Celeste Y Kang

University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, United States

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Publications (12)42.23 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE The use of epidural analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal surgery has demonstrated superiority over conventional analgesia in controlling pain. Controversy exists, however, regarding its cost-effectiveness and its effect on postoperative outcomes. OBJECTIVES To examine the use of epidural analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal surgery at the national level and to compare its outcomes with those of conventional analgesia. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS This is a retrospective review of laparoscopic colorectal cases performed with or without epidural analgesia for cancer, diverticular disease, and benign polyps. Patient demographic characteristics, disease and procedure types, and hospital settings were listed for patients in the epidural and conventional analgesia groups. A 1 to 4 case-matched analysis was performed, matching for patient demographic characteristics, hospital setting, indications, and procedure type. Data were obtained from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample between January 1, 2002, and December 31, 2010. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total hospital charge, length of stay, mortality, pneumonia, respiratory failure, urinary tract infection, urinary retention, anastomotic leak, and postoperative ileus. RESULTS A total of 191 576 laparoscopic colorectal cases were identified during the study period. Epidural analgesia was used in 4102 cases (2.14%). Epidurals were more likely to be used in large teaching hospitals, cancer cases, and rectal operations. On case-matched analysis, epidural analgesia was associated with a longer hospital stay by 0.60 day (P = .003), higher hospital charges by $3732.71 (P = .02), and higher rate of urinary tract infection (odds ratio = 1.81; P = .05). Epidural analgesia did not affect the incidence of respiratory failure, pneumonia, anastomotic leak, ileus, or urinary retention. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The perioperative use of epidural analgesia in laparoscopic colorectal surgery is limited in the United States. While epidural analgesia appears to be safe, it comes with higher hospital charges, longer hospital stay, and a higher incidence of urinary tract infections.
    JAMA surgery. 12/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: While robotic-assisted colorectal surgery (RACS) is becoming increasingly popular, data comparing its outcomes to other established techniques remain limited to small case series. Moreover, there are no large studies evaluating the trends of RACS at the national level. METHODS: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009-2010 was retrospectively reviewed for robotic-assisted and laparoscopic colorectal procedures performed for cancer, benign polyps, and diverticular disease. Trends in different settings, indications, and demographics were analyzed. Multivariate regression analysis was used to compare selected outcomes between RACS and conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS). RESULTS: An estimated 128,288 colorectal procedures were performed through minimally invasive techniques over the study period, and RACS was used in 2.78 % of cases. From 2009 to 2010, the use of robotics increased in all hospital settings but was still more common in large, urban, and teaching hospitals. Rectal cancer was the most common indication for RACS, with a tendency toward its selective use in male patients. On multivariate analysis, robotic surgery was associated with higher hospital charges in colonic ($11,601.39; 95 % CI 6,921.82-16,280.97) and rectal cases ($12,964.90; 95 % CI 6,534.79-19,395.01), and higher rates of postoperative bleeding in colonic cases (OR = 2.15; 95 % CI 1.27- 3.65). RACS was similar to CLS with respect to length of hospital stay, morbidity, anastomotic leak, and ileus. Conversion to open surgery was significantly lower in robotic colonic and rectal procedures (0.41; 95 % CI 0.25-0.67) and (0.10; 95 % CI 0.06-0.16), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The use of RACS is still limited in the United States. However, its use increased over the study period despite higher associated charges and no real advantages over laparoscopy in terms of outcome. The one advantage is lower conversion rates.
    World Journal of Surgery 04/2013; · 2.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: Colonic volvulus is a rare entity associated with high mortality rates. Most studies come from areas of high endemicity and are limited by small numbers. No studies have investigated trends, outcomes, and predictors of mortality at the national level. METHODS:: The Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2002-2010 was retrospectively reviewed for colonic volvulus cases admitted emergently. Patients' demographics, hospital factors, and outcomes of the different procedures were analyzed. The LASSO algorithm for logistic regression was used to build a predictive model for mortality in cases of sigmoid (SV) and cecal volvulus (CV) taking into account preoperative and operative variables. RESULTS:: An estimated 3,351,152 cases of bowel obstruction were admitted in the United States over the study period. Colonic volvulus was found to be the cause in 63,749 cases (1.90%). The incidence of CV increased by 5.53% per year whereas the incidence of SV remained stable. SV was more common in elderly males (aged 70 years), African Americans, and patients with diabetes and neuropsychiatric disorders. In contrast, CV was more common in younger females. Nonsurgical decompression alone was used in 17% of cases. Among cases managed surgically, resective procedures were performed in 89% of cases, whereas operative detorsion with or without fixation procedures remained uncommon. Mortality rates were 9.44% for SV, 6.64% for CV, 17% for synchronous CV and SV, and 18% for transverse colon volvulus. The LASSO algorithm identified bowel gangrene and peritonitis, coagulopathy, age, the use of stoma, and chronic kidney disease as strong predictors of mortality. CONCLUSIONS:: Colonic volvulus is a rare cause of bowel obstruction in the United States and is associated with high mortality rates. CV and SV affect different populations and the incidence of CV is on the rise. The presence of bowel gangrene and coagulopathy strongly predicts mortality, suggesting that prompt diagnosis and management are essential.
    Annals of surgery 03/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION:: Gallstone ileus is a mechanical bowel obstruction caused by a biliary calculus originating from a bilioenteric fistula. Because of the limited number of reported cases, the optimal surgical method of treatment has been the subject of ongoing debate. METHODS:: A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2004 to 2009 was performed for gallstone ileus cases treated surgically by enterotomy with stone extraction alone (ES), enterotomy and cholecystectomy with fistula closure (EF), bowel resection alone (BR), and bowel resection with fistula closure (BF). Patient demographics, hospital factors, comorbidities, and postoperative outcomes were reported. Multivariate analysis was performed comparing mortality, morbidity, length of stay, and total cost for the different procedure types. RESULTS:: Of the estimated 3,452,536 cases of mechanical bowel obstruction from 2004 to 2009, 3268 (0.095%) were due to gallstone ileus-an incidence lower than previously reported. The majority of patients were elderly women (>70%). ES was the most commonly performed procedure (62% of patients) followed by EF (19% of cases). In 19%, a bowel resection was required. The most common complication was acute renal failure (30.44% of cases). In-hospital mortality was 6.67%. On multivariate analysis, EF and BR were independently associated with higher mortality than ES [(odds ratio [OR] = 2.86; confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-7.07) and (OR = 2.96; CI: 1.26-6.96) respectively]. BR was also associated with a higher complication rate, OR = 1.98 (CI: 1.13-3.46). CONCLUSIONS:: Gallstone ileus is a rare surgical disease affecting mainly the elderly female population. Mortality rates appear to be lower than previously reported in the literature. Enterotomy with stone extraction alone appears to be associated with better outcomes than more invasive techniques.
    Annals of surgery 01/2013; · 7.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Due to safety concerns, the use of laparoscopy in high-risk colorectal surgery patients has been limited. Small reports have demonstrated the benefit of laparoscopy in this population; however, large comparative studies are lacking. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective review of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009 was conducted. Patients undergoing elective colorectal resections for benign and malignant pathology were included in the high-risk group if they had at least two of the following criteria: age > 70, obesity, smoking, anemia, congestive heart failure, valvular disease, diabetes mellitus, chronic pulmonary, kidney and liver disease. Using multivariate logistic regression, the outcomes of laparoscopic surgery were compared to open and converted surgery. RESULTS: Of 145,600 colorectal surgery cases, 32.79% were high-risk. High-risk patients had higher mortality, hospital charges, and longer hospital stay compared to low-risk patients. The use of laparoscopy was lower in the high-risk group with higher conversion rates. In high-risk patients, compared to open surgery, laparoscopy was associated with lower mortality (OR = 0.60), shorter hospital stay, lower charges, decreased respiratory failure (OR = 0.53), urinary tract infection (OR = 0.64), anastomotic leak (OR = 0.69) and wound complications (OR = 0.46). Conversion to open surgery was not associated with higher mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopy in high-risk colorectal patients is safe and may demonstrate advantages compared to open surgery.
    Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery 12/2012; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Specific International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, codes for laparoscopic procedures introduced in 2008 allow a more accurate evaluation of laparoscopic colorectal surgery. METHODS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009, a retrospective analysis of surgical colorectal cancer and diverticulitis patients was conducted. Logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios comparing the outcomes of laparoscopic, open, and converted surgery. RESULTS: A total of 121,910 patients underwent resection for cancer and diverticulitis, 35.41% of whom underwent laparoscopic surgery. Compared with open surgery, laparoscopic surgery had lower postoperative complication rates, lower mortality, shorter hospital stays, and lower costs. Compared to open surgery, laparoscopic surgery independently decreased mortality, postoperative anastomotic leak, urinary tract infection, ileus or obstruction, pneumonia, respiratory failure, and wound infection. Converted surgery was independently associated with anastomotic leak, wound infection, ileus or obstruction, and urinary tract infection. CONCLUSIONS: Laparoscopic colorectal surgery has lower postoperative complications, lower mortality, lower costs, and shorter hospital stays. Conversion had higher complications compared with laparoscopy. The use of laparoscopy should increase with efforts to minimize conversion.
    American journal of surgery 10/2012; · 2.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Extralevator abdominoperineal resection (E-APR) has been advocated as a superior procedure to achieve negative circumferential resection margins (CRMs) for sphincter-invading rectal cancers. An open total mesorectal excision is performed followed by perineal dissection with resection of the levators in the prone position. We describe a novel minimally invasive robotic approach carried out in the lithotomy position. Using the robotic arms to dissect the rectum and divide the levator fibers at their origin, the dissection is carried out in the ischiorectal space as distally as possible. From May to July 2011, six cases of robotic E-APR for rectal cancer were performed. The mean age was 54.5 years old. Mean operating time was 335 minutes. Mean estimated blood loss was 250 mL. There were no conversions to the open approach. A cylindrical specimen was obtained in all patients without perforation. All CRMs were negative. Mean hospital stay was 5 days. Two patients developed perineal wound infections and one developed a small bowel obstruction postoperatively. Robotic-assisted E-APR performed in the lithotomy position is safe and feasible. Future studies are needed to define the benefits of this technique.
    The American surgeon 10/2012; 78(10):1033-7. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze risk factors for postoperative urinary tract infection (UTI) and urinary retention (UR) in patients with colorectal cancer. Using Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2006-2009, a retrospective analysis of surgical patients with colorectal cancer was conducted. Patients were stratified into groups, with or without UTI/UR. The LASSO algorithm for logistic regression identified independent risk factors. A total of 93,931 surgical patients with colorectal cancer were identified. The incidences of UTI and UR were 5.91 and 2.52 per cent, respectively. Overall in-hospital mortality was 2.68 per cent. The UTI group demonstrated significantly higher in-hospital mortality rates compared with those without. Both UTI and UR groups were associated with prolonged hospital stay and increased hospital charge. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed age older than 60 years, females, anemia, congestive heart failure, coagulopathy, diabetes with chronic complications, fluid and electrolyte, paralysis, pulmonary circulation disorders, renal failure, and weight loss were independent risk factors of UTI. Age older than 60 years, male gender, rectal and rectosigmoid cancers, and postoperative anastomotic leakage and ileus were independent risk factors for UR. Postoperative UTI increases in-house mortality. Postoperative UTI/UR in patients with colorectal cancer increases length of stay and hospital charges. Knowledge of these specific risk factors for UTI and UR is needed to counsel patients and prevent these complications in this high-risk population.
    The American surgeon 10/2012; 78(10):1100-4. · 0.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND The risk factors for anastomotic leak (AL) after anterior resection have been evaluated in several studies and remain controversial as the findings are often inconsistent or inconclusive. OBJECTIVE To analyze the risk factors for AL after anterior resection in patients with rectal cancer. DESIGN Retrospective analysis. SETTING The Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2006 to 2009. PATIENTS A total of 72 055 patients with rectal cancer who underwent elective anterior resection. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES To build a predictive model for AL using demographic characteristics and preadmission comorbidities, the lasso algorithm for logistic regression was used to select variables most predictive of AL. RESULTS The AL rate was 13.68%. The AL group had higher mortality vs the non-AL group (1.78% vs 0.74%). Hospital length of stay and cost were significantly higher in the AL group. Laparoscopic and open resections with a diverting stoma had a higher incidence of AL than those without a stoma (15.97% vs 13.25%). Multivariate analysis revealed that weight loss and malnutrition, fluid and electrolyte disorders, male sex, and stoma placement were associated with a higher risk of AL. The use of laparoscopy was associated with a lower risk of AL. Postoperative ileus, wound infection, respiratory/renal failure, urinary tract infection, pneumonia, deep vein thrombosis, and myocardial infarction were independently associated with AL. CONCLUSIONS Anastomotic leak after anterior resection increased mortality rates and health care costs. Weight loss and malnutrition, fluid and electrolyte disorders, male sex, and stoma placement independently increased the risk of leak. Laparoscopy independently decreased the risk of leak. Further studies are needed to delineate the significance of these findings.
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 09/2012; · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Knowledge of the independent risk factors for mortality in colon and rectal surgery can aid surgeons in surgical decision making and in providing patients with appropriate information about the risks of surgery. This study endeavors to identify the risk factors for mortality that are associated with colon and rectal surgery. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we examined the clinical data of patients who underwent colon and rectal resection from 2006 to 2008. Multivariate regression analysis was performed to identify factors predictive of in-hospital mortality. A total of 975,825 patients underwent colon and rectal resection during this period. Overall, the rate of in-hospital mortality was 4.50% (elective surgery, 1.42% vs emergent surgery, 8.76%; p < 0.01). Mortality was lower after laparoscopic compared with open operation (1.43% vs 4.74%; p < 0.01). Using multivariate regression analysis, significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality were emergent surgery (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 3.53), liver disease (AOR = 3.02), age older than 65 years (AOR = 2.92), total colectomy (AOR = 2.88), chronic renal failure (AOR = 2.37), malignant tumor (AOR = 2.0), open operation (AOR = 1.85), peripheral vascular disease (AOR = 1.81), diverticulitis (AOR = 1.77), transverse colectomy (AOR = 1.43), chronic lung disease (AOR = 1.41), ulcerative colitis (AOR = 1.40), left colectomy (AOR = 1.31), alcohol abuse (AOR = 1.21), male sex (AOR = 1.12), nonteaching hospital (AOR = 1.11), and African-American race (AOR = 1.09). There was no association between hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, obesity, smoking, proctectomy, sigmoidectomy, or Crohn disease and in-hospital mortality. In patients undergoing colorectal surgery, emergent surgery, liver disease, total colectomy, age older than 65 years, chronic renal failure, and malignant tumor are the major risk factors for in-hospital mortality.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 05/2012; 215(2):255-61. · 4.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The latest trends of laparoscopic colorectal surgery (LCRS) after the introduction of International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision laparoscopic procedure codes in 2008 remains unknown. This study evaluates LCRS trends before and after the application of specific codes for LCRS. Retrospective analysis of elective surgery for colon cancer, rectal cancer, and diverticulitis using Nationwide Inpatient Sample data from 2007 and 2009. Primary outcome measures included in-hospital mortality, length of stay, and total charge. A total of 126 921 patients in 2007 and 117 177 patients in 2009 underwent colorectal surgery. Laparoscopic colorectal surgery increased dramatically from 13.8% in 2007 to 42.6% in 2009 (P.01). This trendwas disease and procedure specific. When compared with 2007, patients who underwent LCRS in 2009 had lower conversion rates (14.8% vs 32.1%, P.001). In 2009, LCRS had lower in-hospital mortality (0.5% vs 1.1%, P.001) and a shorter length of hospital stay (5 vs 6 days, P.001) compared with open surgery. In 2009, when compared with successful LCRS, conversion to open surgery was associated with a longer length of hospital stay (6 vs 5 days, P.01), increased hospital charges, and increased mortality (0.7% vs 0.5%, P.01). The marked increase in LCRS when comparing these 2 years is unlikely only due to the changing practice of colorectal surgery but brings into question the accuracy of data prior to 2009. Our report of Nationwide Inpatient Sample 2009 data represents the most accurate reflection of the use of LCRS in the United States. These data can serve as a benchmark for future comparative studies.
    Archives of surgery (Chicago, Ill.: 1960) 04/2012; 147(8):724-31. · 4.32 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Early postoperative bowel obstruction is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality after colorectal surgery. We evaluated the impact of patient characteristics, patient comorbidities, pathology, resection site, surgical technique, admission type, and teaching hospital status on the incidence of in-hospital bowel obstruction after colorectal surgery. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, we examined the clinical data of patients who underwent colorectal resection from 2006 to 2008. Regression analyses were performed to identify factors predictive of in-hospital bowel obstruction. A total of 975,825 patients underwent colorectal resection during this period. Overall, the rate of postoperative bowel obstruction was 8.65% (elective surgery: 5.32% vs emergent surgery: 13.26%; p < 0.01). Bowel obstruction was less frequent after laparoscopic procedures compared with open procedures (6.61% vs 8.81%; p < 0.01). Using multivariate regression analysis, Crohn disease (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 12.32), emergent surgery (AOR = 2.54), malignant tumor (AOR = 1.84), diverticulitis (AOR = 1.45), age older than 65 years (AOR = 1.22), female sex (AOR = 1.14), history of alcohol abuse (AOR = 1.12), transverse colectomy (AOR = 1.11), peripheral vascular disease (AOR = 1.07), left colectomy (AOR = 1.06), chronic lung disease (AOR = 1.05), open procedure (AOR = 1.05), African-American race (AOR = 1.03), and teaching hospital (AOR = 1.02) were associated with a higher risk of in-hospital bowel obstruction. There was no association between hypertension, diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure, liver disease, obesity, smoking, proctectomy or total colectomy, and early bowel obstruction. Early bowel obstruction is a relatively common complication after colorectal surgery. Crohn disease patients had a 12-fold higher incidence of early bowel obstruction, and emergent surgery and malignancy were relevant predictors of early bowel obstruction.
    Journal of the American College of Surgeons 03/2012; 214(5):831-7. · 4.50 Impact Factor