Edmundo Casillas

Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, Washington, United States

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Publications (77)119.42 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Bivalves are used as sentinel species to detect chemical contaminants in the marine environment, but biological effects on indigenous populations that result from chemical exposure are largely unknown. We assessed age-weight, length-weight relationships, age structure, and reproductive status (i.e. fecundity, egg size) of the blue mussel Mytilus edulis complex from six sites in central Puget Sound, Washington, and one site in the relatively pristine area of northern Puget Sound. Results of this study suggest that mussels from urban areas of Puget Sound exhibit a lower growth rate, altered population age-structure, and potential reproductive impairment as a result of exposure to chemical contaminants. These findings support the use of mussels as sentinel species to assess the biological effects of contaminants on invertebrate populations.
    Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 05/2014; 93(1). DOI:10.1007/s00128-014-1287-5 · 1.22 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In recent years, returns of adult sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka to the Columbia River Basin have reached numbers not observed since the 1950s. To understand factors related to these increased returns, we first looked for changes in freshwater production and survival of juvenile migrants. We then evaluated productivity changes by estimating smolt‐to‐adult return rates (SAR) for juvenile migration years 1985–2010. We found SAR varied between 0.2 and 23.5%, with the highest values coinciding with recent large adult returns. However, the largest adult return, in 2012, resulted not from increased survival, but from increased smolt production. We evaluated 19 different variables that could influence SARs, representing different facets of freshwater and ocean conditions. We used model selection criteria based on small‐sample corrected AIC to evaluate the relative performance of all two‐ and three‐variable models. The model with April upwelling, Pacific Northwest Index (PNI) in the migration year, and PNI in the year before migration had 10 times the AICc weight as the second‐best‐supported model, and R 2 = 0.82. The variables of April ocean upwelling and PNI in the migration year had high weights of 0.996 and 0.927, respectively, indicating they were by far the best of the candidate variables to explain variations in SAR. While our analyses were primarily correlative and limited by the type and amount of data currently available, changes in ocean conditions in the northern California Current system, as captured by April upwelling and PNI, appeared to play a large role in the variability of SAR.
    Fisheries Oceanography 05/2014; 23(3). DOI:10.1111/fog.12056 · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cytochemical responses in the digestive tissue of Mytilus edulis complex fed a microencapsulated mixture of PAHs (composed of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and benzo[a]pyrene) or PCBs (Aroclor 1254) were evaluated. Lysosomal membrane labilization period and lipofuscin content of digestive tissue were significantly decreased and increased, respectively, after 30 days of exposure to PAHs but not PCBs. NADPH-ferrihemoprotein reductase activity in the digestive tissue was significantly increased after 30 days exposure to both PAHs and PCBs, whereas catalase activity was significantly increased only after exposure to PCBs. Neutral lipid content and gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity of digestive tissue of mussels were significantly increased and decreased, respectively, after 30 days exposure to both PAHs and PCBs when compared to untreated mussels, but were not significantly different when compared to mussels treated with com oil representing the vehicle control. Exposure to PAHs induced peroxisome proliferation in the digestive tissue of M. edulis complex. The observed cytochemical responses in the digestive tissue of M. edulis complex exposed to PAHs and PCBs in the laboratory are comparable to the cytochemical responses observed in the digestive tissue of mussels collected in the field from sites contaminated with predominantly PAHs and PCBs.
    Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part C, Pharmacology, toxicology & endocrinology 05/2013; DOI:10.1016/S0742-8413(97)00076-5
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    ABSTRACT: In a study evaluating the effects of exposure to xenobiotic compounds on ovarian development in English sole (Parophrys vetulus), prespawning females were sampled from four sites in Puget Sound, Washington, during the 1986 and 1987 spawning seasons. Two sampling sites had high concentrations of xenobiotic compounds in the sediment, while the other sites were less contaminated. The following factors associated with ovarian maturation were measured: ovarian developmental stage, ovarian atresia, gonadosomatic index, plasma estradiol, and plasma vitellogenin as estimated from alkali-labile phosphorus. Contaminant exposure was assessed by measuring concentrations of fluorescent aromatic compounds in the bile, hepatic aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (AHH) activity, and hepatic polychlorinated biphenyl levels, and liver tissue was examined histologically for the presence of suspected toxicopathic lesions. Female English sole from the heavily contaminated sites were significantly less likely to undergo gonadal recrudescence and had lower mean levels of plasma estradiol than females from the less contaminated sites. The risk of inhibited gonadal recrudescence was significantly increased in sole with elevated hepatic AHH activity, and AHH activity was also significantly negatively correlated with plasma estradiol level. These findings suggest that contaminant exposure may interfere with ovarian development in female English sole.
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 04/2011; 45(12):2133-2146. DOI:10.1139/f88-248 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Investigation of the interactive effects of representatives of three classes of compounds was performed, using English sole (Parophrys vetulus) as the test organism, juvenile fish were exposed orally to cadmium chloride and Aroclor 1254 (PCB), either independently or simultaneously, for a 4-wk period, followed by exposure to seawater-accommodated No. 2 diesel fuel for 2 wk. Blood was collected for analysis of serum constituents, and tissue samples were examined for histological changes. Hepatocellular necrosis, regeneration, and karyomegaly were observed. Differential lesion prevalences were observed among the exposure groups, with high proportions among cadmium-exposed fish, low proportions among PCB-exposed fish, and intermediate proportions in combination cadmium- plus PCB-exposed fish. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase activity and magnesium in the sera of these groups exhibited similar patterns. Depressed serum calcium levels in both PCB-exposed and cadmium- plus PCB-exposed groups were found after the first week, and lower serum albumin concentrations occurred in all cadmium- and PCB-exposed groups following the third week. Subsequent exposure to No. 2 diesel fuel produced few effects in any of the exposure groups. The observed antagonistic effect of Aroclor 1254 against cadmium toxicity emphasizes the importance of employing multiple as well as single contaminant exposure in toxicity studies.
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 04/2011; 42(12):1870-1880. DOI:10.1139/f85-235 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yearling Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) were sampled concurrently with physical variables (temperature, salinity, depth) and biological variables (chlorophyll a concentration and copepod abundance) along the Washington and Oregon coast in June 1998–2008. Copepod species were divided into four different groups based on their water-type affinities: cold neritic, subarctic oceanic, warm neritic, and warm oceanic. Generalized linear mixed models were used to quantify the relationship between the abundance of these four different copepod groups and the abundance of juvenile salmon. The relationships between juvenile salmon and different copepod groups were further validated using regression analysis of annual mean juvenile salmon abundance versus the mean abundance of the copepod groups. Yearling Chinook salmon abundance was negatively correlated with warm oceanic copepods, warm neritic copepods, and bottom depth, and positively correlated with cold neritic copepods, subarctic copepods, and chlorophyll a concentration. The selected habitat variables explained 67% of the variation in yearling Chinook abundance. Yearling coho salmon abundance was negatively correlated with warm oceanic copepods, warm neritic copepods, and bottom depth, and positively correlated with temperature. The selected habitat variables explained 40% of the variation in yearling coho abundance. Results suggest that copepod communities can be used to characterize spatio-temporal patterns of abundance of juvenile salmon, i.e., large-scale interannual variations in ocean conditions (warm versus cold years) and inshore-offshore (cross-shelf) gradients in the abundance of juvenile salmon can be characterized by differences in the abundance of copepod species with various water mass affinities.
    Fisheries Oceanography 02/2011; 20(2):125 - 138. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2011.00573.x · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Our studies in the lower 100-km of the Columbia River estuary quantified historical habitat changes and provided new information about contemporary abundance patterns, life histories, and habitat associations of Chinook salmon. The conceptual framework for this research defined salmon performance in the estuary as the product of three factors: habitat opportunity, habitat capacity, and the structure/life histories of source populations. Our 2002-2008 survey results provided empirical data to support this framework by quantifying Chinook salmon performance in terms of temporal abundance, life history and stock-group diversity, foraging success, and growth, as well as by quantifying the relationships between stock groups and one or more of these factors. In Part I, we detail our reconstruction of historical habitat opportunities and changes in the estuary as influenced by the tide, river flows, and temperature. In Part II, we depict contemporary habitat opportunities based on present-day patterns of salmon distribution and abundance and upon various physical factors that influence fish access to shallow-water rearing areas. In Part III, we compare the capacity of different wetland and nearshore habitats in supporting juvenile Chinook salmon as indicated by variations in prey availability, salmon diet, and rates of consumption. Finally, in Part IV, we examine the effects of upriver population structure and life histories on estuary rearing behavior and performance, including the genetic sources of individual Chinook salmon found within particular habitats and stock-specific patterns of residency and growth. These surveys provided new information about the present estuarine habitat associations of juvenile salmon. They also provided data for estimates of historical change in habitat conditions, estimates of historical change in salmon life histories, and analyses of food webs. Below we summarize major conclusions drawn from these evaluations.
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    ABSTRACT: Processes occurring in freshwater, estuarine, and marine habitats strongly influence the growth, survival and reproductive success of salmonids. Nonetheless, implementing an ecosystem model explicitly linking these important habitats has been hindered by the inability to track the source identity of individuals where they co-occur. Here we explore the development and integration of natural markers- molecular and isotopic to characterize the natal sources of Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Mid and Upper Columbia River summer/fall-run (UCR Su/F) population. Microsatellite DNA markers identified the majority of juveniles collected in rivers and hatcheries in the Mid and Upper Columbia River watershed to the Summer/Fall-run population in this watershed with 90% posterior probabilities of group membership. Strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) measured in the natal rearing portion of the otolith showed significant geographic variation among natal rivers and hatcheries. Natal sites exhibited a wide dynamic range in 87Sr/86Sr source signatures (0.7043–0.7142), such that on average 61% of individuals were correctly classified to the location from which they were collected. We found that multilocus genotypes and otolith 87Sr/86Sr ratios collected on the same individuals were complementary markers when applied in a hierarchy. Microsatellites successfully assigned individuals to the broader UCR Su/F genetic group and 87Sr/86Sr provided finer-scale geographic assignments to five natal river and hatchery groups nested within the UCR Su/F population. The temporal stability of both genetic and 87Sr/86Sr markers, together with the coast-wide microsatellite baseline currently being used for mixed-stock fisheries management supports the further development and integration of 87Sr/86Sr markers to potentially achieve finer levels of stock resolution. Stock identification at the scales of individual rivers and hatcheries would help elucidate the abundance, distribution, and the relative contributions of natal sources important for the recovery and spatial management of Chinook salmon. KeywordsConservation-Ecology-Freshwater-Habitat-Management-Marine
    Environmental Biology of Fishes 11/2010; 89(3):533-546. DOI:10.1007/s10641-010-9662-5 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Yearling juvenile coho and Chinook salmon were sampled on 28 cruises in June and September 1981–85 and 1998–07 in continental shelf and oceanic waters off the Pacific Northwest. Oceanographic variables measured included temperature, salinity, water depth, and chlorophyll concentration (all cruises) and copepod biomass during the cruises from 1998–07. Juvenile salmonids were found almost exclusively in continental shelf waters, and showed a patchy distribution: half were collected in ∼5% of the collections and none were collected in ∼40% of the collections. Variance-to-mean ratios of the catches were high, also indicating patchy spatial distributions for both species. The salmon were most abundant in the vicinity of the Columbia River and the Washington coast in June; by September, both were less abundant, although still found mainly off Washington. In June, the geographic center-of-mass of the distribution for each species was located off Grays Harbor, WA, near the northern end of our sampling grid, but in September, it shifted southward and inshore. Coho salmon ranged further offshore than Chinook salmon: in June, the average median depth where they were caught was 85.6 and 55.0 m, respectively, and in September it was 65.5 and 43.7 m, respectively. Abundances of both species were significantly correlated with water depth (negatively), chlorophyll (positively) and copepod biomass (positively). Abundances of yearling Chinook salmon, but not of yearling coho salmon, were correlated with temperature (negatively). We discuss the potential role of coastal upwelling, submarine canyons and krill in determining the spatial distributions of the salmon.
    Fisheries Oceanography 10/2010; 19(6):508 - 525. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2010.00560.x · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Are smolt-to-adult return rates (SARs) for wild steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) and wild Snake River spring-summer Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) related to changes in the Columbia River plume at the time that juvenile migrants enter the ocean? We used three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of the baroclinic circulation in the Columbia River estuary-plume-shelf system to simulate within-season variation in plume size and location, comparing the results with SARs for each day that juvenile salmon entered the ocean for 1999-2003. We found that steelhead benefited from the plume environment at a narrow window of time around their ocean entry. However, when large-scale ocean conditions turned unfavorable, the contribution of local plume conditions to the overall variability in steelhead survival became not significant. A similar evaluation revealed that the plume did not affect survival of Chinook salmon, at least at the fine scale of variability considered. The differential response between the two species is consistent with observed and previously reported behavioral characteristics they exhibit. We speculate that steelhead mainly use the plume to move quickly away from coastal habitats and the predation pressures associated with this environment, for a more direct migration than Chinook salmon to ocean habitats in the Gulf of Alaska.
    Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 09/2010; 67(10):1671-1684. DOI:10.1139/F10-083 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the habitat usage and habitat connectivity of juvenile Chinook (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch) salmon in continental shelf waters off Washington and Oregon, based on samples collected every June for 9 yr (1998–2006). Habitat usage and connectivity were evaluated using SeaWiFS satellite-derived chlorophyll a data and water depth. Logistic regression models were developed for both species, and habitats were first classified using a threshold value estimated from a receiver operating characteristic curve. A Bernoulli random process using catch probabilities from observed data, i.e. the frequency of occurrence of a fish divided by the number of times a station was surveyed, was applied to reclassify stations. Zero-catch probabilities of yearling Chinook and yearling coho salmon decreased with increases in chlorophyll a concentration, and with decreases in water depth. From 1998 to 2006, ∼ 47% of stations surveyed were classified as unfavorable habitat for yearling Chinook salmon and ∼ 53% for yearling coho salmon. Potentially favorable habitat varied among years and ranged from 9 856 to 15 120 km2 (Chinook) and from 14 800 to 16 736 km2 (coho). For both species, the smallest habitat area occurred in 1998, an El Niño year. Favorable habitats for yearling Chinook salmon were more isolated in 1998 and 2005 than in other years. Both species had larger and more continuous favorable habitat areas along the Washington coast than along the Oregon coast. The favorable habitats were also larger and more continuous nearshore than offshore for both species. Further investigations on large-scale transport, mesoscale physical features, and prey and predator availability in the study area are necessary to explain the spatial arrangement of juvenile salmon habitats in continental shelf waters.
    Fisheries Oceanography 11/2008; 17(6):463 - 476. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2419.2008.00493.x · 2.54 Impact Factor
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    KC Jacobson, David Teel, DM Van Doornik, Edmundo Casillas
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    ABSTRACT: The potential effect of the freshwater trematode Nanophyetus salmincola on early marine survival of Pacific salmon was assessed by monitoring the prevalence and intensity of metacercarial infection in yearling coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, and yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon O. tshawytscha caught off Oregon and Washington during May, June, and September of 1999 to 2002. Annual prevalences of N. salmincola infection in yearling coho salmon were 62 to 78% and were significantly greater each year than in both yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon (19.3 to 53.8% and 40.5 to 53.5%, respectively). Yearling coho salmon also had significantly higher intensities of infection (from approximately 2-fold to 12-fold) than yearling and subyearling Chinook salmon. Prevalences and intensities in coho salmon caught in September were significantly lower (by approximately 21%) than in coho salmon caught in May or June in 3 of the 4 years. Variance to mean ratios of parasite abundance in coho salmon were also lowest in September, suggesting parasite-associated host mortality during early ocean residence. There was no evidence for a seasonal decline in infection in yearling or subyearling Chinook salmon. Infection intensities, but not prevalences, were significantly greater in naturally produced (wild) coho salmon than in hatchery produced coho salmon and could be due to differences in exposure to the trematode. Highly infected naturally produced coho salmon were not caught in September. This study suggests that coho salmon with high intensities of N. salmincola may not survive early marine residence, and that disease processes need to be considered as a factor affecting marine survival of juvenile salmon.
    Marine Ecology Progress Series 02/2008; 354:235-244. DOI:10.3354/meps07232 · 2.64 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Estimating the stock proportions of mixed-stock fishery samples by means of genetic stock identification has played an important role in the management of salmon fisheries. In addition, stock identification of individual fish has applications for population studies, forensic cases, and management issues. We examined 11 microsatellite DNA loci in 84 populations of coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch sampled at 78 locations from southern British Columbia to northern California to construct a database of microsatellite allele frequencies. We then evaluated the applicability of the database for estimating stock proportions in a mixed fishery and assigning individuals to their regions of origin. The loci were highly polymorphic: observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.754 to 0.943. Using genetic distance calculations, we identified six major geographic regions and 15 smaller subregions into which the populations grouped. Computer simulations and a sample of 143 coho salmon with known origins showed that the database was sufficient to make accurate stock proportion estimates to the 15 subregions. For the sample of fish with known origins, individual assignments to region of origin were 82.5% accurate for all samples and 97.8% accurate for those where P was greater than 0.95. We used the database to estimate stock proportions and densities of 2,344 coho salmon sampled over eight summers in a juvenile marine ecology study conducted off the coasts of Washington and Oregon. Columbia River juveniles were caught at higher densities than coastal fish throughout the summer. Fish from Columbia River and coastal sources were captured both north and south of their points of sea entry in early summer and at higher densities than in late summer. September catch of Columbia River juveniles was correlated with adult abundance in the following year, indicating that year-class strength for this stock is largely set during the first summer in the ocean.
    North American Journal of Fisheries Management 02/2007; 27(1-1):220-237. DOI:10.1577/M06-130.1 · 1.11 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Caspian terns Sterna caspia breeding in the Columbia River estuary exploit Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. as prey, consuming millions of outmigrating juvenile salmonids annually. We analyzed recoveries of salmonid passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags from the East Sand Island tern colony to calculate predation rates (% of available fish taken) on 4 Columbia and Snake River steelhead O. mykiss Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs). A life cycle modeling approach was used to estimate potential increases in ESU population growth rate (λ) given potential reductions in Caspian tern numbers on East Sand Island. Reducing tern predation on steelhead ESUs by 50 – 100% increased λ from 0.8 to 2.5%, depending on the ESU and the reproductive contribution of hatchery fish, and assuming no compensatory mortality. This is comparable to survival improvements modeled for hydropower improvements in the basin but less than those modeled for harvest reductions. Reducing avian predation as part of an effort to reduce all sources of mortality may assist in ESU recovery. A thorough understanding of such predator–prey relationships is needed to manage conflicts between predators and their threatened and endangered Pacific salmonid prey.
    Endangered Species Research 01/2007; 3:11-21. DOI:10.3354/esr003011 · 2.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Size-selective mortality combined with longer winters at high-latitudes is expected to exert strong directional selection on size, growth, and energy use and storage capacity in northern fish populations. Here, we tested the hypotheses that juvenile Pacific salmon Oncorhynchus spp. grow faster, reach larger size, and accumulate higher energy reserves in the marine environment at northern latitudes using juvenile Chinook salmon O. tshawystcha and coho salmon O. kisutch collected on the continental shelf from the California coast to the Bering Sea. Size reached at the end of the growing season, the quantity of energy stored prior to the onset of winter, and summer growth of juvenile Chinook and coho salmon during their first year at sea varied significantly among regions of the continental shelf. Latitudinal trends were detected for the fall size of subyearling and yearling Chinook salmon and storage energy in yearling Chinook salmon. However, they were opposite to expectations, with values decreasing from southern to northern areas. Latitudinal trends were also apparent for summer growth in juvenile yearling Chinook salmon. However, in contrast to fall size and storage energy, higher growth rates were generally observed in northern rather than in southern regions. Similarly, summer growth generally decreased from northern to southern regions in juvenile coho salmon. Storage energy did not exhibit a consistent trend with latitude in juvenile subyearling Chinook salmon and coho salmon. The different response of juvenile Chinook salmon and coho salmon to a latitudinal cline in temperature and the length of the growing season suggest that both species utilize the marine environment differently. We suggest that regional variations in juvenile salmon growth and energy accumulation may result from differences in prey quality (i.e., lipids), diet, and interspecific competition for prey resources.
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    ABSTRACT: In this chapter, we describe the distributions and abundances of juvenile Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, coho salmon O. kisutch, chum salmon O. keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha, and sockeye salmon O. nerka in six regions along the west coast of North America from central California to the northern Gulf of Alaska during the early summer (June and July) and late summer–fall (August–November) of 2000, 2002, and 2004. We also describe fish abundance in relation to bottom depth and to the average temperature and salinity of the upper water column. Salmon were collected in rope trawls from the upper 15–20 m over the open coastal shelf. Catch per unit effort was standardized across the different regions. Subyearling Chinook salmon were found only from central California to British Columbia. Yearling Chinook salmon were widespread, but were most abundant between Oregon and Vancouver Island. Juvenile coho salmon were widespread from northern California to the northern Gulf of Alaska, whereas chum, sockeye, and pink salmon were only abundant from Vancouver Island north into the Gulf of Alaska. Generally, the juveniles of the different salmon species were most abundant at, or north of, the latitudes at which the adults spawn. Abundances were particularly high near major exit corridors for fish migrating from freshwater or protected marine waters onto the open shelf. Seasonal latitudinal shifts in abundance of the juvenile salmon were generally consistent with the counterclockwise migration model of Hartt and Dell (1986). Subyearling Chinook salmon were associated with the high salinity environment found off California and Oregon, whereas chum, sockeye, and pink salmon were associated with the lower salinity environment in the Gulf of Alaska. However, within regions, evidence for strong temperature or salinity preferences among the different species was lacking. Subyearling Chinook salmon were most abundant in shallow, nearshore water.
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    ABSTRACT: Retrospective and predictive simulations of 3D estuarine and plume circulation are conducted as an integral part of CORIE, a multi-purpose cross-scale coastal-margin observatory for the Columbia River. In 2004 and 2005, daily forecasts provided near real-time support for oceanographic and fisheries cruises, involving a range of scientific goals, vessels, and regions within the estuary and the plume. The focus of this presentation is on the description of the modeling, observation and information infrastructure that was developed to support the cruises. At the core of the infrastructure were two 3D baroclinic circulation models (ELCIRC [1] and SELFE [2]), both of which solve for the shallow equations using semi-implicit, Eulerian-Lagrangian, unstructured-grid, hybrid methods (finite volumes/finite differences and finite elements/finite volumes, respectively). Short-term quality control was enabled through a near real-time observation network, combining fixed stations and vessel instrumentation. Prior to deployment, models were also extensively tested in the context of multi-year simulations and observations (e.g., [3]). Radio-based near real-time telemetry was used to transfer customized forecast products to the vessels, a process that was conducted in background every time the vessels were within radio range of a land-based station. A local web server was set-up in each vessel, allowing scientists on-board to have fast access to information. The freshness of the information available on board varied with the cruise plan (specifically, the distance to the land-based station). Typical information latency ranged from a few minutes to a few days. Forecasts were typically able to predict major features of plume and estuarine dynamics, even if the details of quantitative agreement with observations varied with ocean, wind and river conditions. [1] Y. L. Zhang, A. M. Baptista, and E. P. Myers, "A cross-scale model for 3D baroclinic circulation in estuary-plume-shelf systems: I. Formulation and skill assessment," Continental Shelf Research, 24:2187-2214, 2004. [2] Y. L. Zhang and A. M. Baptista, "A semi-implicit S-Z finite element model for cross-scale ocean circulation," International Journal for Numerical Methods in Fluids, Submitted. [3] A. M. Baptista, Y. L. Zhang, A. Chawla, M. Zulauf, C. Seaton, E. P. Myers, III, J. Kindle, M. Wilkin, M. Burla, and P. J. Turner, "A cross-scale model for 3D baroclinic circulation in estuary-plume-shelf systems: II. Application to the Columbia River," Continental Shelf Research, 25:935-972, 2005.
  • Michela Burla, António M. Baptista, Edmundo Casillas
    14 th Biennial Coastal Zone Conference, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA; 07/2005

Publication Stats

2k Citations
119.42 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1995–2014
    • Northwest Fisheries Science Center
      Seattle, Washington, United States
  • 1988–2014
    • NOAA Fisheries
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 2005
    • University of Salzburg
      Salzburg, Salzburg, Austria
    • Oregon State University
      Corvallis, Oregon, United States
  • 1993–2000
    • National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
      • Environmental Conservation Division
      Boulder, Colorado, United States
  • 1989–1996
    • National Marine Fisheries Service
      Silver Spring, Maryland, United States
  • 1994
    • Central Marine Fisheries Institute
      Fort Cochin, Kerala, India