Kazuki Sawamoto

Kanazawa Medical University, Kanazawa, Ishikawa, Japan

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Publications (6)18.53 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Patients with mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) have accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in multiple tissues which may cause coarse facial features, mental retardation, recurrent ear and nose infections, inguinal and umbilical hernias, hepatosplenomegaly, and skeletal deformities. Clinical features related to bone lesions may include marked short stature, cervical stenosis, pectus carinatum, small lungs, joint rigidity (but laxity for MPS IV), kyphoscoliosis, lumbar gibbus, and genu valgum. Patients with MPS are often wheelchair-bound and physical handicaps increase with age as a result of progressive skeletal dysplasia, abnormal joint mobility, and osteoarthritis, leading to 1) stenosis of the upper cervical region, 2) restrictive small lung, 3) hip dysplasia, 4) restriction of joint movement, and 5) surgical complications. Patients often need multiple orthopedic procedures including cervical decompression and fusion, carpal tunnel release, hip reconstruction and replacement, and femoral or tibial osteotomy through their lifetime. Current measures to intervene in bone disease progression are not perfect and palliative, and improved therapies are urgently required. Enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and gene therapy are available or in development for some types of MPS. Delivery of sufficient enzyme to bone, especially avascular cartilage, to prevent or ameliorate the devastating skeletal dysplasias remains an unmet challenge. The use of an anti-inflammatory drug is also under clinical study. Therapies should start at a very early stage prior to irreversible bone lesion, and damage since the severity of skeletal dysplasia is associated with level of activity during daily life. This review illustrates a current overview of therapies and their impact for bone lesions in MPS including ERT, HSCT, gene therapy, and anti-inflammatory drugs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Molecular Genetics and Metabolism 12/2014; 114(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ymgme.2014.12.001 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A retrospective analysis suggested that blood tacrolimus concentrations were consistent among patients with a body mass index (BMI) < 18.5 (lean), normal (≥18.5 and <25) and ≥ 25 (overweight or obese). The average maintenance dose of tacrolimus in patients with BMI ≥ 25 were significantly lower compared with that in patients with a BMI of less than 25. Lean and obese Zucker rats fed a normal diet were given tacrolimus intravenously or orally. The blood concentrations of tacrolimus in obese rats were significantly higher than those in lean rats after administration via both routes. The moment analysis has suggested that CLtot and Vdss of tacrolimus were not significantly different between lean and obese rats. The bioavailability was higher in obese rats, compared with that in lean rats. The protein expression of Cyp3a2 in the liver was significantly decreased in obese rats, compared with lean rats, while P-gp in the small intestine was also significantly decreased in obese rats. These results suggested that the steady-state trough concentration of tacrolimus in obese patients were well maintained by relatively low dose compared with that in normal and lean patients, presumably due to increased bioavailability.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 03/2014; 29(4). DOI:10.2133/dmpk.DMPK-13-RG-110 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to clarify the influence of long-term enteral nutrition (EN) on the pharmacokinetics of digoxin. Rats were fed EN diets (semi-digested, digested, and elemental) for 4 weeks, then digoxin (0.05 mg/kg) was administered orally. The AUC(0-∞) and k(a) of digoxin were significantly reduced in the semi-digested diet group versus the control, while the AUC(0-∞) was significantly increased in the digested and elemental diet groups. The mRNA level of Slco1a4 was significantly reduced at the upper small intestine in all EN groups. Further, the expression levels of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) protein and Abcb1a mRNA were increased at the same site in all EN groups, and the increases were significant in the elemental diet group. Cyp3a2 protein and mRNA expressions were significantly reduced in the liver in the digested and elemental diet groups. Abcb1a mRNA was also significantly reduced in the kidney in these groups. These results indicate that the absorption kinetics at the small intestine is influenced by semi-digested diet, and the elimination kinetics in the liver and kidney are influenced by digested and elemental diet. Semi-digested diet also altered digoxin pharmacokinetics in humans. Thus, the effect of long-term EN on digoxin pharmacokinetics depended on the dietary components.
    Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics 07/2012; 28(1). DOI:10.2133/dmpk.DMPK-11-RG-153 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Treatment of cancers in the abdominal cavity, such as peritoneal dissemination, is difficult, but in principle intraperitoneal administration of anticancer drugs is expected to be preferable to systemic administration. Taxane anticancer drugs are used to treat gastric cancer patients with peritoneal dissemination. They are administered as micellar preparations, Taxol and Taxotere, which consist of paclitaxel in Cremophor EL (crEL) and docetaxel in Polysorbate-80 (PS-80), respectively. In this paper we review the disposition kinetics of taxane anticancer drugs after intraperitoneal administration in peritoneal dissemination patients and animal models and also discuss the effect of the surfactant vehicle on the behavior of taxanes.
    Gastroenterology Research and Practice 05/2012; 2012:963403. DOI:10.1155/2012/963403 · 1.50 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR)2 and its ligand, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, are pivotal for adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) recruitment and the development of insulin resistance. However, other chemokine systems also may play a role in these processes. In this study, we investigated the role of CCR5 in obesity-induced adipose tissue inflammation and insulin resistance. We analyzed expression levels of CCR5 and its ligands in white adipose tissue (WAT) of genetically (ob/ob) and high-fat (HF) diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Furthermore, we examined the metabolic phenotype of Ccr5(-/-) mice. CCR5 and its ligands were markedly upregulated in WAT of DIO and ob/ob mice. Fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis also revealed that DIO mice had a robust increase in CCR5(+) cells within ATMs compared with chow-fed mice. Furthermore, Ccr5(-/-) mice were protected from insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis induced by HF feeding. The effects of loss of CCR5 were related to both reduction of total ATM content and an M2-dominant shift in ATM polarization. It is noteworthy that transplantation of Ccr5(-/-) bone marrow was sufficient to protect against impaired glucose tolerance. CCR5 plays a critical role in ATM recruitment and polarization and subsequent development of insulin resistance.
    Diabetes 04/2012; 61(7):1680-90. DOI:10.2337/db11-1506 · 8.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a group of lysosomal storage disorders caused by the deficiency of lysosomal enzymes. The enzymes are required to break down glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that help build bone, cartilage, tendons, corneas, skin and connective tissue. In patients with MPS, a missing enzyme leads to the accumulation of GAGs in the cells, blood, connective tissues, and multiple organs. The consequence is permanent, with progressive cellular damage affecting patients' appearance, physical abilities, organ and system function, and skeletal and mental development. The measurement of each specific GAG in a variety of specimens is required to establish the correlation between GAGs and physiological status of patients and/or prognosis and pathogenesis of the disease and to separate the patients with MPS from the healthy controls. We have developed a highly accurate, sensitive, and cost-effective liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for measurements of disaccharides derived from four specific GAGs [chondroitin sulfate (CS), dermatan sulfate (DS), heparan sulfate (HS), and keratan sulfate (KS)]. Disaccharides were produced by specific enzyme digestion of each GAG, and subsequently, quantified by negative ion mode of multiple reaction monitoring. Subclasses of GAGs with the same molecular weights can be separated by liquid chromatography. We have also developed another GAG assay by high-throughput mass spectrometry (HT-MS/MS). The HT-MS/MS consists of an integrated solid phase extraction robot that binds and de-salts samples from assay plates and directly injects them into a MS/MS detector, reducing sample processing time to within ten seconds. HT-MS/MS consequently yields much faster throughput than conventional LC-MS/MS-based methods; however, the HT-MS/MS system does not use a chromatographic step, and therefore, cannot separate GAGs that have the same molecular weights. Both techniques can be applied to the analysis of dried blood spots, blood, and urine specimens. In this review, we describe the assay methods for GAGs and the application to newborn screening and diagnosis of MPS.