[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In recent years, the fungal infectious disease zygomycosis has increased in incidence worldwide, especially among the immunodeficient population. Despite the rates of zygomycosis-related death and deformation being very high, the mechanism(s) by which the fungal pathogens cause these severe manifestations remain unknown.
Using the associated Rhizomucor variabilis species, which can selectively induce cutaneous zygomycosis in otherwise healthy individuals, we investigated the host mechanisms of infection-related responses, including cytokine and chemokine expression as well as contributions of particular T cell subsets. siRNA specifically targeting IL-22,IL-17 and IFN-γ were used to down-regulate expression of those molecules.
In mouse models of infection, IL-22 was implicated in development of Rhizomucor spp.-induced skin lesions. In cultured human peripheral blood monocytes, R. pusilluscan, which is often found in immunodeficient patients, induced the production of IL-22, while R. variabilis did not. Moreover, Rhizomucor spp.-induced secretion of Il-22 from CCR6(+)CCR4(+)CCR10(+) cells was down-regulated by knockdown of IL-22 related signaling receptors, RORC and ARH.
Our data strongly suggest that avoidance of IL-22 may be one mechanism by which mucor species produce morbidity and mortality in infected individuals.
PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(6):e65065. · 3.73 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite recent reports on the molecular epidemiology of cryptococcal infections in China, clinical isolates have been mostly reported from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative patients, and environmental isolates from China have rarely been included. The aim of this study was to investigate the ecological profile of Cryptococcus (C.) neoformans and C. gattii in China.
A survey was performed in 10 cities from 20°N (North latitude) to 50°N and in a Eucalyptus (E.) camaldulensis forestry farm at the Guixi forestry center, China.
Six hundred and twenty samples of pigeon droppings from 10 cities and 819 E. camaldulensis tree samples were collected and inoculated on caffeic acid cornmeal agar (CACA). The brown-colored colonies were recultured to observe their morphology, growth on canavanine-glycine-bromothymol-blue (CGB) medium, phenol oxidase and urease activities, serotype and mating type. There were obvious differences in the positive sample rates of C. neoformans in pigeon droppings collected from the different cities, ranging from 50% in the cities located at latitudes from 30°N - 40°N, 29% at 20°N - 30°N and 13% at 40°N - 50°N.
There were no differences in positive bevy rates (approximately 80%) among the three grouped cities. Mycological tests of 101 isolates purified from pigeon droppings revealed that they were C. neoformans var. grubii. We also observed variable capsular size around the C. neoformans cells in colonies with variable melanin production and the bio-adhesion of the natural C. neoformans cells with other microorganisms. One urease-negative C. neoformans isolate was isolated from pigeon droppings in Jinan city. No C. gattii was isolated in this study.
Chinese medical journal 02/2012; 125(3):511-6. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report a case of primary cutaneous zygomycosis caused by Rhizomucor variabilis and review 6 cases reported from China that share similar features and are different from those cases caused by other species of Mucorales. It is noteworthy that all 6 of the cases were observed in 3 adjacent provinces of eastern China.