C I Stroh

Tel Aviv University, Tell Afif, Tel Aviv, Israel

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Publications (13)98.45 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence and extent of coronary calcium were retrospectively assessed by spiral computed tomography in 541 patients (mean age 62 +/- 9 years), of whom 101 had typical angina pectoris, 307 had atypical chest pain, and 133 were asymptomatic subjects with prominent atherosclerotic risk factors. The highest prevalence of coronary calcium was in men with angina pectoris (89%), whereas it was not detected in 48% of men and 56% of women with atypical chest pain.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 02/2001; 87(2):226-8, A9. · 3.21 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Blood flow in the aorta is complex and incompletely characterized. Mobile aortic plaques (MAPs), moving freely with the pulsatile aortic flow, in fact represent natural tracers that reflect the flow pattern itself. Our aim was to use MAP motion on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) in order to characterize flow patterns in the atheromatous thoracic aorta of patients with systemic emboli. The study group was recruited from 250 patients referred for TEE to evaluate recent embolism. Among them, 22 patients (14 men and 8 women; mean +/- SD age, 66.3 +/- 7.2 years; 16 patients with cerebrovascular and 6 patients with peripheral emboli) with MAPs of > or = 3 mm in length formed the study group. The longest amplitudes of three spatial components of mobile lesion motions were measured: x (antegrade/retrograde [A/R]), y (up/down [U/D], and z (right/left [R/L]). A total of 33 mobile lesions were detected: 3 in the ascending aorta (1 patient), 13 in the arch (10 patients), and 17 in the descending aorta (11 patients). The length of mobile plaque components ranged from 3 to 13 mm; amplitudes of A/R, U/d, R/L, and retrograde flow motions ranged from 3 to 26 mm, from 1 to 16 mm, from 1 to 17 mm, and from 1 to 13 mm, respectively. Systolic rotational motion was clockwise in six patients (27%), counterclockwise in five patients (23%), incomplete (semicircle) in six patients (27%), and alternate clockwise/counterclockwise in five patients (23%). Diastolic rotational motion was clockwise in 5 patients (23%), counterclockwise in 6 patients (27%), and incomplete (semicircle) in 11 patients (50%). There were 18 multiple MAPs in seven patients: in all these cases, simultaneous rotations of MAP in different directions (as a marker for the presence of multiple vortices) were found. In nine patients with cerebral embolism, MAPs on the distal part of aortic arch solely were found; in five of them, all alternative potential sources of stroke were excluded. Therefore, retrograde cerebral embolism from distal aortic plaques in these patients is highly probable. Retrograde and rotational blood flow in the thoracic aorta probably exists in all patients with systemic emboli and mobile protruding aortic atheromas. Therefore, retrograde cerebral embolism from distal aortic plaques is theoretically possible.
    Chest 12/2000; 118(6):1703-8. · 7.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Relatively light isometric exercise (handgrip) in heart transplant recipients induces attenuated increments in heart rate, blood pressure, and systemic vascular resistance, but hemodynamic response to whole-body, heavy isometric exercise is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate the influences of whole-body, heavy, isometric exercise on Doppler-derived parameters in these patients. We investigated 18 patients, aged 54.0 +/- 2 years, 1.6 +/- 1.0 years after cardiac transplantation and 18 sedentary healthy volunteers, aged 51.8 +/- 4 years (p = not significant). Patients performed supine, isometric exercise by stretching a whole-body isometric device at 50% of maximal voluntary contraction for 3 minutes. Resting heart rate, blood pressure, and rate-pressure product were higher in transplanted patients when compared with the healthy volunteers (p < 0.001 for all). However, during isometric exercise, these parameters increased to a lesser extent in the transplanted compared with the healthy subjects-heart rate, 12% vs 40% (p < 0.001); mean arterial pressure, 20% vs 27% (p < 0.05); and rate-pressure product, 39% vs 85% (p < 0.001). In the healthy volunteers, peak-flow velocity, mean acceleration, flow-velocity integral, and stroke volume decreased by 30% to 40% with isometric exercise (p < 0.001 for all), whereas systemic vascular resistance increased by 36% (p < 0.001) and cardiac output did not change. In the transplanted patients, all above parameters remained unchanged. Heavy, whole-body isometric exercise was well tolerated in heart transplant recipients in this study, without hemodynamic deterioration or other complications. With whole-body, heavy isometric exercise, Doppler-derived aortic flow parameters demonstrate blunted responses or remain unchanged among heart transplant recipients. The observed phenomenon may have implications for studies of exercise physiology in transplant recipients.
    The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation 11/2000; 19(11):1063-70. · 5.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the accuracy of dual-section spiral computed tomography (CT) in tracking the progression of coronary calcification, as measured during a 3-year follow-up. Two hundred forty-six patients with hypertension (mean age, 66 years +/- 6 [SD]) were preselected in accordance with the International Nifedipine Study Intervention as a Goal for Hypertension Therapy protocol. Subjects had no clinical coronary arterial disease prior to the study and no cardiovascular events during follow-up. All participants underwent baseline CT (3.2-mm section thickness; reconstruction increment, 1.5 mm) and follow-up CT after 3 years. Calcification progression was defined as any increase in total calcification score (TCS) and analyzed in accordance with five baseline TCS categories: 1-9, 10-35, 36-100, 101-250, and greater than 250. At baseline CT, 152 patients had a TCS greater than 0, and 106 (70%) showed progression after 3 years, while 94 had a baseline TCS of 0; of these, 26 (28%) showed progression (P: <.01 between groups). The mean TCS was significantly higher in each baseline TCS category after 3 years. The percentage increase was negatively correlated with baseline TCS (P: <.01) and ranged from 466% in the lowest category to 38% in the highest. Dual-section spiral CT depicts significant change in TCS over time and is useful in tracking calcified coronary atherosclerosis.
    Radiology 11/2000; 217(2):461-5. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protruding aortic atheromas are a potential source of stroke and systemic emboli. The single modality currently available for their detection has been transesophageal echocardiography. However, TEE does not allow full visualization of the upper part of the ascending aorta and proximal aortic arch. To investigate whether double helical computerized tomography--both with and without contrast injection--may represent a useful technique for noninvasive detection of PAA in stroke patients. Forty consecutive patients > or = 50 years of age who sustained a recent ischemic stroke and/or systemic emboli (within 15 days after the onset of the event) were enrolled in the study and underwent TEE and DHCT without contrast injection using thin slice acquisition (3.2 mm thickness and 1.5 mm reconstruction increment). In addition, the last eight consecutive patients, after obtaining an unenhanced scan, underwent a contrast-enhanced DHCT following peripheral intravenous injection of a small amount of contrast material (15 ml of diatrizoate). PAAs were demonstrated by TEE in 18 patients (45%); in 16 of them (89%) the atheromas were recognized by DHCT. Of the 22 patients without PAA on TEE, DHCT confirmed their absence in 18 (82%). DHCT yielded a sensitivity of 89%, a specificity of 82%, and an overall accuracy of 85%. The total number of protruding plaques detected by TEE was 43, of which 41 (95%) were correctly identified by DHCT. The mean thickness of the plaques was 5.6 +/- 2.4 mm on TEE, and 5.4 +/- 2.3 on DHCT (P = NS), with a good correlation between the modalities (r = 0.84). Contrast-enhanced DHCT scans demonstrated absolute equivalence to TEE in aortic areas defined as "clearly visualized by TEE." DHCT detected PAA between the distal ascending aorta and the proximal arch in seven patients; these atheromas were not included in the comparative analysis. In these "occult" areas, DHCT may be superior to TEE. DHCT without contrast injection using thin slice acquisition may become a useful modality for rapid noninvasive detection of PAA. Contrast-enhanced DHCT scans significantly improve imaging quality and may be superior to TEE in the upper ascending aorta and the proximal arch (areas not well visualized by TEE).
    The Israel Medical Association journal: IMAJ 02/2000; 2(1):1-5. · 0.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Tracking the progression of allograft atherosclerosis in heart transplant recipients is currently accomplished using invasive techniques. If its monitoring feasibility is demonstrated, spiral CT could be a non-invasive alternative for this objective. Twenty-four consecutive heart transplant patients (21 men, 3 women, mean age 55 +/- 11 years) were scanned using double-helical CT. The first scan was performed 1.9 +/- 1.3 years after transplantation. After 2 years of follow-up, 4 patients died and the remaining 20 underwent a second scan. All scans were performed according to a previously reported double-helical CT protocol. The incidence of coronary calcification at the first scan was 4.2% (1/24); it increased to 40% (8/20) at the second scan (P < 0.001). Spiral CT identified new but very mild calcific deposits in seven patients with a mean total calcium score of 6.7 +/- 4.0. Double-helical CT is a viable tool to diagnose and track newly developed allograft atherosclerosis.
    Investigative Radiology 08/1999; 34(7):485-8. · 5.46 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to characterize Doppler-derived hemodynamic parameters in heart transplant recipients at rest and during symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise. Eighteen sedentary patients aged 54.0 +/- 2 years, 1.6 +/- 1.0 years following cardiac transplantation, and 18 sedentary healthy volunteers aged 51.8 +/- 4 years were investigated. Basic hemodynamic parameters and Doppler-derived parameters were recorded at rest and at peak dynamic exercise. Resting heart rate, blood pressure and rate-pressure product were higher in the transplanted patients (p < 0.001). However, in comparison with the resting state, the increase in these parameters at exercise was lower in heart transplant recipients. In the healthy, dynamic exercise induced an increase in peak flow velocity, mean acceleration, flow velocity integral, stroke volume, cardiac output and cardiac index (p < 0.001 for all) while systemic vascular resistance, ejection time and acceleration time decreased (p < 0.001 for all). The following parameters increased in the transplanted patients at dynamic exercise: peak flow velocity, cardiac output and cardiac index (p < 0.001), mean acceleration (p < 0.01) and flow velocity integral (p < 0.05). Ejection time decreased (p < 0.05) and acceleration time and systemic vascular resistance remained unchanged. In conclusion, at rest peak flow velocity, mean acceleration, flow velocity integral and stroke volume are lower in the transplanted than in the healthy controls, while cardiac output, cardiac index and systemic vascular resistance are equal. Our study demonstrates attenuated responses of basic hemodynamic parameters and Doppler-derived cardiovascular indices at symptom-limited supine bicycle exercise in heart transplant recipients compared to healthy volunteers.
    Cardiology 01/1999; 92(3):204-9. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate whether unenhanced dual-helical computed tomography (CT) is useful in the rapid, noninvasive detection of protruding aortic atheromas. Thirty-two consecutive patients at least 50 years of age who had recent ischemic stroke, systemic emboli, or both, underwent transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and unenhanced dual-helical CT with thin sections (section thickness, 3.2 mm; reconstruction increment, 1.5 mm). TEE demonstrated protruding aortic atheromas 15 patients (47%); dual-helical CT depicted protruding aortic atheromas in 13 of those 15 patients (87%). Of the 17 patients without a protruding aortic atheroma at TEE, dual-helical CT helped confirm the absence in 14 (82%). Dual-helical CT yielded a sensitivity of 87%, a specificity of 82%, and an overall accuracy of 84%. Thirty-six protruding plaques were detected with TEE, of which 34 (94%) were correctly identified with dual-helical CT. Of those 34 plaques, 27 (79%) contained variable amounts of calcium and seven (21%) showed hypoattenuation suggestive of soft plaques and thrombi. In six patients, dual-helical CT depicted a protruding aortic atheroma between the distal ascending aorta and the proximal arch; these plaques were not included in the comparative statistics and were analyzed separately. Unenhanced dual-helical CT with thin sections appears to be useful for the rapid, noninvasive detection of a protruding aortic atheroma, especially in areas not clearly visualized with TEE.
    Radiology 08/1998; 208(1):153-8. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Protruding aortic plaques--especially those with mobile properties--on transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) are a potential source of stroke and systemic embolism in the elderly. Whether the various morphologies of atheromas with mobile components represent potential differences in the risk for embolic events has not been thoroughly elucidated. The goal of the present study was to determine the association between embolic events and the various types of mobile lesions in the thoracic aorta. Our population consisted of 569 consecutive patients (age 18-83 years) referred for TEE over 27 months; 108 (19%) of them were referred to evaluate recent embolism (cerebral in 97 and peripheral or both in 11; group I) and the remaining 461 were admitted for reasons unrelated to embolism (group II). In group I, 35 patients (32%) exhibited protruding plaques; those were fixed in 10 (9%) and with a mobile component in 25 (23%). In group II, plaques were found in only 13 patients (3%); fixed in 9 (2%) and mobile in 4 (1 %). Twenty-four patients with mobile lesions in group I were > 50 years old, and 21 of them (88%) were > 60 years old. While the presence of fixed plaques was associated with a moderate increase in the risk for systemic embolism (adjusted odds ratio 4.1; 95% confidence interval 1.3-56.4), mobile lesions were linked to a striking augmentation of this risk (odds ratio 30.1; 95% confidence interval 7.8-132.6). The majority of mobile lesions (76%) in group I represented disrupted atheromas with characteristic ulcerations or echolucency within the plaque suggestive of intraatheroma hemorrhage, whereas these TEE features were not observed in 89% of the mobile lesions in group II (p = 0.0003). We conclude that among the various types of mobile aortic lesions, the disrupted protruding plaques are a major risk factor for stroke and embolic events in the elderly.
    Cardiology 05/1998; 89(4):246-51. · 1.52 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Although coronary calcium is invariably associated with atherosclerosis, its role in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic coronary syndromes remains unclear. Utilizing double helical computerized tomography we evaluated the coronary calcium patterns in 149 patients: 47 with chronic stable angina (SAP) compared with 102 patients surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Prevalence of coronary calcium was 81% among the AMI patients and 100% in the stable angina patients. The 547 calcific lesions identified in the AMI patients and the 1,242 lesions in the stable angina patients were categorized into 3 groups according to their extent: mild, intermediate, and extensive. The age-adjusted percentages of the highest level of calcification among AMI versus stable angina patients were: mild 18% vs 3%, intermediate 49% vs 18%, and extensive lesions 33% vs 79%, respectively (p <0.01). In the AMI group, 73 culprit arteries were identified: 16 (22%) had no calcium detected, whereas 30 (41%) had mild lesions, 20 (27%) had intermediate forms, and only 7 (10%) had extensive lesions. The age-adjusted mean of the natural logarithm transformation of total calcium scores +1 was significantly lower in patients with AMI than in those with SAP (4.1 [95% confidence interval 3.7 to 4.4) vs 5.3 [95% confidence interval 4.8 to 5.8]). Thus, double helical computerized tomography demonstrates that extensive calcium characterizes the coronary arteries of patients with chronic stable angina, whereas a first AMI most often occurs in mildly calcified or noncalcified culprit arteries.
    The American Journal of Cardiology 02/1998; · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • The American Journal of Cardiology 01/1998; 81(3). · 3.21 Impact Factor
  • Journal of The American College of Cardiology - J AMER COLL CARDIOL. 01/1998; 31:450-450.
  • C I Stroh, J Shemesh, M Motro
    New England Journal of Medicine 09/1996; 335(8):595; author reply 596. · 54.42 Impact Factor