[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a phosphodiesterase inhibitor pentoxifylline (PTX), electromagnetic fields (EMFs), and a mixture of both materials on bone fracture healing in a rat model.
Materials and methods:
Eighty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Group A, femur fracture model with no treatment; Group B, femur fracture model treated with PTX 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection; Group C, femur fracture model treated with EMF 1.5±0.2 Mt/50 Hz/6 hours/day; and Group D, femur fracture model treated with PTX 50 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal injection and EMF 1.5±0.2 Mt/50 Hz/6 hours/day.
Bone fracture healing was significantly better in Group B and Group C compared to Group A (P<0.05), but Group D did not show better bone fracture healing than Group A (P>0.05).
It can be concluded that both a specific EMF and PTX had a positive effect on bone fracture healing but when used in combination, may not be beneficial.
Drug Design, Development and Therapy 09/2015; 9:5195-5201. DOI:10.2147/DDDT.S89669 · 3.03 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The increasing usage of wireless comunication systems and electric-electronical systems in daily life has caused a concern over possible adverse effects of radio frequency radiation (RFR) and Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Fields (ELF-MF) on biological systems. The aim of the study was to investigate the long-term effect of900 MHz RFR and ELF-MF exposure on nasal mucosa and nose skin of rats. In this study two different exposure systems were used to get information about the effects of RFR emitted from mobile phones and ELF-MF on nose. In the first part of the study, Twenty one Wistar Albino adult male rats (sham: 7, exposure: 14) were used to determine the effects of 900 MHz RFR on nose. For the exposure group, rat heads were exposed to the 900 MHz RFR 2 h per day (7 days in a week) for 10 months. For the sham group, same process was applied to the rats, except that the generator was turned off. In the second part of the study, 30 male Sprague-Dawley rats (sham: 10, first exposure: 10, second exposure: 10) were used to determine the effects of 100 μT and 500 μT extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF), which complies to the safety standards for public and occupational exposure. The rats in the exposure groups of this part of the study were exposed to 100 μT and 500 μT ELF-MF for 2 hours per day (7 days in a week) during 10 months in a Plexiglas cage. For the sham group, the same experimental process was applied to the rats but ELF-MF generator was turned off. The results of the present study showed that 10 months of exposures of mobile phones and ELF-MF do not affect the mucous membrane and skin of nose. In conclusion, radio frequency and ELF-MF used in this study do not affect nasal skin and mucosa of rats exposed to 900 MHz RFR, 100 μT and 500 μT ELF-MF.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the effects of High Voltage Transmission Lines (HVTL) on people who work and live in such areas. The study was carried out on 51 persons from 15 to 50 years of age exposed to electric field. First, we gave out a questionnaire to everybody under investigation. We established that these people most often suffer from headache, irritability, fatigue, stress and shock. Secondly, we determined 23 parameters of their blood serum. The levels of ALP, Na, Cl, total protein, albumin, Group Specific Component, ceruloplasmin and albumin/globulin ratio were found especially significant.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this study, we investigated the biological effects of RF (Radio Frequency) and microwave in terms of neurological and biochemical findings, and CD4/CD8 ratio in people that work at broadcasting and television transmitter stations. The study was carried out on 26 people from 20 to 49 years of age, occupationally exposed to nonionizing radiation. First we gave out a questionnaire consisting of 12 questions to everybody under investigation. Secondly, we determined the levels of ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, CK, phosphorus, total protein, albumin cholesterol, uric acid, urea, creatinin, Na, K, and NSE (Neuron Specific Enolase), and also CD4/CD8, albumin/globulin ratios and percentage of serum proteins. The results obtained in this study were statistically compared to a control group.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of extremely low frequency pulsed and sinusoidal electromagnetic fields on kidney tissues.
Twenty-seven male Wistar albino rats were used. The rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 9): control group, sinusoidal electromagnetic field (SEMF) group, and pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) group. The SEMF and PEMF groups (pulse time 25 microsn, pulse frequency 50 Hz) were subjected to 1.5 mT, 50 Hz, exposure 6 hours a day, 5 days a week for 28 days in methacrylate boxes. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded kidney tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, Gomori and periodic acid-Schiff. In addition, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and 9 (MMP-9), E-cadherin and collagen type IV expression levels were examined immunohistochemically.
Thickening of glomerular basement membranes was evident in electromagnetic fields, especially in the SEMF group. In addition, expression levels of E-cadherin were decreased with electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure. The expression level of MMP-9 increased, and MMP-2 and collagen type IV expression levels were not altered with EMF exposure.
Both EMFs changed the molecular component of the kidney adversely.
Analytical and quantitative cytology and histology / the International Academy of Cytology [and] American Society of Cytology 10/2013; 35(5):253-60. · 0.49 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the kidney, liver and brain of rats. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Four control groups received 0, 3.75, 15 and 60 mg Mn per kg body weight orally every 2 days for 45 days, respectively. The remaining four groups received same concentrations of Mn and were also exposed to ELF-MF (1.5 mT; 50 Hz) for 4 h for 5 days a week during 45 days. Following the last exposure, kidney, liver and brain were taken from all rats and they were analyzed for Mn accumulation levels using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. In result of the current study, we observed that Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were higher in Mn groups than in control groups. Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were also higher in Mn plus ELF-MF groups than in Mn groups. In conclusion, result of the current study showed that the ELF-MF induced manganese accumulation in kidney, liver and brain of rats.
Toxicology and Industrial Health 02/2013; 31(6). DOI:10.1177/0748233713480204 · 1.86 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The quantity and quality of maxillary and mandibular bone have long been a focus of attention for dental clinicians. The mandibular condyle is a major growth site and plays an important role during mandibular growth. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of long-term extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) and hormonal changes produced by bilateral ovariectomy on the histologic and histomorphometric structure of rat mandibular condyle. Forty mature female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into four different groups (n =10): control (Cnt), ovariectomy (OVX), ELF-MF exposure (ELF-MF), ELF-MF exposure with OVX application (ELF-MF+OVX). All rats were subjected to bilateral ovariectomy except those in Cnt and ELF-MF groups. ELF-MF and ELF-MF+OVX groups were exposed to 1.5 mT ELF-MF during 6 months, 4 h a day. After all applications, left condyle of rats were removed to examine histopathologically. Some histopathologic changes were observed, such as irregular appearance in bone marrow cavities in rat condyles of OVX, ELF-MF and ELF-MF+OVX groups. Some disorders in transition from hypertrophic field to ossification layer and irregular appearance in calcification were determined in OVX group. In OVX+ELF-MF and ELF-MF groups, there was significant disruption and latency in calcification and ossification areas. However, no significant differences were found in the thickness of the condylar cartilage layer between groups (P > 0.05). It was suggested that long-term ELF-MF exposure and ELF-MF exposure with ovariectomy application can affect the histologic structure of rats' condyle. Consequently, it was concluded that long-term ELF-MF exposure and ovariectomy application can induce histopathological changes in the structure of the condyle and ELF-MF exposure cannot alter ovariectomy-induced changes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By means of long term extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF), this study examined the effect of long term magnethic field on rat calvarian and mandibular bone mass. Fourty five female Spraque-Dawley rats were selected for the study. The rats were divided into 3 groups (n=15); ELF MF with 50Hz, 1.5mT was applied for 6 months, 4 hours/day. Total cranial and mandibular bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) of rats were determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA; Discovery QDR series, Discovery A, Hologic, Inc.). Measurements were recorded for all groups before and after the applications, all data were collected and analyzed statistically. The variations in Group 1, before and after the ELF MF applications with respect to BMC and BMD were considered significant (p< .01, p< .001). The variations in Group 2, that has bone loss with respect to BMC andBMD were considered not significant (p>0.05). The variations in control group, Group 3, with respect to BMC and BMD were considered significant (p<0.05).
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Osteoporosis is characterised by low bone mass and structural deterioration of bone tissue. In this study, the role of long-term extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) on osteoporosis was evaluated.
The experiments were performed on 45 female Sprague-Dawley rats. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15): Group I (ovariectomy (OVX) + ELFMF exposure), Group II (ovariectomised rats did not receive any treatment) and Group III (cage-control). Six months, 50 Hz, 1.5 mT magnetic field (MF) was used on Group I and Group II. Total body images of the animals were obtained with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry.
Bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density values were increased significantly in ELFMF group, decreased in the group of OVX and not changed in cage-control. At the end of the 6 months after exposure with ELFMF, alteration in studied biochemical markers were detected significant. Bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP) levels were increased in ELFMF and decreased in OVX groups when compared with cage-control group. N-telopeptide levels in OVX group were significantly higher than other groups. Testosterone and cortisol levels in OVX group were significantly higher and estradiol was lower than other groups.
Our study suggests that ELFMF may be useful in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electromagnetic Field (EMF) emanating from the generation, distribution and utilization of electricity. The major debate in recent years has focused on the possibility that exposure to EMF may result some health consequences such as differentiation on bone constitute. In this study, the effect of ELF-EMFs and strontium ranelate on teeth constitute amount of mineral were investigated in rats. Seventy-five four month old adult female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 5 different groups (n = 15). After all applications, some mineral levels such as: Ca, Mg and Zn in rat teeths were determined with Atomic Absorbtion Spectrophotometry (AAS) and the phosphorus content of teeth was determined by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometer (UVS). It was determined that the levels of Ca and P were not statistically different in comparison to Cg-Cnt and between groups (p>0.05). However, it was observed that the levels of Zn significantly alterations between some groups (p<0.05). The levels of Mg in ELF-EMF+OVX, ELF-EMF and OVX groups decreased significantly in comparison to Cg-Cnt group (p<0.05). As a resulf it can be suggested that mineral amount of rat teeth can change after ovariectomy and ELF-EMF exposure, also strontium ranelate treatments can't increase mineral amount of teeth.
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 01/2009; 8(2):322-327. · 0.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Exposure to extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELFMF) originating from daily electrical-electronic appliances and electric lines, is a common thing. Recently, the discussions focused on the topic whether ELFMF had any harmful effects over health or not. Several previous studies displayed that ELFMF significantly increased bone mineral density. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of ELFMF and manganese over mineral accumulation in head and jaw bones of rats. Previous studies showed that manganese plays a significant role over normal development of enamel and dentin alongside contributing to the calcium and phosphorus association. In the present study, the effects of exposure to ELFMF and manganese on mineral density and histology of teeth, were investigated. In the present study, 64 male Wistar albino rats were divided into 8 groups. Amount of mineral elevations were determined in head and jaw bones of the first 6 groups (p<.05) and histologic alterations were found in teeth of rats. The obtained results indicated that ELFMF plays an important role over mineral density and histologic structure of cranial and jaw bones in rats. In conclusion, further epidemiological and experimental laboratory studies are required for more detailed evaluation of the effects of ELFMF on cranial and jaw bones of rats.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the effects of extremely low frequency magnetic field (ELF MF) on the conjunctiva and goblet cells density.
Thirty adult female Spraque Dawley rats were assigned to one of two groups, each containing 15 rats. The experimental group received magnetic field 4 hr/day for 7 days. The second group received standard laboratory care and served as a control. The specimens were evaluated by light microscopy for goblet cell density, conjunctival edema, inflammation, and fibroblast proliferation.
In ELF MF exposure group rats, the number of goblet cells was less than the control group. We also observed a significant difference between ELF MF exposure group and control group in terms of goblet cell density (p = 0.010). The ELF MF exposure group manifested conjunctival edema and inflammation compared to the control group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.003). There was no statistical difference between the groups for fibroblast proliferation (p = 0.422).
This study suggests that ELF MF exposure leads to morphological alterations of the conjunctiva and reductions in the number of goblet cells. We believe that ELF MF may cause dry eye symptoms.
Current eye research 06/2008; 33(5):441-6. DOI:10.1080/02713680802074867 · 1.64 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of radiofrequency radiation emitted from cellular phones on the lipid composition, malondialdehyde concentration, p53 immune reactivity, sperm count, morphology, histological structure of testes, and on rectal temperature of rats exposed to microwave radiation emitted from cellular phones. Sixteen Spraque-Dawley rats were separated into two groups of eight, sham exposed (control) and experimental. The rats were confined in plexiglas cages specially designed for this study, and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. For the experimental group, cellular phones were activated 20 min per day (7 days a week) for 1 month. For the control group, the cellular phones were placed beneath the cages for 20 min a day, but the phones were turned off. Rectal temperatures were measured weekly. For 250 mW radiated power, the whole body average SAR (rms) is 0.52 W/kg and 1 g averaged peak SAR (rms) is 3.13 W/kg. The Mann-Whitney U-test was used for statistical comparisons of groups. No statistically significant alteration in any of the endpoints was noted. This study found no evidence suggesting an adverse effect of cell phone exposure on measures of testicular function or structure.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study investigated whether there are adverse effects due to microwave exposure emitted by cellular phones in male rats. Eighteen Wistar Albino rats were separated into three groups, a sham group and two experimental groups. The rats were confined in Plexiglas cages and cellular phones were placed 0.5 cm under the cages. In the first experimental group, cellular phones were in standby position for 2 h. In the second experimental group, phones were turned to the speech position three times each for 1 min duration over 2 h. Rats in the first and second experimental groups were exposed to microwaves emitted by phones for 2 h/day for a duration of 1 month. After the last exposure the rats were killed. Brain, eyes, ears, liver, heart, lungs, stomach, kidneys, testes, small and large intestines and skin of the rats were observed histologically. The decrease of epididymal sperm counts in the speech groups were not found to be significant (P > 0.05). Differences in terms of normal and abnormal sperm forms were not observed (P > 0.05). Histological changes were especially observed in the testes of rats of the speech groups. Seminiferous tubular diameter of rat testes in the standby and speech groups was found to be lower than the sham group (P < 0.05). Rectal temperatures of rats in the speech group were found to be higher than the sham and standby groups (P < 0.05). The rectal temperatures of rats before and after exposure were also found to be significantly higher in the speech group (P < 0.05). Specific absorption rate (SAR) was determined as 0.141 W/kg.
Urological Research 07/1999; 27(3):219-23. DOI:10.1007/s002400050113 · 1.39 Impact Factor