Takeshi Kikutani

The Nippon Dental University, Edo, Tōkyō, Japan

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Publications (26)22.98 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: To develop a simple screening test to identify older adults at high risk for sarcopenia. We studied 1971 functionally independent, community-dwelling adults aged 65 years or older randomly selected from the resident register of Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan. Data collection was carried out between September and November 2012. Sarcopenia was defined based on low muscle mass measured by bioimpedance analysis and either low muscle strength characterized by handgrip or low physical performance characterized by slow gait speed. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women. After the variable selection procedure, the final model to estimate the probability of sarcopenia included three variables: age, grip strength and calf circumference. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, a measure of discrimination, of the final model was 0.939 with 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.918-0.958 for men, and 0.909 with 95% CI of 0.887-0.931 for women. We created a score chart for each sex based on the final model. When the sum of sensitivity and specificity was maximized, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for sarcopenia were 84.9%, 88.2%, 54.4%, and 97.2% for men, 75.5%, 92.0%, 72.8%, and 93.0% for women, respectively. The presence of sarcopenia could be detected using three easily obtainable variables with high accuracy. The screening test we developed could help identify functionally independent older adults with sarcopenia who are good candidates for intervention. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2014; 14 (Suppl. 1): 93-101.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 02/2014; 14 Suppl 1:93-101.
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    ABSTRACT: Primitive reflexes can reappear with diseases of the brain, particularly those affecting the frontal lobes. Most studies on primitive reflexes have reported an association between such reflexes and brain damage, and the clinical symptoms of dementia. These reflexes can also be present during eating; however, their effects on eating function are difficult to evaluate. The purpose of the present study was to identify the frequency at which primitive reflexes reappear in elderly people, and to determine the effects that such reflexes have on eating function, nutritional status and prognosis. We followed 121 nursing home residents for 6 months. All patients required long-term care and were examined for the presence of a sucking reflex, snout reflex and phasic bite reflex for baseline measures. Demographic characteristics, physical and cognitive function, and nutritional status were obtained from chart reviews, interviews with nurses, and a brief physical examination at baseline and incidence of aspiration pneumonia during the study period. The sucking reflex was confirmed in 31 patients (25.6%), snout reflex in 15 patients (12.3%) and phasic bite reflex in 28 patients (23.1%). One or more of these reflexes was identified in 38 patients (31.4%). A relationship between the presence of a primitive reflex and nutritional status was shown. An association with the presence of these reflexes and the development of aspiration pneumonia during 6 months was also confirmed. The appearance of primitive reflexes appears to be associated with the risk of malnutrition and developing aspiration pneumonia. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2013; ●●: ●●-●●.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 08/2013;
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    Mitsuyoshi Yoshida, Ryo Suzuki, Takeshi Kikutani
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    ABSTRACT: This study reviewed the relationship between oral status and nutritional disorders such as obesity and sarcopenia. A literature search was performed using PubMed to find articles published in and after 2000 by using the following search terms: elderly, nutrition, tooth, tooth loss, mastication, and oral function. Although the literature search revealed that further well-designed studies are difficult controlling all confounding factors thought to influence nutritional status, it may be concluded that tooth loss leads to decreased vegetable and fruit intake and results in nutritional disturbance. This was especially prominent in elderly people who required nursing care. Moreover, although it is becoming clear that not wearing dentures increases the risk of undernutrition, the effect of denture therapy remains debatable. Elderly people in need of nursing care should be studied in future investigations on the relationship between nutrition and oral status because this population is at risk of malnutrition considering both functional and structural problems.
    Japanese Dental Science Review 01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES: Malnutrition and cognitive impairment lead to declines in activities of daily living (ADL). Nutritional status and cognitive ability have been shown to correlate with oral health status and swallowing function. However, the complex relationship among the factors that affect decline in ADL is not understood. We examined direct and indirect relationships among oral health status, swallowing function, nutritional status, cognitive ability, and ADL in Japanese elderly people living at home and receiving home care services because of physical disabilities. METHODS: Participants were 286 subjects aged 60 years and older (mean age, 84.5 ± 7.9 years) living at home and receiving home care services. Oral health status (the number of teeth and wearing dentures) was assessed, and swallowing function was examined using cervical auscultation. Additionally, ADL, cognitive ability, and nutritional status were assessed using the Barthel Index, the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, and the Mini Nutritional Assessment-Short Form, respectively. Path analysis was used to test pathways from these factors to ADL. RESULTS: The mean number of teeth present in the participants was 8.6 ± 9.9 (edentates, 40.6%). Dysphagia, malnutrition, and severe cognitive impairment were found in 31.1%, 14.0%, and 21.3% of the participants, respectively. Path analysis indicated that poor oral health status and cognitive impairment had a direct effect on denture wearing, and the consequent dysphagia, in addition to cognitive impairment, was positively associated with malnutrition. Malnutrition as well as dysphagia and cognitive impairment directly limited ADL. CONCLUSIONS: A lower number of teeth are positively related to swallowing dysfunction, whereas denture wearing contributes to recovery of swallowing function. Dysphagia, cognitive impairment, and malnutrition directly and indirectly decreased ADL in elderly people living at home and receiving home nursing care. The findings suggest that preventing tooth loss and encouraging denture wearing when teeth are lost may indirectly contribute to maintaining or improving ADL, mediated by recovery of swallowing function and nutritional status.
    Community Dentistry And Oral Epidemiology 08/2012; · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.
    Dysphagia 04/2012; · 1.94 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aim:  This study aimed to determine the risk of malnutrition in some communities where the frail elderly receive public long-term care insurance. We also clarified the dental problems in those at risk of malnutrition. Methods:  A total of 716 frail elderly who lived in eight cities in Japan (240 males and 476 females with a mean age of 83.2 ± 8.6 years) were divided into three groups according to Mini Nutritional Assessment short form results: well nourished, at risk of malnutrition and malnourished. They were also divided into three groups in terms of remaining teeth occlusion and denture occlusion: group A, natural dentition with adequate function; group B, partially or fully edentulous, but maintaining functional occlusion with dentures in either or both jaws; and group C, functionally inadequate occlusion with no dentures. The relationship between nutrition status and dental occlusion was evaluated using logistic regression analysis with sex, age, activities of daily living and cognitive function as covariates. Results:  The number of participants in each of the groups was as follows: 251 well nourished, 370 at risk of malnutrition and 95 malnourished. When they were divided into just two groups, (i) well nourished and (ii) at risk of malnutrition plus malnourished, in order to study malnutrition risk factors, there were significant relationships between their nutritious status and sex, Barthel index, and occlusion. Conclusion:  This large-scale cross-sectional survey showed that loss of natural teeth occlusion was a risk factor for malnutrition among community-dwelling frail elderly. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2012; ••: ••-••.
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 04/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Foreign body asphyxiation causes severe medical conditions including pneumonia in the elderly requiring nursing care. The objective of this study was to elucidate the relationships between insufficient occlusal support due to tooth loss and the onset of asphyxiation accidents, and determine preventive measures for such accidents in nursing homes in Japan. The subjects were 437 elderly (110 men and 327 women) requiring nursing care. The frequency and risk factors for asphyxiation accidents and the food causing asphyxiation were examined in these subjects for 2.5 years, from June 2006 to December 2008. During the study period, 51 of the 437 subjects suffered asphyxiation. Self-feeding ability and loss of occlusal support were associated with a covariate-adjusted relative ratio for asphyxiation of 3.1 (95% confidence interval (CI)=1.50-6.44) and 1.7 (95% CI=1.12-2.74), respectively. To prevent asphyxiation in elderly people, it was found that maintaining or restoring occlusal support may be required. It was concluded that self-feeding ability and loss of occlusal support are significant risk factors for foreign-body asphyxiation among elderly people requiring nursing care.
    Archives of gerontology and geriatrics 02/2012; 54(3):e431-5. · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of the present study was to examine what dysphagic signs identified by videoendoscopy (VE) could predict the incidence of pneumonia and body weight loss in elderly patients living in nursing homes. This study was performed at six nursing care facilities in Japan from March 2007 to February 2009. The 148 subjects (85·1 ± 8·0 years, male/female: 43/105) were evaluated for their feeding and swallowing movements by clinical and VE examinations during the consumption of a regular meal. The VE examination items included the existence/absence of pharyngeal residue, laryngeal penetration, and aspiration of food and saliva. The patients were followed-up for 3 months with individualized feeding therapy based on the results of the clinical/VE examination at baseline, and the incidence of pneumonia was examined as the primary outcome. In patients without pneumonia, the body weight change was also measured as a secondary outcome. The risk factors for pneumonia and body weight loss (of 3% or more) were identified among the clinical/VE examination items by a Cox proportional hazard analysis. Even with elaborative feeding therapy, 12 (8·1%) of the 148 patients developed pneumonia during the 3 months follow-up period. The existence of signs of 'silent aspiration of saliva' or 'aspiration of saliva' detected by VE examination was a significant risk factor for both pneumonia and a body weight loss of 3% or more. This study shows that 'aspiration of saliva' detected by VE is a significant risk factor for both pneumonia and body weight loss in elderly patients living in nursing homes.
    Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 02/2012; 39(6):429-37. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Disabled children suffer not only from their primary disease, but also from other complications, including food refusal. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the relationship between these conditions and food refusal in disabled children. The effectiveness of feeding therapy in treating food refusal was also examined. The study subjects were 67 disabled children (35 boys and 32 girls; mean age at initial examination: 6.5 years, SD: 6.0 years) who attended the Nippon Dental University Hospital between April 2004 and August 2008. Of them, the 13 subjects who were diagnosed as those who refused food received feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy for hypersensitivity. Approximately 20% of the subjects showed food refusal symptoms. Primary disease, respiratory impairment and gastroesophageal reflux were not causes of food refusal in this population. There was a significant relationship between food refusal and hypersensitivity (p = 0.021). After receiving feeding therapy, six of the seven subjects with hypersensitivity but without dysphagia at initial examination recovered from food refusal. Food refusal did not significantly correlate with tube feeding. Hypersensitivity and/or tube feeding may induce food refusal. For subjects with these conditions, feeding therapy combined with desensitization therapy is effective in achieving recovery from food refusal.
    The International journal of orofacial myology: official publication of the International Association of Orofacial Myology 11/2011; 37:57-68.
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    ABSTRACT: To clarify the oral environment, we evaluated the usefulness and clinical applicability of a new apparatus developed for the simple and rapid quantification of oral bacteria. Professional oral health care can reduce the number of oral bacteria and days of fever and inhibit the development of pneumonia. A novel detection apparatus was developed by applying the dielectrophoretic impedance measurement method. First, to determine the accuracy of this apparatus, employing standard samples of Escherichia coli. Next, to evaluate the oral environment, samples were taken from the tongue in elderly (mean age: 86.6 years) in nursing home. In the first study, a good correlation was observed between the two methods (R = 0.999). In the second study, there were significant correlations between measurement values obtained using this apparatus and those obtained by the culture method (R = 0.852), as well as those obtained by the FM method (R = 0.885). Our data showed that this rapid oral bacterial detection apparatus is effective in evaluating the oral hygiene to prevent pneumonia in the elderly.
    Gerodontology 08/2011; 29(2):e560-5. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a bacteria detection apparatus based on dielectrophoretic impedance measurement (DEPIM) method was demonstrated for rapid evaluation of oral hygiene. The authors integrated a micro electrode chip on which bacteria were captured by dielectrophoresis (DEP), an AC voltage source to induce DEP force, and an impedance measurement circuit to a portable instrument that enables rapid and automated oral bacterial inspection in hospitals and clinics. Special considerations have been made on effects of high electrical conductivity of oral samples on DEP force and DEPIM results. It was shown experimentally and theoretically that using a higher electric field frequency for the DEP bacteria trap and the impedance measurement could realise DEPIM application to bacteria inspection from oral samples with higher conductivity. Based on these investigations, the authors optimised the frequency condition of the DEPIM suitable for inspecting an oral sample along with the design and development of a portable DEPIM apparatus for on-site inspection of oral bacteria. Under the optimised frequency condition, DEPIM results were in good agreement with the conventional culture method showing significant applicability of the DEPIM apparatus for practical rapid oral bacteria inspection.
    IET Nanobiotechnology 06/2011; 5(2):25-31. · 1.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to clarify the correlation between dental and nutritional status among community-dwelling elderly Japanese people. The subjects were 182 elderly individuals, aged 65-85 years, who voluntarily participated in a health seminar at Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine. These subjects were divided into two groups according to the occlusion. The subjects in the retained contact group were those who had retained molar occlusion with natural teeth. The lost contact group were those who retained molar occlusion with removable partial dentures. Anthropometric variables such as body mass index (BMI) were collected and dietary intake was assessed using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire (BDHQ). No statistical difference in BMI or intake of macronutrients was found between these two occlusal groups. The lost contact group reported significantly lower consumption of vegetables and higher consumption of confectionaries (foods rich in sugar) than did the retained contact group (P < 0.05), and therefore had significantly lower intake of vitamin C and dietary fiber (P < 0.05). It can be concluded that natural tooth contact loss in the posterior region affect the intake of vitamins and dietary fiber. .
    Geriatrics & Gerontology International 01/2011; 11(3):315-9.
  • Geriatrics & Gerontology International 10/2010; 10(4):327-8.
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    ABSTRACT: To determine the sources of lip closing pressure (P(LC) ) generation during passive spoon feeding, we used a fine pressure transducer glued into a wooden spoon, as well as electromyography (EMG) of the upper and lower lips and the submental muscle complex, in normal adult volunteers (average age 24·5 years). An assistant fed a seated subject 0·6 mL of yogurt and then withdrew the spoon from the subject's closed mouth. The spoon was held at an angle of 0° (i.e. in the naso-auricular plane) during serving and at either 0° or 60° during withdrawal. We detected simultaneous increases in P(LC) and in EMG activity in the lips and the submental muscle complex. The maximum P(LC) was significantly higher at 60° [65 ± 11 g cm(-2) (mean ± s.e.m)] than at 0° (42 ± 8 g cm(-2)). The former was correlated with the maximum EMG amplitude, which was analysed by using the mean of the root-mean-square EMG and presented as a percentage of the maximum EMG obtained in the lower lip region and the submental muscle complex during subsequent swallowing in each subject. In conclusion, in healthy adult subjects, perioral muscles of the lower lip region and the submental muscle complex participate in P(LC) generation, particularly at a steep spoon withdrawal angle. The results suggest that a steep withdrawal angle not only increases P(LC) but also promotes these muscles' activities in passive spoon feeding.
    Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 10/2010; 38(6):423-8. · 2.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to examine the relation between the degree of tongue-coating and oral function. Tongue-coating is a moss-like deposit which forms over the tongue surface, and includes micro-organisms, food residues, and abrasive epithelia. It is considered that motor function of the tongue and lips and saliva secretion decrease in the aged and have some effect on the accumulation of tongue-coating. Although saliva secretion has been reported as a factor amongst these oral functions in contributing to tongue-coating, the correlation with the motor function of oral structures is unknown. The factors that contribute to the accumulation of tongue-coating were examined in 48 subjects of advanced age (mean age 80.8 +/- 7.8 years) with no severe levels of periodontal disease. Changes in the degree of tongue-coating were also examined after oral functional training in these subjects. The frequency of oral cleaning, status of oral hygiene, motor function of the tongue, and masticatory performance were examined as potential factors associated with the degree of coating. The results showed that tongue pressure and the frequency of oral diadochokinesis measured by pronouncing the single syllable 'ka' as an indicator were statistically significantly correlated with the degree of tongue-coating. Several factors in oral function improved with training, and also the degree of tongue-coating decreased in 27 subjects. These results suggest a correlation between the degree of tongue-coating and a reduction in lingual motor function and, in addition, possible improvement in level of coating by functional training of the tongue.
    Gerodontology 12/2009; 26(4):291-6. · 1.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study the relationship between the functional vertical labial pressure and aging during ingestion in the elderly is examined. The subjects were 84 community-dwelling elderly (mean: 79.4 years old), 109 elderly needing long term care (mean: 81.3 years old), and 59 healthy young adults (mean: 32.0 years old) as control. Labial pressure was measured with a pressure sensor embedded in acrylic plate. There was no correlation between age and labial pressure or the coefficient of variation of labial pressure during ingestion. In people with a history of "choking on food", labial pressure was, however, significantly lower (p < 0.01) than people without a history of "choking on food", while the coefficient of variation of labial pressure was significantly higher (p < 0.05). Poor labial pressure and movement were noted in subjects who experienced "choking on food", suggesting that lip-closing function also plays an important role in the pharyngeal stage of feeding/swallowing. On the other hand, the coefficient of variation of labial pressure during ingestion was not changed in the elderly group in comparison to the control group. These results showed that skilled movement of lip-closing might be compensated by labial pressure. Labial pressure and skilled movement were, however, decreased in the elderly needing care because of "choking on food".
    The International journal of orofacial myology: official publication of the International Association of Orofacial Myology 11/2009; 35:33-43.
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    ABSTRACT: This study was performed to ascertain the relationships between oral motor functions, such as those of the tongue and lips, and age in the community-dwelling elderly, as well as to investigate the effects of these factors on masticatory performance. The subjects were 268 healthy elderly Japanese living in Kyoto. They were divided into four age groups and further classified into the following two groups by the presence or absence of posterior occlusal support: Eichner A or B1-B3 (group A), and Eichner B4 or C (group B). They were wearing removable or fixed dentures if they had missing teeth. Oral function evaluation items included (1) masticatory performance and (2) oral motor skills. Significant differences were noted among the age groups in tongue pressure within group A (P < 0.01) and group B (P < 0.05), and in the number of repetitions of the syllables /ta/ and /ka/ in group B (/ta/: P < 0.05, /ka/; P < 0.01). The number of natural teeth (beta = 0.463, P < 0.001) in group A and tongue pressure (beta = 0.436, P < 0.001) in group B were the only predictors of masticatory performance when the data were analyzed by multiple regression analysis. The tongue may compensate for the missing teeth in masticatory performance of those elderly who have lost their natural teeth. The results of this study highlight the importance of tongue function in masticatory performance.
    Odontology 01/2009; 97(1):38-42. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A palatal augmentation prosthesis (PAP) is used in postoperative patients with oral cancer as an intraoral appliance. The purpose of this study was to use ultrasound imaging to evaluate the effects of a PAP on lingual movement dynamics when postoperative patients with oral cancer swallowed food while wearing a PAP and to elucidate the effectiveness of the PAP. The subjects were seven patients with tongue cancer. They wore a PAP as an intraoral device to compensate for postoperative dysfunction after surgery for tongue cancer. The measurements were made by using ultrasonography. Ultrasound images of the lingual movement dynamics of the center of the tongue (central grooving of the tongue in a coronal plane, passing through the distal surfaces of both the left and right lower second premolars) during swallowing were obtained in M mode. The mean duration of lingual-palatal contact was 805.4 +/- 306.0 ms in patients without a PAP and 621.8 +/- 364.9 ms in those with a PAP. The duration decreased significantly in patients wearing a PAP (P = 0.03). The mean total duration of lingual movement was 1612.2 +/- 478.3 ms in patients without a PAP and 1245.6 +/- 272.5 ms in those with a PAP. The mean total duration decreased significantly in patients with a PAP (P = 0.03). The study results indicated that wearing an intraoral appliance may effectively help lingual movement on swallowing in postoperative patients with oral cancer.
    Odontology 07/2008; 96(1):26-31. · 1.58 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between eating disorders and anticipated life span stage and mortality in institutionalized elderly people. Ninety-eight elderly residents (mean 86.3 +/- 5.9 years) at a nursing home were selected for investigation of the date and cause of death. Inclusion was limited to those who died within one week from admission to the institution/hospital. Data on 11 potential prognostic factors were analyzed: underlying disease, activity of daily living (ADL), disorder of anticipatory stage, swallowing function, need for feeding assistance, weight decrease rate in the part 6 months, body mass index (BMI), minimum nutritional assessment (MNA), occlusal status, age and sex. These 11 factors were analyzed by Kaplan-Meier survival curve, and either the log-rank or Wilcoxon test was used to analyze significant differences in survival days in subjects with and without the factors listed above. Moreover, the regression analysis was made using Cox proportional-hazards model, a nonlinear multivariate analysis, to extract factors contributing greatly to short survival days. The survival days showed significant differences in six factors; ADL, disorder of anticipatory stage, swallowing function, need for feeding assistance, BMI and MNA. Three factors were shown to be related to a significantly shorter mortality by the Cox proportional-hazards model: disorder of anticipatory stage (hazard rate = 2.85, 95% CI = 1.04-7.83), swallowing function (hazard rate = 2.90, 95% CI = 1.06-7.91) and BMI (hazard rate = 2.54, 95% CI = 1.00-6.44) were involved in. This study speculated that an appropriate response with a focus on feeding training may possibly contribute to prolong the mortality of elderly people.
    Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics 02/2007; 44(1):95-101.
  • Nippon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi Japanese Journal of Geriatrics 01/2007; 44(1):95-101.

Publication Stats

97 Citations
22.98 Total Impact Points


  • 2004–2013
    • The Nippon Dental University
      • School of Life Dentistry - Tokyo
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan
  • 2006–2011
    • Hiroshima University
      • Department of Advanced Prosthodontics
      Hiroshima-shi, Hiroshima-ken, Japan
    • Tokyo Medical and Dental University
      Edo, Tōkyō, Japan