ABSTRACT: A green method, using pulsed spark-discharge (PSD) to synthesize gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in ethanol, is studied in this
article. Unlike conventional methods for metal nanoparticles synthesis, the PSD method does not require the addition of chemical
surfactants and stabilizers. The size of PSD–AuNPs is examined by transmission electron microscopy, with a range 5–50nm.
The chemical compounds, crystal structure, and surface plasmon resonance of PSD–AuNPs are studied using energy dispersive
X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and UV–Visible spectroscopy, respectively. Zeta potential analysis shows that a negative
charge (−40mV) on the surface of the PSD–AuNPs may be contributing to the stability of the suspension. During the gold electrodes
discharge in the ethanol, under an intensive electric field and thermal energy, bulk metallic gold and ethanol may produce
AuNPs and varieties of chemical derivatives, which are also studied by GC/MS and FTIR to investigate the suspension mechanism.
The analysis results show that there is an oxidation reaction of ethanol occurring during the PSD process to produce ethanol
derivatives, such as acetaldehyde, acetic acid, and ethyl acetate, which may modify the surface of AuNPs by coordination of
oxygen atoms. However, only acetic acid can form a negative charge by the deprotonation of the carboxylic group of surface
in ethanol, resulting in the creation of a repulsion force between the particles to form the stable colloid system. The experimental
results indicate that PSD is an alternative green process to synthesize gold nanoparticles suspension in ethanol. Moreover,
with a gold rod consumption rate of 15mg/L, concentrations of gold nanoparticles ~9ppm have been observed; therefore, the
net production rate is around 60%.
KeywordsPulsed spark-discharge method–Gold nanoparticles–Ethanol–Derivatives–Colloids
Journal of Nanoparticle Research 04/2012; 13(7):2963-2972. · 3.29 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Gold nanoparticles have been attracting attention due to their extensive application in chemistry, physics, material science, electronics, catalysis and bionanotechnology. Synthesis of gold nanoparticles often involves toxic and expensive physical-chemistry methods. Preparation of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is proposed for the first time. Fabrication of gold nanostructures in deionized water has been successfully established. The evidence of gold particles’ light absorbance reveals a unique surface plasmon resonance for Au nanoparticles suspended in deionized water. Gold nanostructures uniformly dispersed in water, their UV–Vis absorption and crystalline size are shown. Our experimental results demonstrate that fabrication of gold nanoparticles by arc discharge in water is an alternative, cheap, effective and environmentally friendly method.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds.
ABSTRACT: As a result of mankind's over-reliance on antibiotics, germs are becoming more drug-resistant every year. The gradual but inexorable decline in the efficacy of traditional antibiotics is forcing scientists and doctors to search for new weapons in the fight against germs. Metallic silver nanoparticle (Ag0) and ionic silver (Ag+) are the future of the post-antibiotic era, with the latter playing perhaps the central role in this fight. Using the arc discharge method (ADM), our research has allowed us to fabricate silver nanoparticle suspension (SNPS) in deionized water with no added surfactants. Most related research in this field is confined to explore the composition of nanoparticle, ignoring ions. However, we aim to identify and measure the proportion of ionic silver in ADM-SNPS, using conductivity meters, centrifuges, titrator, and atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AA). The results of our experiments show that SNPS fabricated by means of ADM with no added surfactants contains metallic silver nanoparticle and ionic silver. The fabrication consumes silver rods at a rate of 100 mg/min, yielding metallic silver nanoparticle and ionic silver with concentrations of approximately 11 ppm and 19 ppm, respectively.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds.
ABSTRACT: A new method using the arc discharge method (ADM) to synthesize gold nanoparticles in an anhydrous ethanol was studied. Fabricated gold nanoparticles were characterized by different techniques. Unlike conventional methods for metal nanoparticles synthesis, the ADM method does not require application of chemical surfactants and stabilizers. The microstructure of ADM-produced gold nanoparticles was examined by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The particle size was found in the range of 2–40 nm. The chemical composition of gold nanoparticles has been confirmed by the energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). The crystal structure of the nanoscale gold particles was studied using the X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. Images of the gold nanoparticles, Zeta potential, size distribution, and ultraviolet–visible (UV–vis) absorbance were investigated. This innovative approach for gold nanoparticles preparation has been successfully established. The experimental results showed that the ADM technique is easy, cheap and clean method which can be used to manufacture gold nanoparticles suspended in ethanol solution without any surfactant.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds 472:446-450. · 2.29 Impact Factor