Philippa J P Lait

University of Bristol, Bristol, England, United Kingdom

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Publications (2)8.64 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis is a model for noninfectious posterior segment intraocular inflammation in humans. Although this disease is CD4(+) T cell dependent, in the persistent phase of disease CD8(+) T cells accumulate. We show that these are effector memory CD8(+) T cells that differ from their splenic counterparts with respect to surface expression of CD69, CD103, and Ly6C. These retinal effector memory CD8(+) T cells have limited cytotoxic effector function, are impaired in their ability to proliferate in response to Ag-specific stimulation, and upregulate programmed death 1 receptor. Treatment with fingolimod (FTY720) during the late phase of disease revealed that retinal CD8(+) T cells were tissue resident. Despite signs of exhaustion, these cells were functional, as their depletion resulted in an expansion of retinal CD4(+) T cells and CD11b(+) macrophages. These results demonstrate that, during chronic autoimmune inflammation, exhausted CD8(+) T cells become established in the local tissue. They are phenotypically distinct from peripheral CD8(+) T cells and provide local signals within the tissue by expression of inhibitory receptors such as programmed death 1 that limit persistent inflammation.
    The Journal of Immunology 04/2014; 192(10). · 5.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Clinically available anti-tumour necrosis factor (TNF) biologics, which inhibit both soluble (sTNF) and transmembrane forms (tmTNF) of TNF, eliminating all TNF signalling, have successfully treated autoimmune diseases including uveitis. These have potentially serious side effects such as reactivation of latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis and, therefore, more specific inhibition of TNF signalling pathways may maintain clinical efficacy while reducing adverse effects. To determine the effects of specific pharmacological inhibition of sTNF on macrophage activation and migration, we used a mouse model of uveitis (experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis; EAU). We show that selective inhibition of sTNF is sufficient to suppress EAU by limiting inflammatory CD11b(+) macrophages and CD4(+) T cell migration into the eye. However, inhibition of both sTNF and tmTNF is required to inhibit interferon-γ-induced chemokine receptor 2, CD40, major histocompatibility complex class II and nitric oxide (NO) up-regulation, and signalling via tmTNF is sufficient to mediate tissue damage. In confirmation, intravitreal inhibition of sTNF alone did not suppress disease, and inflammatory cells that migrated into the eye were activated, generating NO, thus causing structural damage to the retina. In contrast, intravitreal inhibition of both sTNF and tmTNF suppressed macrophage activation and therefore disease. We conclude that sTNF is required for inflammatory cell infiltration into target tissue, but at the tissue site inhibition of both sTNF and tmTNF is required to inhibit macrophage activation and to protect from tissue damage.
    Clinical & Experimental Immunology 05/2012; 168(2):165-77. · 3.28 Impact Factor