[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess the status of knowledge translation (KT) in Iranian medical science universities in order to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the most important organizations responsible for producing knowledge in the country.
The KT activities were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively in nine universities using the Self-Assessment Tool for Research Institutes.
The strengths and weaknesses of universities were determined using seven main themes: priority setting; research quality and timeliness; researchers' KT capacities; interaction with research users; the facilities and prerequisites of KT; the processes and regulations supporting KT; and promoting and evaluating the use of evidence.The quantitative and qualitative results showed that the Iranian universities did not have an appropriate context for KT. There were significant shortcomings in supportive regulations, facilities for KT activities, and the level of interaction between the researchers and research users.
The shortcomings in KT were mostly in the area of stewardship and policymaking (macro level), followed by planning and implementation at the universities. In order to strengthen KT in Iran, it should occupy a prominent and focused role in the strategies of the country's health research system.
Health Research Policy and Systems 11/2013; 11(1):43. · 1.38 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We designed our study to evaluate the hypothesis that gastric cancer is correlated with iodine deficiency or thyroid dysfunction.
We investigated the total body iodine reserve, thyroid function status and autoimmune disorder in 40 recently diagnosed gastric adenocarcinoma cases versus 80 healthy controls. The participants came from a region with high gastric cancer rate but sufficient iodine supply due to salt iodination. The investigation included urine iodine level, thyroid gland clinical and ultrasonographic examination, and thyroid function tests.
Goiter was detected more frequently in the case group (P=0.001); such a finding, however, was not true for lower than normal urine iodine levels. The free T3 mean level was significantly lower in the case group compared to the control group (P=0.005).
The higher prevalence of goiter rather than low levels of urinary iodine in gastric adenocarcinoma cases suggests that goiter, perhaps due to protracted but currently adjusted iodine deficiency, is more likely to be associated with gastric adenocarcinoma compared to the existing iodine deficiency itself.
Journal of gastric cancer. 06/2013; 13(2):106-110.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The number of hip fractures, the most common complication of osteoporosis, has increased rapidly over the past decades. The goal of this study is to estimate the avoidable burden of certain modifiable risk factor of the condition using the Generalized Impact Fraction (GIF) model, which has been suggested and used by epidemiologists to overcome the drawbacks associated with the use of Attributable Fraction index. In addition to preventing a risk factor or the avoidable fraction of burden, this index can also calculate the change in the burden, when a risk factor is altered.
International databases were searched through PubMed, CINAHLD, Embase using OVID and Google scholar. National resources were searched through IranDoc, IranMedex, SID and Journal sites. Other resources include abstract books and articles sent to the IOF congress. The following search strategy was used: ("Osteoporotic fracture" OR "Fragility Hip fracture" OR "Calcium" OR "vitamin D" OR "BMI" OR "lean body weight" OR "Physical activity" OR "exercise" OR "Smoke") AND ("prevalence" OR "incidence" OR "relative risk") and limited to "humans."
With regards to different scenarios already explained in modifying the studied risk factors, the greatest impact in reducing the prevalence of risk factors on osteoporotic hip fractures, was seen in low serum vitamin D levels, low physical activity and low intake of calcium and vitamin D, respectively. According to the fact that interventions for low serum vitamin D and low intake of calcium and vitamin D, are related to each other, it can be concluded that implementing interventions to change these two risk factors, in the easy, moderate and difficult scenarios, would result in approximately a 5%, 11% and 17% decrease in the burden of osteoporotic hip fractures, respectively. The addition of interventions addressing low physical activity in the easy, moderate and difficult scenarios, an 8%, 21% and 35% reduction in the burden of osteoporotic hip fractures would be reported, respectively.
Improving serum vitamin D levels, recommending the consumption of calcium and vitamin D supplementations and advocating physical activity are the most effective interventions to reduce the risk of osteoporotic hip fractures.
Journal of diabetes and metabolic disorders. 01/2013; 12(1):10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background As a common practice, medications are given in addition to nutrients through enteral catheters especially in critically ill patients. Nurses are primarily responsible to administer medications in this manner. The correct drug delivery via enteral tubes requires special skills. Objective This study was designed to evaluate effectiveness of clinical pharmacist-led educational program in progressing nurses' knowledge and practice regarding medications delivery via enteral catheters. Setting This study has been performed in two teaching hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences. Methods This is a case-control, interventional study. At first, a knowledge and practice questionnaire regarding drug administration trough enteral feeding tube by intensivist nurses was prepared. This questionnaire was filled by each nurse at pre-intervention phase of the study. Then, the clinical pharmacists provided educational programs including preparing evidence-based booklet and classes for case group nurses. Nurses in case and control groups were evaluated again after 3 months. At pre- and post-intervention phases nurses were observed regarding their practice to administer drugs via enteral tubes as well. Main outcomes Mean scores of knowledge and practice questions as well as percent of nurses with correct answers were compared between pre- and post-intervention phases in case and control groups. Results The mean scores of knowledge and practice questions significantly increased in the case group but decreased or remained unchanged in the control group. In contrast to control group, the percent of nurses with correct answers to each domain of knowledge and practice questions increased significantly in the case group. Conclusion This study showed that nurses did not have sufficient baseline knowledge about rules of drug administration via enteral feeding tubes; however, integrated educational program by clinical pharmacists that focus on promoting correct administration of drugs via enteral feeding catheters significantly improved knowledge and practice of nurses. A theory-practice gap was found in this study that may be related to the authority of physicians not nurses in ordering rules for medication administration through enteral catheters.
International journal of clinical pharmacy. 07/2012; 34(5):757-64.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: : This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and the associated factors of high-risk sexual behaviors among drug abusers referred to a methadone clinic in Gorgan, the capital of Golestan province in the northeast of Iran, to help health care decision makers on designing interventional programs.
: In this cross-sectional study, 400 drug abusers referred to our methadone clinic were evaluated for high-risk sexual behavior. A logistic regression model was fitted for the association between independent variables and high-risk sexual behavior.
: Approximately a quarter of patients (25.5%) had high-risk sexual behavior among which 47% had not used a condom in their last sexual contact. Drug abusers who had poor economic status had a lower chance of high-risk sexual behavior than those with good economic status (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.13-0.96). Also, 1-year increase in age reduced the chance by 6% (AOR = 0.94, 95% CI = 0.91-0.98). Heroin abusers, compared with opium abusers, had a duplicated chance of having high-risk sex (AOR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.12-3.96).
: According to this study, high-risk sexual behavior in the drug abusers referred to methadone clinic was associated with younger age, good economic status, and heroin addiction. Hence, in interventional planning, more attention should be paid to young drug abusers, patients with good economic status, and heroin addicts as well.
Journal of Addiction Medicine 04/2012; 6(2):153-8. · 1.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKROUND: Golestan Province, at the western end of the Asian esophageal cancer (EC) belt in northeastern Iran, was reported to have one of the highest worldwide rates of EC in the 1970s. We have previously shown a declining incidence of EC in Golestan during the last decades. This study reports additional new results from the Golestan Population-based Cancer Registry (GPCR).
The GPCR collected data from newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all 68 public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers in Golestan Province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis based on the guidelines of the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Age-standardized incidence rates (ASR) of cancers were calculated using the 2000 world standard population.
From 2004 through 2008, 9007 new cancer cases were reported to the GPCR. The mean (SD) age was 55.5 (18.6) years, and 54% were diagnosed in men. The ASRs of all cancers were 175.3 and 141.1 per 100,000 person-years for males and females, respectively. Cancers of the stomach (ASR:30.7), esophagus (24.3), and lung (15.4) were the most common cancers in males. In females, breast cancer (ASR:26.9) was followed by malignancies of the esophagus (19.1) and stomach (12.4). The diagnosis of cancer was based on histopathological reports in 71% and on death certificate only in 9% of cases.
The EC incidence rate continues to decline in Golestan, while the incidence rates of stomach, colorectal, and breast cancers continue to increase.
Archives of Iranian medicine 04/2012; 15(4):196-200. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neonatal sepsis (NS) is a common and life-threatening disorder in infants. Previous studies showed that interleukin-6 (IL-6) may be a valid non-invasive and rapid method for diagnosis of NS. We conducted this review to assess the validity of IL-6 for predicting NS.
This was a systematic review with meta-analysis. Embase, Medline and Web of Science databases were searched between January 1990 and December 2009. The search terms used were "cytokine", "neonate", "sepsis" and "interleukin-6". We used standard methods recommended for meta analyses of diagnostic test evaluations. The analysis was based on a summary ROC (SROC) curve. Meta-regression analysis was used to assess the effects of some confounding factors on the results of meta-analysis. Potential presence of publication bias was tested using funnel plots and the Egger test.
Meta-analysis was performed on 13 publications including 353 infants with sepsis and 691 control infants. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of IL-6 was 0.79 and 0.84, respectively. The maximum joint sensitivity and specificity (i.e., the Q value) in SROC curve was 0.82 and the area under curve (AUC) was 0.89 (95% CI: 0.84-0.94). Meta-regression analysis showed that the diagnostic accuracy of IL-6 was not affected by confounding variables. The evaluation of publication bias showed that the Egger test was not significant (P=0.07).
IL-6 seems to be a valid marker for predicting NS. It may be considered for early diagnosis of sepsis in neonatal care units.
Iranian journal of pediatrics. 12/2011; 21(4):411-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women. Its prevalence is increasing annually by 2%. The determination of modifiable risk factors has been the subject of various studies. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of breast cancer in women in Golestan Province. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This case-control study was conducted among women with breast cancer recorded in the cancer registry system between 2004 and 2006 (n = 134), and their age-matched healthy neighbors (n = 133). Data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS: Age at marriage, menarche and pregnancy, breast feeding, positive family history, marital status, and educational level were not significantly correlated with risk of breast cancer, but age at menopause (< 46.6 years) was significantly correlated (95% confidence interval 1.15-7.37; p = 0.021). Live births, still births, and infant deaths were not significantly different between the 2 groups. For other variables, such as smoking history, no odds ratio was calculated. CONCLUSION: Results show that there is no significant correlation between variables and risk of breast cancer in our population, except for age at menopause. A large cohort study is recommended.
Breast Care 12/2011; 6(6):453-456. · 0.68 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several adverse events following immunization (AEFI) have been attributed to immunization with live attenuated measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccines. The MMR vaccine was introduced into the routine infant immunization schedule in 2003, followed by a second dose of vaccine at school-entry for children 4 to 6 years of age. The objective of this study was to characterize adverse reactions following MMR vaccination in Iran.
Children who received the MMR vaccine and resided in five selected provinces of Iran were examined weekly for four weeks to detect well-known AEFIs that included: parotitis, fever and convulsions, convulsions without fever, encephalopathy, and anaphylactic reactions. Incidence of AEFIs were calculated and compared among recipients in both age groups.
During the follow-up period, trained providers reported 792 AEFIs. Parotitis was the most frequent event occurring in 1.8% of recipients. Of 14,109 children vaccinated at 12 months of age the following AEFIs occurred: parotitis (147), fever and convulsions (8), convulsions (7), encephalopathy (1), and anaphylactic reactions (1). Of 29,338 children vaccinated at 4 to 6 years of age, parotitis, fever and convulsions, encephalopathy, and anaphylaxis occurred in 626, 5, 1, and 1 child, respectively; no convulsions without fever were reported in this age group.
Parotitis is the most frequent AEFI among MMR vaccine recipients in Iran. Incidence rates of AEFIs following MMR vaccination in Iran are similar to rates of AEFIs reported in other studies.
Archives of Iranian medicine 03/2011; 14(2):91-5. · 1.22 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In beta thalassemic patients, tissue damage occurs due to oxidative stress and it happens because of the accumulation of iron in the body. This study was conducted to determine the effect of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant status in beta-thalassemic major patients.
This double blind randomized clinical trial was carried out on 120 beta thalassemic patients older than 18 years. Patients were randomly categorized in four groups. Zinc (50mg/day) and vitamin E (400mg/day) supplements were administered for former and latter group, respectively. In the third group both supplements were administered in similar doses. The fourth (control) group received no supplement. The effect of supplementations on serum zinc and vitamin E, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and body mass index (BMI) were measured at the beginning and the end of the study.
Serum zinc levels in group 1 and 3 were significantly increased (P<0.007 and P<0.005, respectively). Serum vitamin E levels in group 2 and 3 were also increased significantly (P<0.001). Mean GPX activity in group1, 2 and 3 decreased significantly (P<0.015, P<0.032 and P<0.029, respectively). Mean SOD activity and TAC did not show significant change after supplementation. BMI had significant increase in all treated groups (P<0.001).
Our results suggest that beta thalassemic patients have enhanced oxidative stress and administration of selective antioxidants may preclude oxidative damage.
Iranian journal of pediatrics. 03/2011; 21(1):8-14.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Malignancies of lymphoid cells can be divided into Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL) on the basis of pathologic features, clinical manifestations and treatment. In this paper we present data on lymphomas in Golestan province, in the northeast of Iran, during 2004-2006, using three years results of the Golestan population-based cancer registry (GPCR), a voting member of the International Association of Cancer Registries (IACR).
GPCR started collecting data on all cancers from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers (hospitals, specialist physicians' offices, pathology, laboratory, and imaging centers) of Golestan province in 2004. Here, we used the Iranian national census data to identify the population characteristics of this geographical area. The last census was done in 2006 and the next one will be done in 2011. The population data for years between the national census intervals are retrieved from provincial census done annually by health deputy of Golestan University of Medical Sciences (GOUMS).
A total of 5,076 cancer cases were diagnosed in the GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 237 (4.67 %) were lymphomas, among the ten top cancers of this area, the patients having a mean (± SD) age of 45.2 (± 20.9) years. The number of cases, frequency, age specific rates, crude rates and age standardized incidence rates (ASR) (per 100,000 person-years) for lymphomas in males and females are presented.
It could be concluded that according to available therapies for HL and NHL, the outcome of the patients could be improved in this area, due to the better diagnostic and therapeutic methods now available.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(1):219-22. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Golestan, a province located north of Persian Gulf in northeastern part of Iran is a well known area for high risk of esophageal cancer (EC) in the world. There is no information about healthcare utilization in populations residing in the area. This study was conducted to assess utilization of healthcare and its associated factors among esophageal cancer patients in this region as well as to address ethical implication of this utilization.
All new cases of EC in Golestan province during year of 2007 were recruited. Seven diagnostic and five therapeutic services were used to assess diagnostic utilization index (DUI), and therapeutic utilization index (TUI), respectively. Multivariate regression analysis was used to assess the relationship between variables and DUI or TUI. P-value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Tow hundred twenty three, patients were enrolled with mean (Standard Deviation) age of 64.3 (12.5) years with 57.8% male. We observed that occupation (P<0.01), ethnicity (P<0.01) and sex (P=0.03) were strongly associated with DUI. Insurance coverage (P<0.01), place of residency (P<0.01), and occupation (P=0.01) were associated with TUI.
We concluded that several factors contribute to disparity in healthcare utilization in the studied population.
Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention: APJCP 01/2011; 12(9):2437-42. · 1.27 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper presents the incidence rates of childhood cancers using the data obtained from Golestan population based cancer registry (GPCR) between 2004 and 2006.
GPCR registers only primary cancers based on standard protocols of the international association of cancer registries (IACR). We collect data on newly diagnosed (incident) cancer cases from all public and private diagnostic and therapeutic centers of the whole province. CanReg-4 software was used for data entry and analysis.
Totally 5076 cancer cases (all ages) were diagnosed in GPCR between 2004 and 2006. Of these, 139 (2.74 %) were children (aged 0-14 years) with mean (±SD) age of 8.06 (±4.48) years. The age standardized incidence rates for childhood cancer were 119.8 and 78.3 per 1000000 person-years in male and female children, respectively. Leukemia was the most common childhood cancer in Golestan province of Iran. Lymphomas and central nervous system tumors were the second and third ones, respectively.
The incidence rates of childhood cancers were relatively high in Golestan province of Iran. So, controlling of childhood cancers should be mentioned as an important issue in health policy making in this area.
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics 09/2010; 20(3):335-42. · 0.26 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Golestan province, located in northeast of Iran, has been known as a high risk area for esophageal cancer (EC). This study was conducted to assess the relationship between soils selenium (Se) level and development of EC in this region.
In this ecological study, 135 blocks were identified in Golestan province based on geographical altitude and longitude on the map. One soil sample was collected from the center of each block. Then we investigated Se concentration in soil samples by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Statistical analysis was performed by the Pearson correlation test and Student t-tests. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered as significant.
The mean+/-SD of soils Se level in Golestan province was 3.7+/-1.61 mg/kg. There was a positive correlation between soils Se level and EC rates in this area (P=0.03) (Pearson correlation coefficient=0.19). Soils Se concentration was significantly higher in high (4.13 mg/kg) than in the low (3.39 mg/kg) EC rate areas (P=0.01).
We found high soils Se concentration and a significant positive relationship between soils Se level and EC rate in Golestan province of Iran. So, high soils Se level may play a possible role in developing EC in this area, specifically in Turkmensahra (very high EC rates).
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 07/2010; 24(3):174-7. · 1.96 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adiponectin gene polymorphisms are associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). The study evaluated possible associations of +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms with body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and blood pressure in diabetic and non-diabetic Iranians.
This cross-sectional study involved two groups of subjects: 243 diabetic patients and 173 non-diabetic subjects recruited from Rafsanjan city in the south-east of Iran.
No significant association was found between +45T/G and -11391G/A adiponectin gene polymorphisms and systolic or diastolic blood pressure. However, male carriers of the TT genotype of +45T/G had a significantly higher mean BMI than male GG homozygotes (p = 0.018). Also, male carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean BMI than male GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.041). Female carriers of the GG genotype of -11391G/A had significantly higher mean WC than female GA or AA homozygotes (p = 0.038).
We observed a significantly higher BMI in women, and GA or AA carriers of -11391G/A polymorphism. Also, there was a significantly lower WC in females and GG carriers of +45T/G. These results point to a gender-specific impact of the studied genotypes on BMI and WC.
The Review of Diabetic Studies 01/2010; 7(3):241-6.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to investigate the relationship between serum leptin levels and the development irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
Stress has been known as an important causative factor in IBS. Various studies have indicated the relationship between serum leptin levels and stress levels. So searching the relationship between the production and level of this hormone and development of IBS may help to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.
This was a case-control study. Eighty IBS patient and 80 controls were recruited. All participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire included demographic information and medical history and also a stress questionnaire. Serum leptin level was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Chi-square, Student t test, Pearson correlation and logistic regression were used for investigating the relationships between variables.
Mean serum leptin levels were 7.41 and 19.33 ng/mL in IBS and control groups, respectively (P<0.001). Participants in IBS group had significantly higher stress levels than controls (P<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for serum leptin level (OR: 0.9; 95% confidence interval: 0.85-0.94) and stress level (OR: 1.15; 95% confidence interval: 1.09-1.23) were nearly the same as crude ones.
This study indicated the relationship between leptin and IBS for the first time. Our results show that serum leptin level is significantly lower in IBS group than controls and this relationship is independent of other variables such as stress levels, body mass index, etc. This may help in better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBS and consequently lead to the development of more effective treatments.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 04/2009; 43(9):826-30. · 2.21 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To determine the outcome of esophageal cancer patients referred for palliative care, in Gorgan and Gonbad gastrointestinal clinics, northeast of Iran.
This cross-sectional study was done on inoperable esophageal cancer cases referred to gastrointestinal clinics in Gorgan and Gonbad city (2005-2006). Demographic data were collected during the procedure and cases were followed up every one month. Improvement proportion was calculated with 95% confidence interval, to determine the rate of improvement. Survival analysis and Kaplan-Meier methods were used to estimate the duration of palliative care effectiveness.
We recruited 39 cases into the study. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most prevalent (92.3%). The middle third of the esophagus was involved predominantly (51.3%). Dilation was the most preferred method (89.7%) and stenting was done in 4 cases. Decreasing dysphagia score was not related to palliation method or pathology type of carcinoma. Age of the patients was significantly related to the improvement of dysphagia score. Mean survival time was 137.6 d and median was 103 d.
Results of this study showed a low survival rate after palliative care in esophageal cancer cases despite dysphagia scores' improvement after dilating or stenting.
World Journal of Gastroenterology 07/2008; 14(23):3725-8. · 2.55 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An important component of diabetes care is self-monitoring blood glucose (BG). Up to now, no standard quality control procedure has verified the readings of various blood glucose meters in Iran. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of three glucose meters and Betachek (a visual BG measurement test) with the measurement of a reference laboratory.
The Betachek test strip and three other common glucometer devices in Iran (Glucotrend 2, GlucoMen, and GlucoCare) were used to determine BG levels in 110 patients suffering from diabetes. The results were then compared with a standard laboratory method.
The mean measurement of blood glucose by GlucoCare showed the least deviation from the standard laboratory method (6.80% less than the standard method). Glucotrend 2 had the best correlation with the standard method. The mean deviations in BG level as read by GlucoMen, Glucotrend 2, and Betachek were 9.53%, 11.95%, and 10.26% higher than the standard method, respectively. Betachek showed the lowest correlation with the standard method.
GlucoCare and Glucotrend 2 had the most advantageous results; however, no glucometer met the ADA criteria of reading within 5% of the laboratory reference results. Betachek had the least reliable readings.
Medical science monitor: international medical journal of experimental and clinical research 04/2007; 13(3):PI1-6. · 1.36 Impact Factor