[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: microRNAs, frequently deregulated in human cancer, have been implicated in the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis. Here, we show that microRNA (miR)-137 is significantly down-regulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Its decreased expression is associated with vein invasion, incomplete Involucrum, and distant metastasis. Multivariate analysis suggests that miR-137 is an independent indicator for poor survival. We next show that over-expression of miR-137 suppresses cell proliferation, migration and invasion in vitro. Conversely, miR-137 inhibition promotes HCC cell growth. We also identify AKT2 as a key target of miR-137 in this context. Statistical data reveal a reverse correlation of AKT2 and miR-137 expression in HCC patients. Silencing of AKT2 phenotypically copied miR-137-induced phenotypes, whereas re-expression of AKT2 reversed the suppressive effects of miR-137. Further investigations showed that miR-137 exerted its anti-tumour activity via inhibiting the AKT2/mTOR pathway. Moreover, we demonstrate that FoxD3 directly binds to the promoter of miR-137 and activates its transcription. In vivo studies confirm that FoxD3-regulated miR-137 inhibited HCC growth and metastasis via targeting AKT2. Together, our findings indicate that miR-137 is a valuable biomarker for HCC prognosis and the FoxD3/miR-137/AKT2 regulatory network plays an important role in HCC progression.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Perineural invasion (PNI) is correlated with adverse survival in several malignancies, but its significance in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) remains to be clearly defined. The objective of this study was to determine the association between PNI status and clinical outcomes.
BMC Cancer 05/2014; 14(1):313. · 3.33 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The biological behavior and clinical outcome of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) are difficult to predict.
We investigate the prognostic impact of vascular invasion to establish a risk stratification model to predict recurrence and overall survival. We retrospectively evaluated the vascular invasion of 433 patients with ESCC treated with surgery between 2000 and 2007 at a single academic center. Those patients were assigned to a testing cohort and a validation cohort by random number generated in computer. The presence of vascular invasion was observed in 113 of 216 (52.3%) and 96 of 217 (44.2%) of ESCC in the training and validation cohorts, respectively. Further correlation analysis demonstrated that vascular invasion in ESCC was significantly correlated with more advanced pN classification and stage in both cohorts (P<0.05). Additionally, presence of vascular invasion in ESCC patients was associated closely with poor overall and recurrence-free survival as evidenced by univariate and multivariate analysis in both cohorts (P<0.05). In the subset of ESCC patients without lymph node metastasis, vascular invasion was evaluated as a prognostic predictor as well (P<0.05). More importantly, the combined prognostic model with pN classification supplemented by vascular invasion can significantly stratify the risk (low, intermediate and high) for overall survival and recurrence-free survival in both cohorts (P<0.05). The C-index to the combined model showed improved predictive ability when compared to the pN classification (0.785 vs 0.739 and 0.689 vs 0.650 for the training and validation cohorts, respectively; P<0.05).
The examination of vascular invasion could be used as an additional effective instrument in identifying those ESCC patients at increased risk of tumor progression. The proposed new prognostic model with the pN classification supplemented by vascular invasion might improve the ability to discriminate ESCC patients' outcome.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(4):e96129. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor type 12 (PTPN12), has been identified as a potent tumor suppressor in human cancers and a critical regulator of cell adhesion and migration. However, the PTPN12 expression and its prognostic significance in HCC have not been well elucidated.
In this study, tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry (IHC) was investigated in an HCC cohort with adjacent liver tissues as controls. The resulting data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Our results showed that decreased expression of PTPN12 was more frequently observed in HCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumorous liver tissues. Further correlation analyses indicated that the decreased PTPN12 expression was closely correlated with tumor recurrence (P = 0.015). Univariate analysis showed a significant association between decreased expression of PTPN12 and adverse cancer-specific survival and recurrence-free survival (P<0.001). In different subsets of overall patients, PTPN12 expression was also a prognostic indicator in patients with stage I/II or stage III/IV (P<0.05). Importantly, multivariate analysis (P<0.05) identified PTPN12 expression in HCC as an independent prognostic factor.
Our findings provide a basis for the concept that PTPN12 protein expression is frequently decreased or lost in human HCC tissues and that decreased PTPN12 expression may represent an acquired recurrence phenotype of HCC and that PTPN12 expression may act as a biomarker of prognosis for patients with HCC.
PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85592. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3) is a key mediator bridging autophagy, apoptosis and differentiation. However, its role and clinical significance in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is still scanty. The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical significance of LC3 by immunohistochemistry in a group of patients with ESCC treated with surgical resection. Tissue microarray that included 253 surgically resected ESCC specimens was successfully generated for immunohistochemical evaluation. The clinical/prognostic significance of LC3 expression was analyzed statistically. The association of LC3 expression with the ESCC survival rate was assessed by Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional-hazards regression. The results showed that the immunostaining of LC3 was distributed in cytoplasm and plasma-membrane. Significantly high LC3 expression was found in ESCC cells compared with that of normal esophageal epithelial cells. Patients with low expression of LC3 demonstrated higher overall survival compared with those with high expression of LC3 (mean of 71.1 months versus 55.5 months, P = 0.022). A similar result was observed for disease-free survival (mean of 68.7 months versus 51.8 months, P = 0.021). In subgroup analysis, LC3 expression could stratify pN0 patients with ESCC. Multivariate analysis showed that the level of LC3 expression was an independent prognostic factor in ESCC (RR = 1.407, P = 0.049). This paper shows high level of LC3 suggests poor prognosis for resectable ESCC patients.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 01/2014; 7(7):4213-21.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kimura's disease (KD) is a rare chronic disease with unknown origin. It remains controversial in KD's diagnosis, treatment, transformation and need further research. The aim of this study is to investigate the clinicopathologic features of KD and the relationship between the expression of Notch-1, Ki-67 receptor and the recurrence of KD. The hematoxylin and eosin sections and clinical data of 40 patients diagnosed with KD were examined retrospectively. Specimens were available in these 40 cases. Notch-1 and Ki-67 expression were examined using IHC (immunohistochemistry staining) analysis. Of 40 cases of KD (average age, 38.4 years; median age, 36.0 years), 34 cases (85.0%) were clinically seen to involve swelling of the head and neck region. Notch-1 and Ki-67 have a high expression in recurrent patients. High expression of Notch-1 receptor and Ki-67 tended to be found in patients who relapsed. This is the first study to discuss the correlation among Notch-1, Ki-67 and recurrent KD. These results suggest both of the markers may act as promising predictors for the recurrence and prognosis of KD. However, Notch-1 immunoexpression had no statistically significant association with the Ki-67 proliferation index.
International journal of clinical and experimental pathology. 01/2014; 7(5):2402-10.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Cystatin SN is a secreted protein and a cysteine proteinase inhibitor. It has been considered to be a tumor marker for gastrointestinal tract cancer in several functional researches. However, the clinicopathological and prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) has not been elucidated. METHODS: In our study, the expression of Cystatin SN was detected in 209 surgically resected ESCC tissues and 170 peritumoral normal esophageal mucosae by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of Cystatin SN expression was analysed with Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: The results showed that the immunostaining of Cystatin SN in ESCC tissues was less intense than that in the normal control tissue (P < 0.001). Compared with patients with low tumoral Cystatin SN expression, ESCC patients with tumors high-expression Cystatin SN exhibited increased disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Furthermore, the expression level of Cystatin SN could further stratify the ESCC patients by survival (DFS and OS) in the stage II subgroup (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analyses showed that Cystatin SN expression, N status and differentiation were independent and significant predictors of survival. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that ESCC patients whose tumors express high levels of Cystatin SN have favourable survival compared with those patients with low Cystatin SN expression. Tumoral Cystatin SN expression may be an independent predictor of survival for patients with resectable ESCCs.
BMC Surgery 05/2013; 13(1):15. · 1.97 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Retroperitoneal lymph node (RLN) metastasis is an important indicator of endometrial cancer (EC) prognosis. Because vascular endothelial growth factor c (VEGF-c) is known to influence lymphangiogenesis and thereby lymph node metastasis, this study assessed the relationship of VEGF-c mRNA expression with RLN metastasis in EC. METHODS: The uterine muscularis mucosae of New Zealand white rabbits were inoculated with a VX2 tumor cell suspension after which they were sacrificed at 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30 days. Control groups consisted of those receiving no treatment or an injection of saline. EC and metastatic RLN tissues along with peripheral blood samples were collected, and VEGF-c mRNA expression was evaluated using fluorescence real-time quantitative PCR. RESULTS: The establishment of an in vivo model of EC with complete RLN metastasis was pathologically confirmed at day 21 post-injection with VX2 cells. As compared to the control groups, VEGF-c mRNA expression increased significantly over time in the tumor site, RLN, and peripheral white blood cells of EC rabbits. Significantly higher VEGF-c mRNA expression was observed in metastatic RLNs as compared to those without metastasis (P < 0.001). In addition, increased VEGF-c mRNA expression was observed in peripheral white blood cells of rabbits with RLN metastasis (P < 0.002). CONCLUSION: Injection of a VX2 cell suspension is a simple method of establishing an in vivo EC model. VEGF-c may play an important role in the development of EC and its metastasis to RLN and may be useful marker to predict RLN metastasis.
Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology 05/2013; 11(1):49. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objectives The purpose of the study was to detect tumor blood flow changes after chemotherapy with contrast-enhanced destruction-replenishment sonography. Methods Twenty-four MCF-7 breast cancer-bearing nude mice were included in this study. Animals received either adriamycin or sterile saline and underwent contrast-enhanced sonography before and after treatment using a destruction-replenishment technique. A monoexponential function, y = A(1 - e(-βt)), was used to fit the replenishment kinetics, where the plateau signal intensity A reflects the percent blood volume; the time constant β reflects the average speed of blood; and their product A*β reflects the nutrient blood flow. Tumor blood perfusion was compared to measurements of cell density and microvascular density. Results Volumes of the treated tumors were significantly reduced after 7 days of adriamycin treatment compared with the control tumors (P < .001). Before adriamycin administration, there was no significant difference in blood perfusion between the treated and control groups (P > .05). Treatment with adriamycin resulted in a significant decrease in A, β, and A*β (P <.001) compared with the control tumors. The tumor cell density and microvascular density estimated by pathologic slices were significantly lower in the treated tumors than in the control tumors (P <.001). Conclusions Quantification of tumor blood flow using contrast-enhanced destruction-replenishment sonography shows the potential to evaluate tumor responses to chemotherapy.
Journal of ultrasound in medicine: official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine 04/2013; 32(4):683-90. · 1.40 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To explore the associated biomarkers influencing recurrence, metastasis and prognosis in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors(GIST) after complete resection. METHODS: Tumor tissue samples of 148 patients with GIST undergoing complete resection from January 1990 to December 2008 in Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center were collected. The expressions of Ki-67, E-cadherin, MMP7, CD44, nm23, P53, survivin, Cyclin D1, COX-2, and VEGF in tumor tissue samples were detected by tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry(IHC). The association of above factors expressions with recurrence, metastasis and prognosis was examined. RESULTS: Log-rank test showed that Ki-67, E-cadherin, MMP7, CD44, P53 and survivin were associated to disease-free duration after complete GIST resection(all P<0.05), and the Ki-67, E-cadherin, P53 and survivin were associated to overall survival(all P<0.05). Cox multivariate analysis revealed that disease-free survival was associated with Ki-67, CD44 and P53(all P<0.05), and the overall survival was only associated with Ki-67(P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Ki-67, CD44 and P53 are closely associated with recurrence and metastasis after complete GIST resection, and Ki-67 can predict the prognosis of GIST.
Zhonghua wei chang wai ke za zhi = Chinese journal of gastrointestinal surgery 03/2013; 16(3):242-246.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of light chain 3 (LC3) expression in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and describe the association of LC3 expression with the occurrence of metastasis. LC3 expression in tissue microarray was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 163 patients with TNBC. The prognostic value of LC3 expression was assessed by a Cox regression model adjusted for clinical characteristics. Low LC3 expression in TNBC was observed in 56 (34.4 %) of 163 TNBC. Low LC3 expression significantly correlated with a higher risk of distant metastasis, rather than locoregional relapse. The 10-year distant metastases-free survival for LC3-negative and LC3-positive patients was 57.2 and 95.1 %, respectively (p < 0.0001). Accordingly, a significant correlation was found between LC3 expression and disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). Multivariate analysis indicated that LC3 negative was a significant independent prognostic factor of DFS (p = 0.019), but not for OS (p = 0.545) in all patients. Our results suggested that expression of LC3 in TNBC was associated with higher distant metastases. This finding could open new avenues for the development of novel therapy strategies to TNBC.
Medical Oncology 03/2013; 30(1):468. · 2.14 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze prognostic factors of early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 35 patients who were treated for early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva at Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center from January 1980 to December 2005. The Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) was used to compare the different strategies of operation and to analyze the prognostic factors. RESULTS: Thirty-five patients had early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva. Of these cases, 26 were well differentiated, seven were moderately differentiated, and two were poorly differentiated. The five-year survival rate was 77.1%. Five cases were in FIGO stage 1a and 30 cases were in stage 1b; median survival times were 182.3 months and 152.5 months, and the five-year survival rates were 100% and 81.5% (P >0.05), respectively. The five-year survival of the patients who underwent local excision; radical vulvectomy and en bloc resection of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy; orradical vulvectomyen bloc resection of inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy, and pelvic lymph nodes was 50%[ideographic comma]81.8%[ideographic comma]and 83.9%, respectively. For these cases, 74.3% of the tumors were medial while 25.7% were lateral, and the five-year survival rates of patients according to tumor location were 87.0% and 64.8% (P <0.05), respectively. The inguinal lymph node not increased and active were 16 cases (45.7%), and increased, active and hard were 17 cases (48.6%), and syncretic were two cases (5.7%), five-year survival rates were 73.3%, 92.9% and 50% (P <0.05), respectively. Of these cases, 74.3% of the tumors were cauliflower-like and 25.7% were nodular; five-year survival rates by tumor type were 91.3% and 66.7% (P <0.05), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: For patients with early-stage squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva, surgical operation is the primary, yet the best, treatment. The related prognostic factors were tumor location (lateral/medial), stage, gross morphology, and clinical state of the inguinal lymph node.
World Journal of Surgical Oncology 01/2013; 11(1):20. · 1.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved process that involves lysosomal degradations of cellular organelles. Microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3A (LC3A), an autophagic gene, is differentially expressed in human cancers. However, the relationship between LC3A expression and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has not been investigated. Tissue microarray-based immunohistochemistry was used to examine the expression patterns of LC3A in HCC. The resulting data were analyzed using receiver operating characteristic curves, Spearman's rank correlation, Kaplan-Meier plots and Cox proportional hazards regression modeling. Two distinct patterns of LC3A expression were observed in HCC: "stone-like" structuring and diffuse cytoplasmic expression. High levels of LC3A expression were more frequently observed in HCC tissues compared to the adjacent non-tumorous tissue. Correlation analyses indicated that high expression of the "stone-like" LC3A was correlated with greater levels of serum AFP, poorer tumor differentiation and the presence of vascular invasion. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed a significant association between high expression of the "stone-like" LC3A and unfavorable prognosis (P<0.001). Importantly, multivariate analysis (P<0.05) identified the "stone-like" expression of LC3A in HCC as an independent prognostic factor. Collectively, our data provide compelling evidence that "stone-like" expression of LC3A plays an important role in HCC progression and may act as a biomarker of prognosis for patients with HCC.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 01/2013; · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a strong need to assess early tumor response to chemotherapy in order to avoid adverse effects from unnecessary chemotherapy and allow early transition to second-line therapy. This study was to quantify tumor perfusion changes with dynamic contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in the evaluation of early tumor response to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Sixty nude mice bearing with MCF-7 breast cancer were administrated with either adriamycin or sterile saline. CEUS was performed on days 0, 2, 4 and 6 of the treatment, in which time-signal intensity (SI) curves were obtained from the intratumoral and depth-matched liver parenchyma. Four perfusion parameters including peak enhancement (PE), area under the curve of wash-in (WiAUC), wash-in rate (WiR) and wash-in perfusion index (WiPI) were calculated from perfusion curves and normalized with respect to perfusion of adjacent liver parenchyma. Histopathological analysis was conducted to evaluate tumor perfusion, tumor cell density, microvascular density (MVD) and proliferating cell density. Significant decreases of tumor normalized perfusion parameters (i.e., nPE, nWiAUC, nWiR and nWiPI) were noticed between adriamycin-treated and control groups (<0.01) 2 days after therapy. There were significant differences of tumor volumes between control and treated groups on day 6 (<0.001) while there were no significant differences in tumor volume on days 0, 2 and 4 (>0.05). Significant decreases of tumor perfusion, tumor cell density, MVD and proliferating cell density were seen in adrianycin-treated group 2 days after therapy when compared to control group (<0.001). Dynamic CEUS for quantification of tumor perfusion could be used for early detection of cancer response to cytotoxic chemotherapy prior to notable tumor shrinkage.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58274. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is associated with poor prognosis. There is an urgent need for elucidation of novel targets for TNBC therapy and to improve the prognosis of patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic value of p62 expression in TNBC.
Expression of p62 in tissue microarray was evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 163 patients with TNBC. The prognostic value of p62 expression was assessed by a Cox regression model adjusted for clinical characteristics. Overexpression of p62 was observed in 51 (31.3%) of 163 TNBC, and significantly correlated with advanced stage and a higher proportion of positive lymph nodes and lymphovascular invasion. A significant correlation was found between p62 expression and disease-free survival and overall survival. Accordingly, the 10-year distant metastasis-free survival for p62-overexpression and p62-underexpression patients were 58.9% and 92.5%, respectively (P<0.0001). Multivariate analysis indicated that p62-negative was a significant independent prognostic factor of disease-free survival (P=0.017), but not for overall survival (P=0.845) in all patients.
Our results suggest that overexpression of p62 in TNBC is associated with a higher risk of distant metastases. This finding could open new avenues for the development of novel therapy strategies for TNBC.
OncoTargets and Therapy 01/2013; 6:883-8. · 2.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Controversy exists concerning the optimal cutoff points for the positive lymph node ratio (PLNR) to predict overall survival. We aim to propose reasonable PLNR categories for the discrimination of the survival difference between groups. METHODS: We used data from two centers to establish a training (n = 1006) and a validation (n = 783) cohort. All of the patients underwent curative surgical treatment. Martingale residuals from a Cox proportional hazards regression model were used to determine the optimal cutoff points for PLNR to predict overall survival. The survival rate was calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method, and a log-rank test was used to assess the survival differences between groups. The results obtained from the training cohort were tested with the validation cohort at each step. RESULTS: We classified the patients into four revised nodal categories: R-pN0 (PLNR = 0), R-pN1 (0< PLNR ≤0.1), R-pN2 (0.1< PLNR ≤0.3), and R-pN3 (PLNR >0.3). Subgroup analysis for the pT2 and pT3 cases showed that the survival differences could be well discriminated between groups based on PLNR in both the training cohort and validation cohort. When we modified the current staging system using revised nodal categories (based on PLNR) instead of the AJCC nodal categories, the survival rate could also be easily distinguished between patients in different stages in both cohorts of patients. CONCLUSIONS: The survival rate of ESCC can be discriminated between four groups: PLNR = 0, 0< PLNR ≤0.1, 0.1< PLNR ≤0.3, and PLNR >0.3. Further studies are required to confirm these results.
Annals of Surgical Oncology 12/2012; · 4.12 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In order to provide a basis for clinical treatment decisions, we explored whether there was a correlation between the expression of COX-2 and P300 and clinical factors in a group of patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). A retrospective analysis of clinicopathological data was conducted in 80 patients with LSCC who presented between January 1997 and December 1998. An immunohistochemistry tissue microarray was conducted of 80 surgically resected LSCC and 20 adjacent normal tissue specimens. Survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier curves were used to compare the effects of clinicopathological factors on survival. The Cox model was applied for multivariate analysis. The expression level of COX-2/P300 in LSCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues were 47.5/50.0 versus 0.0/15.0 %. The expression of COX-2 and P300 was correlated with higher T category, N category, clinical staging, histological grade and recurrence (P < 0.05). P300 expression was correlated with COX-2 expression (P < 0.05). Univariate survival analysis showed that P300, COX-2, N category, clinical staging and recurrence factors were closely correlated with unfavorable survival (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that COX-2 expression, histological grade and recurrence were independent prognostic factors for LSCC. High expression levels of COX-2 and P300 indicated poor survival outcomes for patients with LSCC.
Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology 11/2012; · 1.29 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ZBP-89, a Krüppel-type zinc-finger transcription factor, is found to participate in tumor development, invasion and metastasis. However, the expression status of ZBP-89 in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) remains elusive. Using quantitative real-time-PCR and Western Blot, we found that, in fresh cancer tissues, ZBP-89 was remarkably decreased in 79.2% (19/24) and 83.3% (5/6) of CCRCC at mRNA and protein level, respectively. Immunohistochemistry also revealed a significant decline of ZBP-89 expression in CCRCC, showing that low expression of ZBP-89 was present in 73.9% (105/142) of tumorous tissues but in 48.1% (52/108) of the corresponding adjacent kidney tissues. Furthermore, ZBP-89 expression in CCRCC was significantly correlated with several clinicopathological features, including TNM stage (P=0.005) and distal metastasis (P=0.001). Further study confirmed that ZBP-89 expression was markedly higher in metastatic CCRCC than that in non-metastatic tissue (P=0.002). In addition, CCRCC patients with low ZBP-89 expression survived longer than those with high ZBP-89 expression, as indicated by the result of univariate analysis (P<0.0001). More importantly, multivariate analysis revealed that ZBP-89 was an independent predictor of overall survival (HR, 2.871; 95% CI, 1.409-5.853; P=0.004). Collectively, our study provides vigorous evidence that ZBP-89 was significantly downregulated in CCRCC and could be served as a promising biomarker for prediction of distal metastasis and prognosis of patient with CCRCC.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 09/2012; 426(4):636-42. · 2.41 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to perform clinicopathological and immunohistochemical analysis and to investigate the Ewing sarcoma gene (EWS)-Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (WT1) fusion within desmoplastic small round cell tumors (DSRCTs). Histology slides and clinical data were reviewed for four patients with DSRCT. A variety of immunohistochemical staining was performed. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to detect the EWS-WT1 fusion transcripts resulting from the chromosomal translocation t(11;22)(p13;q12). The patients consisted of four males aged from 26 to 52 years old (mean, 33.5). In three of these patients, the tumors were situated in the abdominal cavity and the tumor from the other patient was located in the pelvic cavity. The tumors were 8-15 cm in diameter (mean tumor diameter, 13), solid and gray-white, with an appearance of nodosity or sublobes, and hemorrhage or necrosis was observed. Microscopically, the tumors consisted of small round cell nests of unequal size. Hyperplastic and thick fibrous connective tissue surrounding the neoplastic cell nests was present in all cases. The tumor nuclei were hyperchromatic and contained inconspicuous nucleoli with a high level of karyokinesis. Immunohistochemical staining revealed diffuse and strong staining for CK, vimentin, desmin and CAM5.2 in all cases. Certain cases also expressed WT-1, EMA, NSE, CD56, CD99 and CK5/6. Staining was negative for myogenin, MyoD1, calretinin, CD117, CD34, HMB45 and CEA. EWS-WT1 fusion transcripts were detected in 3 out of 4 cases, but not in any other tumor types studied as controls using paraffin-embedded tissue by FISH. DSRCT is a highly maligant tumor occuring predominantly in the abdominal or pelvic cavity of young males with multiphenotypic differentiation. Basic morphological features, clinical manifestations and the detection of the EWS-WT1 fusion transcript within the tumor aid the recognition and diagnosis of the tumor.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: ULK1 plays an important role in autophagy which is widely involved in the development of breast cancer. However, the function and expression of ULK1 in human breast cancer is still scarcely explored. In this study, we showed that the mRNA and protein levels of ULK1 decreased in 10 of 14 (71.4 %) breast cancer tissues, compared with matched normal tissues. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of ULK1 was performed on the tissue microarray containing 298 non-metastatic invasive breast primary cancer tissues and 73 matched adjacent noncancerous tissues. 70.1 % breast cancer specimens displayed none to weak staining of ULK1, however, 78.1 % adjacent noncancerous specimens showed moderate to strong staining of ULK1. Statistical analysis revealed that ULK1 expression was negatively correlated with tumor size (r = -0.176, P = 0.002), lymph node status (r = -0.115, P = 0.048), and pathological stage (r = -0.177, P = 0.002). The log-rank test showed that patients with lower level of ULK1 had a significant shorter distant metastasis-free survival time (P = 0.008) and cancer-related survival time (P = 0.008). Multivariate Cox regression analysis found that ULK1 expression was recognized as an independent prognostic factor (P = 0.034). In addition, a significant positive correlation between expression of ULK1 and LC3A (r = 0.401, P < 0.001), and a significant negative correlation between expression of ULK1 and p62 (r = -0.226, P < 0.001) were observed in our breast cancer cohort. These findings suggest that decreased expression of ULK1 is associated with breast cancer progression, together with closely related to decreased autophagic capacity. ULK1 also may be used as a novel prognostic biomarker for breast cancer patients.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment 05/2012; 134(2):549-60. · 4.47 Impact Factor