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ABSTRACT: Patient-derived xenograft models are considered to represent the heterogeneity of human cancers and advanced preclinical models. Our consortium joins efforts to extensively develop and characterize a new collection of patient-derived colorectal cancer (CRC) models.
From the 85 unsupervised surgical colorectal samples collection, 54 tumors were successfully xenografted in immunodeficient mice and rats, representing 35 primary tumors, 5 peritoneal carcinoses and 14 metastases. Histologic and molecular characterization of patient tumors, first and late passages on mice includes the sequence of key genes involved in CRC (i.e., APC, KRAS, TP53), aCGH, and transcriptomic analysis.
This comprehensive characterization shows that our collection recapitulates the clinical situation about the histopathology and molecular diversity of CRC. Moreover, patient tumors and corresponding models are clustering together allowing comparison studies between clinical and preclinical data. Hence, we conducted pharmacologic monotherapy studies with standard of care for CRC (5-fluorouracil, oxaliplatin, irinotecan, and cetuximab). Through this extensive in vivo analysis, we have shown the loss of human stroma cells after engraftment, observed a metastatic phenotype in some models, and finally compared the molecular profile with the drug sensitivity of each tumor model. Through an experimental cetuximab phase II trial, we confirmed the key role of KRAS mutation in cetuximab resistance.
This new collection could bring benefit to evaluate novel targeted therapeutic strategies and to better understand the basis for sensitivity or resistance of tumors from individual patients. Clin Cancer Res; 18(19); 5314-28. ©2012 AACR.
Clinical Cancer Research 07/2012; 18(19):5314-28. DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0372 · 8.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: KRAS mutation is a negative predictive prognostic factor during metastatic colorectal cancer treatment with antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibodies. For affected patients, new therapeutics must be explored. Our objective was to study efficacy of two drugs with different mechanisms of action, everolimus (mTOR inhibitor) and lapatinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor), in a mouse xenograft model. We chose a model obtained after engraftment of a tumor originating from a human tumor collection. The patient was affected by a metastasis colorectal carcinoma resistant to cetuximab with KRAS mutation. From a previous study in mice, we know that everolimus is a P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate and that a lapatinib pretreatment increases significantly (2.6-fold) everolimus AUC by inhibiting its intestinal P-gp efflux. We hence tested the effect of these drugs alone or combined. Mice bearing the xenografts were divided in four groups: control, lapatinib, everolimus, and L/E group (L/E: 2 days of lapatinib 200 mg/kg and then 3 days of everolimus 1 mg/kg). Tumor volumes and treatment toxicities were evaluated. Sixteen days after treatment initiation, the group L/E was the first one in which tumor volume average was significantly lower than the one of control group (193 ± 90 vs. 395 ± 171 mm(3) ; P = 0.0025). After 4 weeks of treatment, inhibition of tumor growth in lapatinib, everolimus, and L/E groups reached, respectively, 49, 53, and 57%. Each drug showed significant antitumor activity. Only moderate hematologic toxicity signs were observed. These results lead to new perspectives for new oral drugs in metastatic KRAS-mutated colorectal cancer resistant to standard chemotherapy.
Fundamental and Clinical Pharmacology 03/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1472-8206.2012.01035.x · 2.08 Impact Factor
Cancer Research 04/2010; 70(8 Supplement):4169-4169. DOI:10.1158/1538-7445.AM10-4169 · 9.28 Impact Factor