[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Drinking behavior produces a reduction in the unpleasant dry-mouth sensations that accompany thirst. However, it is unclear whether or not the termination of drinking behavior is governed by a mechanism that meters this process. Twenty-two participants were tested in both a "dry mouth" and a control condition. In the dry-mouth condition, they exercised for 20 min. Participants then placed two cotton-wool rolls in each cheek, adjacent to the upper and the lower teeth with the mouth closed, and then drank water through a straw until they felt satiated. The control condition was identical except that participants placed only a single roll in each cheek, adjacent to the lower teeth. Pilot testing confirmed that using two rolls in each cheek reduced saliva volume in the main oral cavity more effectively than one roll. In both conditions, thirst increased after exercise. However, intake volumes, the number of drinking bouts, and the duration of the drinking episodes, were significantly greater in the dry-mouth condition (means; episode = 93.8 s, bouts = 7.0, volume = 428 mL) than in the control condition (means; episode = 69.3 s, bouts = 4.7, volume = 300 mL). These findings suggest that the termination of drinking behavior is governed by changes in mouth dryness. More specifically, saliva production increases during drinking, and this attenuates the need to continue drinking to relieve mouth dryness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a test of theoretical predictions made by MacRae and Falahee (1993), trained assessors evaluated water samples which sometimes contained 10−5 mg/l of trichloroanisole, using three different procedures. Compared with the blue-book method of single-sample assessment, providing a reference sample identified to the assessor as being odour-free increased the proportion of responses reporting an odour. This decreased the number of odorous samples missed. Although this outcome may be valuable in itself, discrimination between odorous and odour-free samples was not really enhanced since ‘false alarms’ increased correspondingly. Incorporating additional, different odours into the sequence of samples and giving knowledge of results when these were judged, dramatically improved performance — the rates both of missing trichloroanisole and of mistakenly attributing odour to odour-free samples were halved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The immediate post-ingestive effects of temperature on thirst reduction were explored. Thirst was assessed by both ratings and a volume selection task. Supplementary ratings assessed mouth dryness and stomach fullness. All measures were taken before and 0, 2.5 and 5 min after drinking one of four water samples (150 ml/5 degrees C, 400 ml/5 degrees C, 150 ml/22 degrees C or 400 ml/22 degrees C). After 2.5 min, the cold sample produced greater reductions than the warmer sample in (i) the thirst ratings of males who received 400-ml samples, and (ii) the volume selections of females who received 150-ml samples. It is proposed that temperature influenced thirst reduction because of its differential effects on the post-ingestive state of the mouth.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Twenty untrained assessors took part in repeated similarity sorting and preference ranking tasks on five separate occasions. The same three drinking water types were assessed on each trial, and the sample set to be assessed included duplicate and blended samples. A satisfactory level of agreement between assessors' responses for each testing session was obtained, indicating that these tasks can be consistently performed by untrained assessors. Multidimensional scaling of the grouping and ranking data produced reliable and interpretable solutions (although a vector model of the preference data was not satisfactory). Duplicate pairs of samples were grouped together and different water types were spatially separated in the resulting configurations. The position of blended samples in relation to the water types of which they were comprised was also often interpretable. It is concluded that simple sorting and ranking procedures can be efficient methods for the collection of consistent sensory data from untrained consumers on qualitative variation among drinking waters, and that multidimensional scaling can provide a valid model of such data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An artificial mouth-drying procedure was used to assess the impact of mouth-dryness on the pleasantness of drinks. Experiment 1 showed that mouth dryness increases the pleasantness of 3 °C water more than warmer water (13 °C, 23 °C and 33 °C). Experiment 2 showed that mouth dryness increases the pleasantness of a high acid (3.5g 1000 ml−1) lime drink, but not a medium (1.75g 1000 ml−1) or a low acid (0 g 1000 ml−1) lime drink. In both experiments, elevated saliva flow rates were recorded for those drinks that were regarded as more pleasant in the dry-mouth condition than in the control condition. Shifts in preference may be linked to saliva flow because mouth-wetting drinks may offer greater relief from dry-mouth sensations. Our interpretation implies that an adjustment of palatability assessment procedures, taking into account mouth-state effects, may now be warranted.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Dehydration increases the pleasantness of cold (0 degrees C) water (Boulze et al., 1983, Physiol. Behav. 30:97-102, 1983). The hypothesis that the mouth dryness induced by dehydration mediates this hedonic shift was investigated. Hydrated assessors (n = 16) judged 3 degrees C water as more pleasant after artificial mouth drying than did controls (n = 16). Mouth drying failed to influence similar judgements of water 13 degrees C, 23 degrees C, and 33 degrees C. We propose that preference shifts depend on temperature because cold water offers more rewarding relief from the sensations resulting from mouth dryness. Measures on saliva production were consistent with this proposal. Assessors swilled with water (3 degrees C, 13 degrees C, 23 degrees C, and 33 degrees C) for 5 s and then emptied their mouths. Measures of subsequent saliva flow confirmed that cold (3 degrees C) water induces an elevated rate of saliva flow and consequently leaves the mouth in a wetter state.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes a method for simultaneous arrangement of part families and machine cells for cellular manufacturing systems. A unique feature of the proposed method is that it takes into account the relevant production data such as production volume, alternate routings and process sequences. It also has the ability to select the best alternative routing in terms of cell formation for each part before attempting to cluster the machines and the parts. The formation of the part families and the machine cells has been treated as a minimization problem according to a defined cost function. A genetic algorithm is then developed for solving the minimization problem. Two examples are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed method. The strength of this method lies behind its independence from initial conditions and type of objective function.
Computer Integrated Manufacturing Systems 05/1997; 10(2). DOI:10.1016/S0951-5240(97)00001-3
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two experiments evaluated the properties of polygon displays and bar graphs as fault indicator for systems with many parameters. A modified visual search paradigm was used to test the effectiveness of different display configurations to be check-read for the presence of abnormal ('target') readings. Whether the task was to detect the occurrence of a single abnormal (off-limits) parameter or count the number of abnormal parameters, both displays yielded response times and error rates that were independent of the total number (from 4 to 16) of displayed parameters. When the task was fault detection, the subjects performed equally well with both types of displays. When the task was counting the number of abnormalities, performance with the bar graph was independent of the number of abnormalities but performance with the polygon display was poorer overall and deteriorated with larger numbers of abnormalities. The results contradict either the proximity-compatibility hypothesis of Wickens or the traditional classification of polygons and bar graphs as typical integral and separable displays, respectively. The results are best characterized in terms of the similarity relations between and among 'target' and 'nontarget' parameters.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: One of the major advantages of the triangle test to set against its low statistical power is its potential for revealing discriminable sensory differences when the nature of the difference is unknown. That makes it an attractive tool for seeking assurance that there is no sensory difference between samples (after a process change, for instance). Mere absence of significant difference is completely inadequate to give that reassurance and power analysis is much better. However, power analysis requires three somewhat arbitrary parameter values to be selected in advance. An alternative approach based on exact binomial confidence intervals is described which needs only a single parameter, comparable to the alpha level in a test of significance, to be specified. It is shown that the amount of data usually envisaged for seeking reassurance about lack of difference is much too small to do the task adequately.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Two non-quantitative, non-descriptive procedures, similarity sorting and preference ranking, were used to compare the tastes of 13 different water types. Each procedure was conducted with a different set of completely untrained assessors. A total of 25 assessors took part in the sorting procedure and 87 in the ranking procedure. After multidimensional scaling there was good agreement between the spatial configurations of sample types given by the two procedures. In both configurations there was distinct clustering of the different water types. Bottled and untreated waters were preferred to distilled and tap waters by the majority of the assessors. Carbon filtration did not appear to make a large improvement to the acceptability of tap and distilled waters, but did alter the character of tap water as perceived by the assessors. It is concluded that the procedures and analyses are efficient and economical methods of obtaining detailed information about sensory differences among water types and the perception of water quality and are suitable for use with untrained assessors and large numbers of sample types.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The Thurstone-Ura model of triangle and 3AFC judgements explains the greater statistical power of 3AFC tests compared with triangular tests, but its mathematical expression is abstract. However, if the subjective differences among samples are represented on isometric co-ordinates, it is possible to express a Thurstone model of the triangle and 3AFC tasks as a bivariate normal distribution divided into segments by straight lines representing optimal decision rules. The triangle and 3AFC have different optimal decision rules and hence different segment shapes, which account for the tests' different relationships between sensory acuity and the probability of making a correct response. The isometric representation makes the same predictions of these relationships as more abstract formulations but is much easier to represent graphically and to explain to non-specialists.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Polygon displays compress information that would otherwise be conveyed by separate indicators into a single display in which each reading is represented by the distance of a polygon vertex from its center. The effect on detection of fault states of varying the number of polygon vertices from 4 to 20 in a display presented peripherally around a dynamic, simulated flight display was studied. Presence of the dynamic task reduced both speed and accuracy of response to the polygon display but did not significantly affect the pattern of response to differing numbers of vertices. All measures of performance were better with larger numbers of vertices. If the vertices are processed serially, more vertices require more processing time. Therefore, the result argues for holistic processing and implies that such information integration is beneficial to human performance in fault detection.
Human Factors The Journal of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 01/1995; 36(4):645-51. DOI:10.1177/001872089403600406 · 1.69 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Threshold models indicate that the best way to improve the effectiveness of sensory screening of water at the point of production is to give assessors sensory training, but we argue that it is likely to be ineffective. The notion of sensory threshold has been displaced in psychophysics by signal-detection models which assume that the assessor is uncertain on every trial, but makes an unconscious decision about the presence or absence of the attribute. The decision can be influenced by many factors other than the strength of the attribute and the sensitivity of the assessor Taking account of possible changes in response criterion as well as in sensory sensitivity indicates a quite different way of improving sensory screening by attempting to counteract vigilance decrement and the effects of relative judgement. This approach indicates that, rather than trying to increase the sensitivity of assessors, we should aim to prevent shifts in response criterion and the transmission of errors from one sample to the next. A method that has proved successful with industrial inspection and military watchkeeping is to add artificial ‘signals’ to those being assessed and give the assessors immediate feedback on their success in judging them.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Earlier data showed that subjects presented with two samples of distilled water and one of tap water were significantly more consistent in choosing the tap water as preferred than in identifying it as the odd sample in the set. The results were sometimes interpreted as demonstrating greater sensitivity for hedonic judgments than for oddity judgments. They are now shown to be explained by the statistical properties of the decision rules followed in different judgment tasks. In a new experiment, oddity and preference judgements were obtained in a replication of the original task with extra conditions. In two of the new conditions, the decision structure of a preference task was the same as that for the oddity task; in these conditions, performance was no better than with explicit oddity responses. The Thurstone-Ura model of triangle judgments proposed by Frijters predicts the results as an outcome of the greater statistical power of three-alternative forced choice tests compared with triangular tests. An excellent fit to all the data is given by a model wherein all subjects have the same d' for the difference between the water types but 25% of them prefer distilled water to tap water.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The odours of five carbonyls: heptanone, octanone, octenal, nonenal and decadienal, and two mixtures of each ketone with each aldehyde, giving 17 sample types in all, were compared using two non-quantitative, non-descriptive procedures: sorting and the method of triads. Each procedure was conducted with a different set of eight completely untrained assessors. After non-metric, multi-dimensional scaling the two procedures gave similar groupings of odours which also agreed well with results obtained previously using only eleven sample types and a much larger number of very experienced assessors. The ketones and aldehydes clustered at opposite poles of the diagrams with the mixtures lying between the positions of their components. It is concluded that the procedures are suitable for use with untrained assessors and large numbers of sample types and the results are robust, especially in the case of the sorting procedure.
Chemical Senses 04/1992; 17:119-125. DOI:10.1093/chemse/17.2.119 · 3.16 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Subjects presented with sets of three samples, two of distilled water and one of tap water, were significantly more consistent in choosing the tap water as preferable than they were in identifying it as the odd sample in the set. The result is opposite to the prediction of high-threshold models of sensory discrimination, which say that if a difference is not noticed, preferences will be random, whereas if a difference is noticed, preferences may still be in either direction. The result can be quantitatively explained by a model advanced by Frijters to explain an analogous anomaly found with the triangle test used in the food industry. Applying his model to the observed proportions yields essentially equivalent estimates of sensory difference (d' = 1.5, approximately) from the two tasks, and a direction of preference almost unanimously in favor of the tap water that was used. Since the model predicts that the proportion of subjects choosing the odd item will depart further from chance in the preference task than in the oddity task, the former has greater power to reject the null hypothesis of no sensory difference if one exists and if preference is overwhelmingly in one direction.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were kept in fresh water tanks for 24 h and exposed to one of seven concentrations of diesel, using a flow-through system with used water discharged to waste. The concentrations ranged from 0.0087 to 0.87 mg.1-1 (0.01 to 1.0 tilt). An experienced taste panel assessed the degree of taint in the cooked fish by four different procedures. These were the triangular test, three-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) and two forms of rating scale. The triangular and 3-AFC procedures yielded similar estimates of threshold, the estimate from the combined data being approximately 0.08 mg.V. Although the 3-AFC procedure has some advantages, they are not sufficient to recommend it in place of the triangular test. Both methods showed better ability to discriminate low levels of taint than the quantitative rating procedures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The odours of five carbonyls (heptanone, octanone, octenal, nonenal and decadienal) and the pair-wise mixtures of each ketone with each aldehyde were compared using two non-scaler, non-descriptive procedures: sorting, and the method of triads. In the sorting procedure, 24 assessors each sorted the 11 substances into sets having similar odours. The number of times a pair of substances was put into the same set was used to construct a similarity matrix which was subjected to non-metric, multidimensional scaling by the MINISSA program to reveal similarities in odour. In the triadic presentation procedure, all the 165 possible triads of the 11 substances were presented in sets of five or six to 30 assessors who had to select the most similar and the most dissimilar pair in each triad. The data were submitted to non-metric, multidimensional scaling by the TRISOSCAL program. The two procedures were each performed on two occasions, and all four sets of data gave similar groupings of odours in the resulting plots. The ketones and aldehydes clustered at opposite poles of the diagrams with the mixtures lying between the positions of their components.
Chemical Senses 12/1990; 15(6):691-699. DOI:10.1093/chemse/15.6.691 · 3.16 Impact Factor