Aldo Clerico

Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Pisa, Tuscany, Italy

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Publications (338)1087.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: noBackground & Objectives: The postoperative Low T3 syndrome has been considered as a possible source of reduced myocardial contractility, resulting in increased mortality after CABG. Effect of preoperative Low T3 has not been well studied in patients undergoing CABG surgery. Aim of our study is to evaluate effect of preoperative Low T3 syndrome in patients undergoing CABG surgery.Materials & Methods: Six hundred and six patients undergoing CABG were included in this prospective study. The impact of the base-line FT3 concentration and of preoperative low T3 syndrome on the risk of postoperative low cardiac output and hospital death was analyzed.Results: Fifteen patients (2.3%) postoperatively and 159 (26.2%) developed major complications. At univariate analysis a reduced EF, the presence of peripheral vascular disease, the NYHA class, the surgical urgency, the aortic cross-clamp time, the CPB time and the FT3 concentration at admission were significantly associated with low CO and higher mortality. At multivariate analysis, the CPB time, an emergency procedure, a reduced LVEF, and the fT3 concentration were independently related to the development of low CO. However, in multivariate analysis low EF, and the fT3 concentration were the only predictors of hospital death.Conclusion: We conclude that preoperative low EF and low T3 syndrome independently causes low cardiac output and higher mortality in patients undergoing CABG. Therefore, all patients undergoing CABG should be evaluated for low T3 syndrome and patients with low T3 syndrome should be considered at increased risk. Appropriate preoperative T3 replacement therapy could decrease the postoperative complications in patients undergoing CABG.JCMS Nepal. 2015; 11(2):1-7
    11/2015; 11(2):1. DOI:10.3126/jcmsn.v11i2.13668
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    ABSTRACT: The study aims are to evaluate the analytical performance and the clinical results of the chemiluminescent Access AccuTnI + 3 immunoassay for the determination of cardiac troponin I (cTnI) with DxI 800 and Access2 platforms and to compare the clinical results obtained with this method with those of three cTnI immunoassays, recently introduced in the European market. The limits of blank (LoB), detection (LoD), and quantitation (LoQ) at 20% CV and 10% CV were 4.5 ng/L and 10.9 ng/L, 17,1 and 30,4 ng/L, respectively. The results of STAT Architect high Sensitive TnI (Abbott Diagnostics), ADVIA Centaur Troponin I Ultra (Siemens Healthcare Diagnostics), ST AIA-Pack cTnI third generation (Tosoh Bioscience), and ACCESS AccuTnI + 3 (Beckman Coulter Diagnostics) showed very close correlations (R ranging from 0901 to 0994) in 122 samples of patients admitted to the emergency department. However, on average there was a difference up to 2.4 folds between the method measuring the highest (ADVIA method) and lowest cTnI values (AccuTnI + 3 method). The consensus mean values between methods ranged from 6.2% to 29.6% in 18 quality control samples distributed in an external quality control study (cTnI concentrations ranging from 29.3 ng/L to 1557.5 ng/L). In conclusion, the results of our analytical evaluation concerning the AcccuTnI + 3 method, using the DxI platform, are well in agreement with those suggested by the manufacturer as well as those reported by some recent studies using the Access2 platform. Our results confirm that the AccTnI + 3 method for Access2 and DxI 800 platforms is a clinically usable method for cTnI measurement.
    Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry 09/2015; 451(Pt B). DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2015.09.016 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, adrenomedullin (ADM) was defined as a new member of the adipokine family. ADM secreted by adipocytes, through its vasodilator and antioxidant actions, might be protective against metabolic syndrome-associated cardiovascular complications. The aim of the study was to assess plasma mid-regional (MR)-proADM levels in obese adolescents compared to normal-weight subjects and its relation with BMI, body composition and metabolic indices. Plasma MR-proADM was measured in 32 healthy adolescents [BMI z-score (mean ± SEM) = 0.6 ± 0.09 and 0.8 ± 0.07 in females and males, respectively] and in 51 age-matched obese adolescents [BMI z-score (mean ± SEM) = 2.8 ± 0.12 and 2.9 ± 0.08 in female and males, respectively] by a time-resolved amplified cryptate emission technology assay. Plasma MR-proADM levels resulted significantly higher in obese than in normal-weight adolescents (MR-proADM: 0.33 ± 0.1 vs 0.40 ± 0.1 nmol/L, p < 0.0001). Using univariate analysis, we observed that MR-proADM correlated significantly with BMI z-score (p < 0.0001), fat mass (p < 0.0001), circulating insulin (p < 0.004), HOMA-IR (p < 0.005), total cholesterol (p < 0.03) and LDL-cholesterol (p < 0.05). Including MR-proADM as response variable and its significant correlates into a multiple regression analysis, we observed that fat mass (p = 0.014) and BMI z-score (p = 0.036) were independent determinants of circulating MR-proADM. Our study shows for the first time that obese adolescents have higher circulating levels of MR-proADM compared with normal-weight, appropriate controls suggesting its important involvement in obese patients.
    European Journal of Nutrition 05/2015; DOI:10.1007/s00394-015-0938-6 · 3.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Elevation of resting high-sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn) holds prognostic value in heart failure (HF), but its pathophysiological meaning is unclear. We aimed to investigate hs-Tn elevation after maximal exercise in patients with systolic HF and its neurohormonal and hemodynamic correlates: 30 patients diagnosed with systolic HF (left ventricular ejection fraction 32 ± 8%, mean ± SD), on guideline-directed medical therapy and not recognized inducible ischemia, underwent maximal cardiopulmonary stress test, with assay of plasma N-terminal proB-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), norepinephrine (NE), and hs-TnT (hs-TnT) at baseline, peak, and 1 and 4 hours after exercise. Cardiac output (CO) was measured during effort, with a rebreathing technique. The natural logarithm of the ratio between percentage (%) increase in CO and NT-proBNP (ln[CO%/NT-proBNP% increase]) was evaluated, as a noninvasive estimate of Frank-Starling adaptation to effort, with NT-proBNP variation considered as a surrogate of end-diastolic left ventricular pressure variation. Hs-TnT increased during exercise with a 4-hour peak (p = 0.001); 10 patients had hs-TnT increase >20%. Patients with Hs-TnT increase >20% were more symptomatic at rest (p = 0.039) and showed greater NE at peak exercise (p = 0.003) and less ln[CO%/NT-proBNP% increase] (p = 0.034). A lower ln[CO%/NT-proBNP% increase] correlated with greater NE at peak exercise (r = -0.430, p = 0.018). In conclusion, acute troponin elevation after maximal exercise was detected in 1/3 of this series. The association of troponin release with NE, CO, and NT-proBNP changes after effort suggests a pathophysiological link among transient hemodynamic overload, adrenergic activation, and myocardial cell damage, likely identifying a clinical subset at greater risk for HF progression. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 05/2015; 116(4). DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2015.05.017 · 3.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The routine use of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in pediatric cardiac surgery remains controversial. Our aim was to test whether BNP adds information to predict risk in pediatric cardiac surgery. In all, 587 children undergoing cardiac surgery (median age 6.3 months; 1.2-35.9 months) were prospectively enrolled at a single institution. BNP was measured pre-operatively, on every post-operative day in the intensive care unit, and before discharge. The primary outcome was major complications and length ventilator stay >15 days. A first risk prediction model was fitted using Cox proportional hazards model with age, body surface area and Aristotle score as continuous predictors. A second model was built adding cardiopulmonary bypass time and arterial lactate at the end of operation to the first model. Then, peak post-operative log-BNP was added to both models. Analysis to test discrimination, calibration, and reclassification were performed. BNP increased after surgery (p<0.001), peaking at a mean of 63.7 h (median 36 h, interquartile range 12-84 h) post-operatively and decreased thereafter. The hazard ratios (HR) for peak-BNP were highly significant (first model HR=1.40, p=0.006, second model HR=1.44, p=0.008), and the log-likelihood improved with the addition of BNP at 12 h (p=0.006; p=0.009). The adjunction of peak-BNP significantly improved the area under the ROC curve (first model p<0.001; second model p<0.001). The adjunction of peak-BNP also resulted in a net gain in reclassification proportion (first model NRI=0.089, p<0.001; second model NRI=0.139, p=0.003). Our data indicates that BNP may improve the risk prediction in pediatric cardiac surgery, supporting its routine use in this setting.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 04/2015; DOI:10.1515/cclm-2014-1084 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Two new immunoassay methods for aldosterone assay using automated platforms recently became available into market. The main aim of the present study is to evaluate the analytical performance of these automated direct immunoassay methods, and also to compare their analytical characteristics to those of the most popular RIA and EIA methods used in an Italian External Quality Assessment (EQA) study. In this study analytical performances of two aldosterone immunoassays using the IDS iSYS and DiaSorin LIAISON fully automated platforms, were evaluated. Results obtained with the two platforms in EDTA plasma samples of healthy subjects and patients were compared with those obtained by RIA and EIA methods used in the Italian EQA scheme, named Immunocheck study. The two automated methods showed similar analytical performances: LoD 83.9 vs 92.2pmol/L, LoQ 104.4 vs 111.1pmol/L, respectively; moreover, the within-run and total imprecision values showed CV% between 8.1 and 14.1 for samples with 180.8 and 387.2pmol/L concentration for both methods. There was a close linear regression between methods, however we found a significant proportional bias between LIAISON and iSYS methods. The EQA samples results obtained with these two methods were highly correlated to the consensus mean values. Our data indicate that aldosterone values measured with the two automated methods actually show better reproducibility, shorter laboratory Turn Around Time (TAT) and require less "hands on labor" compared to RIA and EIA immunoassays. However, in our study significant bias was observed in result comparison, this means that translating aldosterone concentration in clinical information an appropriate definition of reference ranges for each method is mandatory. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 02/2015; 444. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2015.01.028 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Arterial hypertension is a main determinant of arterial remodelling and atherosclerosis. Coronary artery calcium score and carotid intima-media thickness are recognized indices of vascular remodelling. Established biohumoral markers for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis are still lacking in asymptomatic subjects with hypertension. We aimed to test the association of plasma N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations with either coronary artery calcium score or carotid intima-media thickness in asymptomatic hypertensive subjects. We conducted a case-control study on 436 and 436 age/sex-matched normotensive subjects from the population of the Montignoso HEart and Lung Project, a community-based study of asymptomatic general population ≥45 years. Subjects underwent N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide measurement, echocardiography and evaluation of coronary artery calcium score and carotid intima-media thickness. Hypertensive subjects had higher median coronary artery calcium score (60 (interquartile range, 30-112) vs. 15 (interquartile range 3-70) Agatson units, p = 0.007), carotid intima-media thickness (8.6 (interquartile range 7.5-9.1) vs. 7.9 (7.1-8.4) µm, p < 0.001) and indexed left ventricular mass (101 (interquartile range 82-126) vs. 87 (63-91) mg/m2, p = 0.03) than controls, with no differences in left ventricular ejection fraction, diameters, E/E', left atrial area. N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide concentrations were higher in hypertensive subjects with either coronary artery calcium score (p = 0.008) or carotid intima-media thickness >75th (p < 0.006) percentile and highest in combined coronary artery calcium score/carotid intima-media thickness >75th percentile (p = 0.021). In multivariable analysis, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide independently predicted either coronary artery calcium score or carotid intima-media thickness >75th percentile, but only in hypertensive subjects (odds ratio = 1.87, 95% confidence interval 1.30-2.74, p = 0.001 and odds ratio = 1.99, 95% confidence interval 1.43-2.76, p = 0.001). In asymptomatic subjects with hypertension, N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide is a marker of hypertension-mediated preclinical vascular disease. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015 Reprints and permissions:
    European Journal of Preventive Cardiology 02/2015; DOI:10.1177/2047487315569675 · 3.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interest in brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the management of children with CHD has increased. There are, however, no current guidelines for their routine use. The aim of this review article is to provide an update on the data regarding the use of BNP/NT-proBNP in the evaluation and surgical treatment of children with CHD. BNP/NT-proBNP levels in children with CHD vary substantially according to age, laboratory assay methods, and the specific haemodynamics associated with the individual congenital heart lesion. The accuracy of BNP/NT-proBNP as supplemental markers in the integrated screening, diagnosis, management, and follow-up of CHD has been established. In particular, the use of BNP/NT-proBNP as a prognostic indicator in paediatric cardiac surgery has been widely demonstrated, as well as its role in the subsequent follow-up of surgical patients. Most of the data, however, are derived from single-centre retrospective studies using multivariable analysis; prospective, randomised clinical trials designed to evaluate the clinical utility and cost-effectiveness of routine BNP/NT-proBNP use in CHD are lacking. The results of well-designed, prospective clinical trials should assist in formulating guidelines and expert consensus recommendations for its use in patients with CHD. Finally, the use of new point-of-care testing methods that use less invasive sampling techniques - capillary blood specimens - may contribute to a more widespread use of the BNP assay, especially in neonates and infants, as well as contribute to the development of screening programmes for CHD using this biomarker.
    Cardiology in the Young 01/2015; 25(03):1-14. DOI:10.1017/S1047951114002133 · 0.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent studies have demonstrated that the precursor of BNP (proBNP) constitutes the major part of BNP-related peptides detectable in plasma of patients with heart failure by the commercially available immunoassays considered specific for the BNP hormone. Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with commercial immunoassays for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the cross-reaction with proBNP in their BNP methods. Owing to the differences in cross-reaction with proBNP as well as in specificity, respectively, for the NH2- or COOH-terminal part of the peptide hormone chain, BNP immunoassays show significant between-method differences. Immunoassays for NT-proBNP, which all use standard materials and antibodies provided by the same company, show lower differences (generally <20%). Clinicians should take into account these differences among methods when they compare results obtained from different laboratories, which use different BNP immunoassays. Accordingly, the use of a common decisional limit for all BNP immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, may be unreliable.
    Biochimica clinica 01/2015; 39(5):312-325.
  • M. Franzini · S. Masotti · C. Prontera · A. Clerico ·
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    ABSTRACT: Heart failure (HF) is a global problem with an estimated prevalence of 38 million patients worldwide. Both prevalence and incidence of HF increase progressively with population ageing (prevalence ≥10% in people >75 years), especially in the high-income countries. HF is considered as the fatal event of all cardiovascular disorders. Despite some progress in diagnosis and treatment, its prognosis is worse than that of most cancers. The disease is heterogeneous in its clinical presentation and the diagnosis is not based on a single test, but on a combination of the history, physical examination and appropriate investigations, including some laboratory tests. As a consequence, the accuracy of diagnosis by clinical signs alone is often inadequate, especially in the early asymptomatic stage of HF. For these reasons, there is an increasing interest in the development of new biomarkers useful for the diagnosis, prognosis and follow-up of patients with HF. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of biomarkers recommended by international guidelines for HF, discussing their clinical impact and the interpretation of results. Furthermore, a possible strategy for the development and evaluation of novel prognostic biomarkers for HF will be suggested.
    Biochimica clinica 01/2015; 39(4):241-255.
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this review article is to give an update on the state of the art of the immunoassay methods for the measurement of B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and its related peptides. Using chromatographic procedures, several studies reported an increasing number of circulating peptides related to BNP in human plasma of patients with heart failure. These peptides may have reduced or even no biological activity. Furthermore, other studies have suggested that, using immunoassays that are considered specific for BNP, the precursor of the peptide hormone, proBNP, constitutes a major portion of the peptide measured in plasma of patients with heart failure. Because BNP immunoassay methods show large (up to 50%) systematic differences in values, the use of identical decision values for all immunoassay methods, as suggested by the most recent international guidelines, seems unreasonable. Since proBNP significantly cross-reacts with all commercial immunoassay methods considered specific for BNP, manufacturers should test and clearly declare the degree of cross-reactivity of glycosylated and non-glycosylated proBNP in their BNP immunoassay methods. Clinicians should take into account that there are large systematic differences between methods when they compare results from different laboratories that use different BNP immunoassays. On the other hand, clinical laboratories should take part in external quality assessment (EQA) programs to evaluate the bias of their method in comparison to other BNP methods. Finally, the authors believe that the development of more specific methods for the active peptide, BNP1–32, should reduce the systematic differences between methods and result in better harmonization of results.
    Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences 12/2014; 52(2). DOI:10.3109/10408363.2014.987720 · 3.69 Impact Factor

  • Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 11/2014; 53(5). DOI:10.1515/cclm-2014-0873 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), participated by kidney, liver, vascular endothelium, and adrenal cortex, and counter-regulated by cardiac endocrine function, is a complex endocrine system regulating systemic functions, such as body salt and water homeostasis and vasomotion, in order to allow the accomplishment of physiological tasks, such as orthostasis, physical and emotional stimuli, and to react towards the hemorrhagic insult, in tight conjunction with other neurohormonal axes, namely the sympathetic nervous system, the endothelin and vasopressin systems. The systemic as well as the tissue RAAS are also dedicated to promote tissue remodeling, particularly relevant after damage, when chronic activation may configure as a maladaptive response, leading to fibrosis, hypertrophy and apoptosis, and organ dysfunction. RAAS activation is a fingerprint of systemic arterial hypertension, kidney dysfunction, vascular atherosclerotic disease, and is definitely an hallmark of heart failure, which rapidly shifts from organ disease to a disorder of neurohormonal regulatory systems. Chronic RAAS activation is an indirect or direct target of most effective pharmacological treatments in heart failure, such as beta-blockers, inhibitors of angiotensin converting enzyme, angiotensin receptor blockers, direct renin inhibitors, and mineralocorticoid receptor blockers. Biomarkers of RAAS activation are available, with different feasibility and accuracy, such as plasma renin activity, renin, angiotensin II, and aldosterone, which all accompany the increasing clinical severity of heart failure disease, and are well recognized prognostic factors, even in patients with optimal therapy. Polymorphisms influencing the expression and activity of RAAS pathways have been recognized as clinically relevant biomarkers, likely influencing either the individual clinical phenotype, or the response to drugs. This solid, growing evidence strongly suggests the rationale for the use of biomarkers of the RAAS activation, as a guide to tailor individual therapy in the current practice, and their implementation as a rule-in marker for future trials on novel drugs in the heart failure setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 10/2014; 443. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.10.031 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract The lack of interchangeable laboratory results and consensus in current practices has underpinned greater attention to standardization and harmonization projects. In the area of method standardization and harmonization, there is considerable debate about how best to achieve comparability of measurement for immunoassays, and in particular heterogeneous proteins. The term standardization should be used only when comparable results among measurement procedures are based on calibration traceability to the International System of Units (SI unit) using a reference measurement procedure (RMP). Recently, it has been promoted the harmonization of methods for many immunoassays, and in particular for thyreotropin (TSH), as accepted RMPs are not available. In a recent paper published in this journal, a group of well-recognized authors used a complex statistical approach in order to reduce variability between the results observed with the 14 TSH immunoassay methods tested in their study. Here we provide data demonstrating that data from an external quality assessment (EQA) study allow similar results to those obtained using the reported statistical approach.
    Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 09/2014; 53(3). DOI:10.1515/cclm-2014-0586 · 2.71 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The aim of this study is to determine the 99th upper-reference limit (URL) for cardiac troponin T (cTnT) in Italian apparently healthy subjects. Methods: The reference population was selected from 5 cities: Bolzano (n=290), Milano (CAMELIA-Study, n=287), Montignoso (MEHLP-Study, n=306), Pisa (n=182), and Reggio Calabria (MAREA-Study, n=535). Subjects having cardiac/systemic acute/chronic diseases were excluded. Participants to MEHLP project underwent cardiac imaging investigation. High-sensitive cTnT was measured with Cobas-e411 (Roche Diagnostics). Results: We enrolled 1600 healthy subjects [54.6% males; age range 10-90years; mean (SD): 36.4 (21.2) years], including 34.6% aged <20years, 54.5% between 20 and 64years, and 10.9% over 65years. In the youngest the 99th URL was 10.9ng/L in males and 6.8ng/L in females; in adults 23.2ng/L and 10.2ng/L; and in elderly 36.8ng/L and 28.6ng/L. After the exclusion of outliers the 99th URL values were significantly decreased (P<0.05) in particular those of the oldest (13.8ng/L and 14ng/L). MEHLP participants were divided in healthy and asymptomatic, according to known cardiovascular risk factors (HDL, LDL, glucose, C-reactive protein): the 99th URL of cTnT values of these subgroups was significantly different (19.5 vs. 22.7, P<0.05). Conclusions: 99th URL of cTnT values was strongly affected by age, gender, selection of subjects and the statistical evaluation of outliers.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 09/2014; 438. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.09.010 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ventricular remodeling occurs progressively in untreated patients after large myocardial infarction and in those with cardiomyopathy. The pathologic changes of increased left ventricular (LV) volume and perturbation in the LV chamber geometry involves not only the myocytes, but also non-myocyte cells and the extracellular matrix. Inflammation, fibrosis, neuro-hormonal activation, and ongoing myocardial damage are the mechanisms underlying remodeling. The detection of an ongoing remodeling process by means of biomarkers such as cytokines, troponins, neurohormones, metalloproteinases, galectin-3, ST-2 and others, may hold clinical value and could, to some extent, drive the therapeutical strategy in patients after a myocardial infarction or with heart failure. For this reason, there is an increasing interest in the development of new biomarkers and a great number of laboratory tests have been recently proposed, whose clinical usefulness, however, is not fully established yet.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 09/2014; 443. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.09.006 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    International Journal of Cardiology 08/2014; 177(1). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2014.08.061 · 4.04 Impact Factor
  • Silvia Del Ry · Manuela Cabiati · Aldo Clerico ·
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    ABSTRACT: The natriuretic peptide (NP) family includes atrial (ANP), brain or B-type (BNP) and C-type NP (CNP). A huge number of experimental and clinical studies, published in the 1st decade of this century, have added further support to the hypothesis that endocrine function in the human heart is a relevant component of a complex network including endocrine, nervous and immune systems. The NP hormones constitute a well-integrated regulatory system and share a similar spectrum of biological actions, although there are some differences in biological potency between ANP, BNP and CNP. However, several important issues on this field need to be investigated further. The production, secretion and peripheral degradation pathways of both BNP and CNP should be clarified in detail. In particular, the hypothesis that the circulating plasma pool of the prohormone can function as a precursor of the active peptide hormone should be demonstrated definitively. Recent findings indicate that peripheral processing of circulating prohormones could likely be submitted to regulatory rules, which might be impaired in patients with heart failure, opening up new perspectives even in the treatment of heart failure. This hypothesis suggests a novel pharmacological target for drugs inducing and/or modulating the maturation of the prohormone into active hormone. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
    Frontiers of hormone research 06/2014; 43:134-43. DOI:10.1159/000360597 · 3.30 Impact Factor
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    Aldo Clerico · Claudio Passino · Maria Franzini · Michele Emdin ·
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    ABSTRACT: Diagnosis of heart failure (HF) is not based on a single test, but on a combination of history, physical examination and appropriate investigations. For these reasons, the accuracy of diagnosis by clinical means alone is often inadequate, especially in the early, asymptomatic stages of the HF. Thus, there is an increasing interest in the development of new cardiovascular biomarkers and, consequently, a great number of laboratory tests have recently been proposed for their assay. The aim of this article is to provide a general overview on the biomarkers, recommended by international guidelines, for the diagnosis, risk stratification, and follow-up of patients with HF. Cardiac natriuretic peptides and in particular the B-type related peptides, which are considered to be the first line biomarker for HF by international guidelines, will be discussed with special emphasis.
    Clinica Chimica Acta 06/2014; 443. DOI:10.1016/j.cca.2014.06.003 · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background There is strong clinical and experimental evidence that altered thyroid homeostasis negatively affects survival in cardiac patients, but a negative effect of the low triiodothyronine (T3) syndrome on the outcome of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) has not been demonstrated. This study was designed to evaluate the prognostic significance of low T3 syndrome in patients undergoing CABG. Methods The thyroid profile was evaluated at hospital admission in 806 consecutive CABG patients. Known thyroid disease, severe systemic illness, and use of drugs interfering with thyroid metabolism were considered exclusion criteria. The effect of the baseline free T3 (fT3) concentration and of preoperative low T3 syndrome (fT3 <2.23 pmol/L) on the risk of low cardiac output (CO) and death was analyzed in a logistic regression model. Results There were 19 (2.3%) deaths, and 64 (7.8%) patients experienced major complications. After univariate analysis, fT3, low T3, New York Heart Association class greater than II, low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and emergency were associated with low CO and hospital death. History of atrial fibrillation, cardiopulmonary bypass time, and peripheral vascular disease were associated only with low CO. At multivariate analysis, only fT3, low T3, emergency, and LVEF were associated with low CO, and fT3 (odds ratio, 0.172, 95% confidence interval, 0.078 to 0.379; p < 0.0001) and LVEF (odds ratio, 0.934, 95% confidence interval, 0.894 to 0.987; p = 0.03) were the only independent predictors of death. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that low T3 is a strong predictor of death and low CO in CABG patients. For this reason, the thyroid profile should be evaluated before CABG, and patients with low T3 should be considered at higher risk and treated accordingly.
    The Annals of thoracic surgery 06/2014; 97(6). DOI:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2014.01.049 · 3.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

5k Citations
1,087.55 Total Impact Points


  • 2008-2015
    • Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna
      • Institute of Life Sciences
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
    • Fondazione Toscana Gabriele Monasterio
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2006-2015
    • Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1979-2014
    • Università di Pisa
      • Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine
      Pisa, Tuscany, Italy
  • 2005-2011
    • INO - Istituto Nazionale di Ottica
      Florens, Tuscany, Italy
  • 1986-2006
    • Italian National Research Council
      • Institute of Clinical Physiology IFC
      Roma, Latium, Italy
  • 2000
    • Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics
      Dresden, Saxony, Germany
  • 1994-1998
    • Charles University in Prague
      • 1. lékařská fakulta
      Praha, Hlavni mesto Praha, Czech Republic
  • 1990-1993
    • Università degli studi di Parma
      Parma, Emilia-Romagna, Italy
  • 1992
    • University of Milan
      • Department of Pharmacology, Chemotherapy and Medical Toxicology
      Milano, Lombardy, Italy