL39 fibroblasts and then dissected the VEGF promoter to identify the signaling pathway(s) controlling the activation of this promoter in response to growth factors, oncogenes, and hypoxic stress. We demonstrated that the p42/p44 MAP kinase signaling cascade controls VEGF expression at least at two levels. In normoxic conditions, MAPKs activate the VEGF promoter at the proximal (-88/-66) region where Sp-1/AP-2 factors bind. Activation of p42/p44 MAPKs is sufficient to turn on VEGF mRNA. At low O2 tension, hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha), a limiting factor rapidly stabilized and phosphorylated, plays a key role in the expression of several genes including VEGF. We demonstrated that p42/p44MAPKs stoichiometrically phosphorylate HIF-1 alpha in vitro and that HIF-1-dependent VEGF gene expression is strongly enhanced by the exclusive activation of p42/p44MAPKs. Finally, we demonstrated that the regulation of p42/p44MAPK activity is critical for controlling proliferation and growth arrest of vascular endothelial cells at confluency. These results point to at least three major targets of angiogenesis where p42/p44 MAP kinases exert a determinant action.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 06/2000; 902:187-200. · 4.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mammalian cells are able to sense oxygen and regulate a number of genes in response to hypoxia. The transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1) was identified as an important key component of the hypoxia signaling pathway. HIF-1 is a heterodimer composed of two members of the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor superfamily containing a PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM) domain: HIF-1alpha and HIF-1beta/ARNT. During the cloning by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction of the human HIF-1alpha subunit, we isolated two cDNA clones which corresponded to alternative splicing of the HIF-1alpha gene. Polymerase chain reaction analysis and sequencing revealed that both clones possessed three additional base pairs between exons 1 and 2. Also, one of them lacked 127 base pairs corresponding to exon 14. We demonstrate that the mRNA of this truncated form is expressed in several human cells lines and human skin but apparently not in rodents. When transfected in HEK 293 cells, the corresponding 736 amino acid protein (HIF-1alpha(736)) is regulated by hypoxia in a similar manner as the full-length HIF-1alpha (HIF-1alpha(FL)). In luciferase transfection assays, both recombinant proteins HIF-1alpha(736) and HIF-1alpha(FL) dimerize with HIF-1beta/ARNT and activate the VEGF promoter upon hypoxia. However, the shorter HIF-1alpha isoform is 3-fold less active than HIF-1alpha(FL), a result consistent with the lack of the C-terminal transactivation domain. As expected, this small isoform can compete with the endogenous and transfected full-length HIF-1alpha. Altogether, these results suggest that the HIF-1alpha(736) isoform modulates gene expression upon hypoxia.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 04/2000; 275(10):6922-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) controls the expression of a number of genes such as vascular endothelial growth factor and erythropoietin in low oxygen conditions. However, the molecular mechanisms that underlie the activation of the limiting subunit, HIF-1alpha, are still poorly resolved. Results showing that endogenous HIF-1alpha migrated 12 kDa higher than in vitro translated protein led us to evaluate the possible role of phosphorylation on this phenomenon. We report here that HIF-1alpha is strongly phosphorylated in vivo and that phosphorylation is responsible for the marked differences in the migration pattern of HIF-1alpha. In vitro, HIF-1alpha is phosphorylated by p42 and p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and not by p38 MAPK or c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Interestingly, p42/p44 MAPK stoichiometrically phosphorylate HIF-1alpha in vitro, as judged by a complete upper shift of HIF-1alpha. More importantly, we demonstrate that activation of the p42/p44 MAPK pathway in quiescent cells induced the phosphorylation and shift of HIF-1alpha, which was abrogated in presence of the MEK inhibitor, PD 98059. Finally, we found that in a vascular endothelial growth factor promoter mutated at sites previously shown to be MAPK-sensitive (SP1/AP2-88-66 site), p42/p44 MAPK activation is sufficient to promote the transcriptional activity of HIF-1. This interaction between HIF-1alpha and p42/p44 MAPK suggests a cooperation between hypoxic and growth factor signals that ultimately leads to the increase in HIF-1-mediated gene expression.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/1999; 274(46):32631-7. · 4.65 Impact Factor