[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Insights into the important contribution of inflammation and immune functions in the development and progression of atherosclerosis have greatly improved our understanding of this disease. Although the role of T cells has been extensively studied for decades, only recently has the role of B cells gained more attention. Recent studies have identified differential effects of different B-cell subsets and helped to clarify the still poorly understood mechanisms by which these act. B1 cells have been shown to prevent lesion formation, whereas B2 cells have been suggested to promote it. Natural IgM antibodies, mainly derived from B1 cells, have been shown to mediate atheroprotective effects, but the functional role of other immunoglobulin classes, particularly IgG, still remains elusive. In this review, we will focus on recent insights on the role of B cells and various immunoglobulin classes and how these may mediate their effects in atherosclerotic lesion formation. Moreover, we will highlight potential therapeutic approaches focusing on B-cell depletion that could be used to translate experimental evidence to human disease.
Circulation Research 05/2014; 114(11):1743-1756. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Chronic inflammation is a hallmark of atherosclerosis, but its transcriptional underpinnings are poorly understood. We show that the transcriptional repressor Bcl6 is an anti-inflammatory regulator whose loss in bone marrow of Ldlr(-/-) mice results in severe atherosclerosis and xanthomatous tendonitis, a virtually pathognomonic complication in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia. Disruption of the interaction between Bcl6 and SMRT or NCoR with a peptide inhibitor in vitro recapitulated atherogenic gene changes in mice transplanted with Bcl6-deficient bone marrow, pointing to these cofactors as key mediators of Bcl6 inflammatory suppression. Using ChIP-seq, we reveal the SMRT and NCoR corepressor cistromes, each consisting of over 30,000 binding sites with a nearly 50% overlap. While the complete cistromes identify a diversity of signaling pathways, the Bcl6-bound subcistromes for each corepressor are highly enriched for NF-κB-driven inflammatory and tissue remodeling genes. These results reveal that Bcl6-SMRT/NCoR complexes constrain immune responses and contribute to the prevention of atherosclerosis.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study tested whether immunosuppression with mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) inhibits atherosclerosis development in apolipoprotein-E-deficient (Apoe(-/-)) mice and investigated the mechanism.
Chronic vascular inflammation involving both innate and adaptive immunity is central in the development of atherosclerosis, but immunosuppressive treatment is not uniformly beneficial. The immunosuppressive MMF targets lymphocyte proliferation by inhibiting inosine-monophosphate dehydrogenase.
Young and aged Apoe(-/-) mice were treated with 30 mg/kg daily MMF during 12 and 3 weeks of a high-fat diet, respectively. Aortic lesion size and composition was investigated by histology and flow cytometry; soluble inflammatory mediators were investigated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
Macroscopic and histologic aortic atherosclerotic lesions were significantly decreased in both MMF-treated groups. While systemic immunoglobulin G directed against low-density lipoproteins was not significantly altered, the T-cell cytokine interleukin (IL)-17 was significantly reduced in plasma of MMF-treated mice and supernatants from their aortas after T-cell stimulation. The MMF treatment decreased aortic αβ T-cell receptor(+) lymphocyte proliferation and cell numbers. Also, aortic contents of CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells and their proliferation were reduced in MMF-treated Apoe(-/-) mice. The IL-17 supplementation restored the number of proliferating aortic CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cells in MMF-treated mice. The IL-17 receptor A was highly expressed on circulating monocytes that are macrophage progenitors. Genetic deletion of IL-17 receptor A or IL-17A reduced inflammatory peritoneal CD11b(+)CD11c(+) macrophage accumulation.
The lymphocyte-directed immunosuppressant MMF that curbs IL-17 production was a successful antiatherosclerotic treatment. Our data delineate a role for IL-17 in CD11b(+)CD11c(+) cell accumulation.
Journal of the American College of Cardiology 05/2011; 57(21):2194-204. · 15.34 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Naïve murine B cells are typically divided into three subsets based on functional and phenotypic characteristics: innate-like B-1 and marginal zone B cells vs. adaptive B-2 cells, also known as follicular or conventional B cells. B-1 cells, the innate-immune-like component of the B cell lineage are the primary source of natural antibodies and have been shown to modulate autoimmune diseases, human B-cell leukemias, and inflammatory disorders such as atherosclerosis. On the other hand, B-2 cells are the principal mediators of the adaptive humoral immune response and represent an important pharmacological target for various conditions including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and lymphomas. Using the resources of the Nuclear Receptor Signaling Atlas program, we used quantitative real-time PCR to assess the complement of the 49 murine nuclear receptor superfamily expressed in quiescent and toll-like receptor (TLR)-stimulated peritoneal B-1 and B-2 cells. We report the expression of 24 nuclear receptors in basal B-1 cells and 25 nuclear receptors in basal B-2 cells, with, in some cases, dramatic changes in response to TLR 4 or TLR 2/1 stimulation. Comparative nuclear receptor profiling between B-1 and peritoneal B-2 cells reveals a highly concordant expression pattern, albeit at quantitatively dissimilar levels. We also found that splenic B cells express 23 nuclear receptors. This catalog of nuclear receptor expression in B-1 and B-2 cells provides data to be used to better understand the specific roles of nuclear receptors in B cell function, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidation reactions are vital parts of metabolism and signal transduction. However, they also produce reactive oxygen species, which damage lipids, proteins and DNA, generating "oxidation-specific" epitopes. In this review, we discuss the hypothesis that such common oxidation-specific epitopes are a major target of innate immunity, recognized by a variety of "pattern recognition receptors" (PRRs). By analogy with microbial "pathogen-associated molecular patterns" (PAMPs), we postulate that host-derived, oxidation-specific epitopes can be considered to represent "danger (or damage)-associated molecular patterns" (DAMPs). We also argue that oxidation-specific epitopes present on apoptotic cells and their cellular debris provided the primary evolutionary pressure for the selection of such PRRs. Furthermore, because many PAMPs on microbes share molecular identity and/or mimicry with oxidation-specific epitopes, such PAMPs provide a strong secondary selecting pressure for the same set of oxidation-specific PRRs as well. Because lipid peroxidation is ubiquitous and a major component of the inflammatory state associated with atherosclerosis, the understanding that oxidation-specific epitopes are DAMPs, and thus the target of multiple arcs of innate immunity, provides novel insights into the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. As examples, we show that both cellular and soluble PRRs, such as CD36, toll-like receptor-4, natural antibodies, and C-reactive protein recognize common oxidation-specific DAMPs, such as oxidized phospholipids and oxidized cholesteryl esters, and mediate a variety of immune responses, from expression of proinflammatory genes to excessive intracellular lipoprotein accumulation to atheroprotective humoral immunity. These insights may lead to improved understanding of inflammation and atherogenesis and suggest new approaches to diagnosis and therapy.
Circulation Research 01/2011; 108(2):235-48. · 11.09 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Atherosclerosis is widely accepted as an inflammatory disease involving both innate and adaptive immunity. B cells and/or antibodies have previously been shown to play a protective role against atherosclerosis. Aside from their ability to bind to antigens, antibodies can influence inflammatory responses by interacting with various Fcγ receptors on the surface of antigen presenting cells. Although studies in mice have determined that stimulatory Fcγ receptors contribute to atherosclerosis, the role of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor IIb (FcγRIIb) has only recently been investigated.
To determine the importance of FcγRIIb in modulating the adaptive immune response to hyperlipidemia, we generated FcγRIIb-deficient mice on the apoE-deficient background (apoE/FcγRIIb(-/-)). We report that male apoE/FcγRIIb(-/-) mice develop exacerbated atherosclerosis that is independent of lipid levels, and is characterized by increased antibody titers to modified LDL and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the aorta.
These findings suggest that antibodies against atherosclerosis-associated antigens partially protect against atherosclerosis in male apoE(-/-) mice by conveying inhibitory signals through the FcγRIIb that downregulate pro-inflammatory signaling via other immune receptors. These data are the first to describe a significant in vivo effect for FcγRIIb in modulating the cytokine response in the aorta in male apoE(-/-) mice.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Adaptive immunity and innate immunity play important roles in atherogenesis. Invariant chain (CD74) mediates antigen-presenting cell antigen presentation and T-cell activation. This study tested the hypothesis that CD74-deficient mice have reduced numbers of active T cells and resist atherogenesis.
In low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr(-/-)) mice, CD74 deficiency (Ldlr(-/-)Cd74(-/-)) significantly reduced atherosclerosis and CD25(+)-activated T cells in the atheromata. Although Ldlr(-/-)Cd74(-/-) mice had decreased levels of plasma immunoglobulin (Ig) G1, IgG2b, and IgG2c against malondialdehyde-modified LDL (MDA-LDL), presumably as a result of impaired antigen-presenting cell function, Ldlr(-/-)Cd74(-/-) mice showed higher levels of anti-MDA-LDL IgM and IgG3. After immunization with MDA-LDL, Ldlr(-/-)Cd74(-/-) mice had lower levels of all anti-MDA-LDL Ig isotypes compared with Ldlr(-/-) mice. As anticipated, only Ldlr(-/-) splenocytes responded to in vitro stimulation with MDA-LDL, producing Th1/Th2 cytokines. Heat shock protein-65 immunization enhanced atherogenesis in Ldlr(-/-) mice, but Ldlr(-/-) Cd74(-/-) mice remained protected. Compared with Ldlr(-/-) mice, Ldlr(-/-)Cd74(-/-) mice had higher anti-MDA-LDL autoantibody titers, fewer lesion CD25(+)-activated T cells, impaired release of Th1/Th2 cytokines from antigen-presenting cells after heat shock protein-65 stimulation, and reduced levels of all plasma anti-heat shock protein-65 Ig isotypes. Cytofluorimetry of splenocytes and peritoneal cavity cells of MDA-LDL- or heat shock protein-65-immunized mice showed increased percentages of autoantibody-producing marginal zone B and B-1 cells in Ldlr(-/-)Cd74(-/-) mice compared with Ldlr(-/-) mice.
Invariant chain deficiency in Ldlr(-/-) mice reduced atherosclerosis. This finding was associated with an impaired adaptive immune response to disease-specific antigens. Concomitantly, an unexpected increase in the number of innate-like peripheral B-1 cell populations occurred, resulting in increased IgM/IgG3 titers to the oxidation-specific epitopes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is an important determinant of inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions. It has also been documented that certain chronic infectious diseases, such as periodontitis and chlamydial infection, exacerbate clinical manifestations of atherosclerosis. In addition, low-level but persistent metabolic endotoxemia is often found in diabetic and obese subjects and is induced in mice fed a high-fat diet.
In this study, we examined cooperative macrophage activation by low levels of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and by minimally oxidized LDL (mmLDL), as a model for subclinical endotoxemia-complicated atherosclerosis.
We found that both in vitro and in vivo, mmLDL and LPS (Kdo2-LipidA) cooperatively activated macrophages to express proinflammatory cytokines Cxcl2 (MIP-2), Ccl3 (MIP-1alpha), and Ccl4 (MIP-1beta). Importantly, the mmLDL and LPS cooperative effects were evident at a threshold LPS concentration (1 ng/mL) at which LPS alone induced only a limited macrophage response. Analyzing microarray data with a de novo motif discovery algorithm, we found that genes transcribed by promoters containing an activator protein (AP)-1 binding site were significantly upregulated by costimulation with mmLDL and LPS. In a nuclear factor-DNA binding assay, the cooperative effect of mmLDL and LPS costimulation on c-Jun and c-Fos DNA binding, but not on p65 or p50, was dependent on mmLDL-induced activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2. In addition, mmLDL induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-dependent derepression of AP-1 by removing nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR) from the chemokine promoters.
The cooperative engagement of AP-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB by mmLDL and LPS may constitute a mechanism of increased transcription of inflammatory cytokines within atherosclerotic lesions.
Circulation Research 07/2010; 107(1):56-65. · 11.09 Impact Factor