[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A chromosome territory is composed of chromosomal subdomains. The internal structure of chromosomal subdomains provides a structural framework for many genomic activities such as replication and DNA repair, and thus is key to determining the basis of their mechanisms. However, the internal structure and regulating proteins of a chromosomal subdomain remains elusive. Previously, we showed that the chromosome territory expanded after BAF53 knockdown. Because the integrity of chromosomal subdomains is a deciding factor of the volume of a chromosome territory, we examined here the effect of BAF53 knockdown on chromosomal subdomains. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to the disintegration of histone H2B-GFP-visualized chromosomal subdomains and BrdUlabeled replication foci. In addition, the size of DNA loops measured by the maximum fluorescent halo technique increased and became irregular after BAF53 knockdown, indicating DNA loops were released from the residual nuclear structure. These data can be accounted for by the model that BAF53 is prerequisite for maintaining the structural integrity of chromosomal subdomains.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phospholipid derivatives, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), exhibit mitogenic effects on mesenchymal stem cells; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this stimulation has yet to be identified. The aims of the present study were as follows: To evaluate the stimulatory effects of LPA on the proliferation and migration of adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs); to study the association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and LPA signaling in ASCs; and to investigate the microRNAs upregulated by LPA treatment in ASCs. The results of the present study demonstrated that LPA increased the proliferation and migration of ASCs, and acted as a mitogenic signal via extracellular signal‑regulated kinases 1/2 and the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt signaling pathways. The LPA1 receptor is highly expressed in ASCs, and pharmacological inhibition of it by Ki16425 significantly attenuated the proliferation and migration of ASCs. In addition, LPA treatment generated ROS via NADPH oxidase 4, and ROS were able to function as signaling molecules to increase the proliferation and migration of ASCs. The induction of ROS by LPA treatment also upregulated the expression of miR‑210. A polymerase chain reaction array assay demonstrated that the expression levels of adrenomedullin and Serpine1 were increased following treatment with LPA. Furthermore, transfection with Serpine1‑specific small interfering RNA attenuated the migration of ASCs. In conclusion, the present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to report that ROS generation and miR‑210 expression are associated with the LPA‑induced stimulation of ASCs, and that Serpine1 mediates the LPA‑induced migration of ASCs. These results further suggest that LPA may be used for ASC stimulation during stem cell expansion.
Molecular Medicine Reports 07/2015; DOI:10.3892/mmr.2015.4023 · 1.48 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cordyceps species including Cordyceps bassiana are a notable anti-cancer dietary supplement. Previously, we identified several compounds with anti-cancer activity from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF) of Cordyceps bassiana. To expand the structural value of Cb-BF-derived anti-cancer drugs, we employed various chemical moieties to produce a novel Cb-BF-derived chemical derivative, KTH-13-amine-monophenyl [4-isopropyl-2-(1-phenylethyl) aniline (KTH-13-AMP)], which we tested for anti-cancer activity. KTH-13-AMP suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and C6 glioma cells. KTH-13-AMP also dose-dependently induced morphological changes in C6 glioma cells and time-dependently increased the level of early apoptotic cells stained with annexin V-FITC. Furthermore, the levels of the active full-length forms of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased. In contrast, the levels of total forms of caspases-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Bcl-2 were decreased in KTH-13-AMP treated-cells. We also confirmed that the phosphorylation of STAT3, Src, and PI3K/p85, which is linked to cell survival, was diminished by treatment with KTH-13-AMP. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that this compound can be used to guide the development of an anti-cancer drug or serve as a lead compound in forming another strong anti-proliferative agent.
Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2015; 23(4):367-73. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2015.021 · 0.84 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aripiprazole (ARI) is a commonly prescribed medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To date, there have been no studies regarding the molecular pathological and immunotoxicological profiling of aripiprazole. Thus, in the present study, we prepared two different formulas of aripiprazole [Free base crystal of aripiprazole (ARPGCB) and cocrystal of aripiprazole (GCB3004)], and explored their effects on the patterns of survival and apoptosis-regulatory proteins under acute toxicity and cytotoxicity test conditions. Furthermore, we also evaluated the modulatory activity of the different formulations on the immunological responses in macrophages primed by various stimulators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pam3CSK, and poly(I:C) via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and TLR3 pathways, respectively. In liver, both ARPGCB and GCB3004 produced similar toxicity profiles. In particular, these two formulas exhibited similar phospho-protein profiling of p65/nuclear factor (NF)-κB, c-Jun/activator protein (AP)-1, ERK, JNK, p38, caspase 3, and bcl-2 in brain. In contrast, the patterns of these phospho-proteins were variable in other tissues. Moreover, these two formulas did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells. Finally, the two formulations at available in vivo concentrations did not block nitric oxide (NO) production from activated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, pam3CSK, or poly(I:C), nor did they alter the morphological changes of the activated macrophages. Taken together, our present work, as a comparative study of two different formulas of aripiprazole, suggests that these two formulas can be used to achieve similar functional activation of brain proteins related to cell survival and apoptosis and immunotoxicological activities of macrophages.
Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 07/2015; 19(4):365-72. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2015.19.4.365 · 1.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris is one of well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities.
The objective of the following study is to isolate chemical components from the ethanol extract (Cm-EE) from Cordyceps militaris and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activities.
Column chromatographic separation was performed and anti-inflammatory roles of these compounds were also examined by using NO production and protein kinase B (AKT) activity assays.
From Cm-EE, 13 constituents, including trehalose (1), cordycepin (2), 6-hydroxyethyladenosine (3), nicotinic amide (4), butyric acid (5), β-dimorphecolic acid (6), α-dimorphecolic acid (7), palmitic acid (8), linoleic acid (9), cordycepeptide A (10), 4-(2-hydroxy-3-((9E,12E)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyloxy)propoxy)-2-(trimethylammonio)butanoate (11), 4-(2-hydroxy-3-(palmitoyloxy)propoxy)-2-(trimethylammonio)butanoate (12), and linoleic acid methyl ester (13) were isolated. Of these components, compound 2 displayed a significant inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, this compound strongly and directly suppressed the kinase activity of AKT, an essential signalling enzyme in LPS-induced NO production, by interacting with its ATP binding site.
C. militaris could have anti-inflammatory activity mediated by cordycepin-induced suppression of AKT.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The planktonic phototrophic dinoflagellate Alexandrium pohangense sp. nov. isolated from the coastal waters off Korea is described from living and fixed cells by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). DNA sequence data were collected from the small subunit (SSU), the large subunit (LSU), internal transcribed spacer regions (ITS1 and ITS2), and 5.8S of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA). The SSU and LSU rDNA sequences of the new dinoflagellate were 4-7% and 14-17%, respectively, different from those of Alexandrium minutum, Alexandrium ostenfeldii, Alexandrium tamutum, Alexandrium margalefii, and Alexandrium pseudogonyaulax, the most closely related species. In addition, the 5.8S rDNA sequence of the new dinoflagellate was also 12% different from those of A. minutum, A. ostenfeldii, A. tamutum, and Alexandrium peruvianum. In a phylogenetic tree based on LSU rDNA sequences, A. pohangense formed a clade with A. margalefii, and this clade was clearly distinct from the clade of A. minutum, Alexandrium diversaporum, A. tamutum, Alexandrium leei, A. ostenfeldii, and Alexandirum andersoni. Moreover, in a phylogenetic tree based on SSU rDNA sequences, A. pohangense was positioned at the base of the clade containing A. leei and A. diversaporum. Morphological analysis showed that A. pohangense has a Kofoidian plate formula of Po, 4′, 6′′, 6c, 8s, 5′′′, and 2′′′′, which confirmed its assignment to the genus Alexandrium. This dinoflagellate has a wide rectangular 1′ plate, the upper left side of which is slightly bent, protruding, and touching the 2′ plate, unlike A. margalefii, which has a wide rectangular 1′ plate that does not touch the 2′ plate, or A. pseudogonyaulax and Alexandrium camurascutulum, which have a narrower elongated pentagonal 1′ plate that touches the 2′ plate. Furthermore, the 1′ plate of A. pohangense meets the 1′′ plate as a straight vertical line, whereas that of A. camurascutulum meets the 1′′ plate as an inclined line because it is lifted by the intrusion of the 1′′ plate. In addition, A. pohangense had a relatively small ventral pore whose majority was located on the 4′ plate, unlike A. margalefii or A. pseudogonyaulax, which have a relatively large ventral pore whose majority is located on the 1′ plate. Furthermore, A. pohangense had pores of two different sizes on the cell surface, unlike A. margalefii and A. pseudogonyaulax, which have similar pores of only one size. On the basis of morphological and phylogenetic criteria, it is proposed that this is a new species of the genus Alexandrium.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Korean version of the Person-centered Care Assessment Tool (P-CAT).
The English P-CAT was translated into Korean with forward and backward translation. Survey data were collected from 458 staff in 17 long-term care facilities in Korea. Construct validity and criterion related validity were evaluated. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability.
The Korean version of P-CAT was shown to be valid homogeneously by factor, item and content analysis. Internal consistency reliability was satisfactory in which the values of factor 1, factor 2 and the total scale were .84, .77 and .86 respectively. Exploratory factor analysis supported the construct validity with a two-factor solution. Factor loadings of the 13 items ranged in .34~.80. Criterion validity to the Person-centered Climate Questionnaire-staff (PCQ-S) was .74 (p<.001).
The Korean version of the P-CAT was found to be an applicable instrument with satisfactory reliability and validity for further use in measuring successful person-centered care in long-term care facilities for older persons.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing 06/2015; 45(3):412-9. DOI:10.4040/jkan.2015.45.3.412 · 0.36 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Kaempferol (KF) is the most abundant polyphenol in tea, fruits, vegetables, and beans. However, little is known about its in vivo anti-inflammatory efficacy and mechanisms of action. To study these, several acute mouse inflammatory and nociceptive models, including gastritis, pancreatitis, and abdominal pain, were employed. KF was shown to attenuate the expansion of inflammatory lesions seen in EtOH/HCl- and aspirin-induced gastritis, LPS/caerulein (CA)-triggered pancreatitis, and acetic acid-induced writhing This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Bittern is made from marine water after extraction of salt, and its major components include magnesium chloride, magnesium sulfate, potassium chloride, sodium chloride and magnesium bromide. For a long time, it has been used as the main ingredient of tofu coagulant and chemical weapons. A 73-year-old woman arrived to the emergency department after a suicide attempt by drinking an unknown amount bittern. She complained of dizziness, general weakness, and altered mental state (Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) 13/15). The brain computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no abnormality. But blood chemistry showed hypermagnesemia ([Mg(2+)] 7.8 mEq/L) and hypernatremia ([Na(+)] 149 mEq/L). Electrocardiograph showed QT prolongation of 0.482 s. Electrolyte imbalances were corrected following adequate fluid therapy and injection of calcium gluconate. The patient recovered/was subsequently discharged without any complications. Electrolyte imbalances are a common presentation following bittern poisoning. Severe side effects like respiratory depression, hypotension, arrhythmia, bradycardia, and cardiac arrest can also occur. Patients will require immediate fluid therapy and correction of electrolyte imbalances. The symptoms vary depending on the electrolyte levels. It is mandatory to closely monitor the electrolyte levels and electrocardiograph in these patients.
Journal of Emergencies Trauma and Shock 04/2015; 8(2):108-9. DOI:10.4103/0974-2700.145426
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Graphene, a two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted significant interest for applications in flexible electronics as an alternative transparent electrode to indium tin oxide. However, it still remains a challenge to develop a simple, reproducible, and controllable fabrication technique for producing homogeneous large-scale graphene films and creating uniform patterns with desired shapes at defined positions. Here, we present a simple route to scalable fabrication of flexible transparent graphene electrodes using an oxygen plasma etching technique in a capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) system. Ascorbic acid-assisted chemical reduction enables the large-scale production of graphene with solution-based processability. Oxygen plasma in the CCP system facilitates the reproducible patterning of graphene electrodes, which allows controllable feature sizes and shapes on flexible plastic substrates. The resulting graphene electrode exhibits a high conductivity of 80 S∙cm-1 and a transparency of 76%, and retains excellent flexibility upon hard bending at an angle of ±175° and after repeated bending cycles. A simple LED circuit integrated on the patterned graphene film demonstrates the feasibility of graphene electrodes for use in flexible transparent electrodes.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Positron emission tomography (PET) images usually suffer from a noticeable amount of statistical noise. In order to reduce this noise, a post-filtering process is usually adopted. However, the performance of this approach is limited because the denoising process is mostly performed on the basis of the Gaussian random noise. It has been reported that in a PET image reconstructed by the expectation-maximization (EM), the noise variance of each voxel depends on its mean value, unlike in the case of Gaussian noise. In addition, we observe that the variance also varies with the spatial sensitivity distribution in a PET system, which reflects both the solid angle determined by a given scanner geometry and the attenuation information of a scanned object. Thus, if a post-filtering process based on the Gaussian random noise is applied to PET images without consideration of the noise characteristics along with the spatial sensitivity distribution, the spatially variant non-Gaussian noise cannot be reduced effectively. In the proposed framework, to effectively reduce the noise in PET images reconstructed by the 3-D ordinary Poisson ordered subset EM (3-D OP-OSEM), we first denormalize an image according to the sensitivity of each voxel so that the voxel mean value can represent its statistical properties reliably. Based on our observation that each noisy denormalized voxel has a linear relationship between the mean and variance, we try to convert this non-Gaussian noise image to a Gaussian noise image. We then apply a block matching 4-D algorithm that is optimized for noise reduction of the Gaussian noise image, and reconvert and renormalize the result to obtain a final denoised image. Using simulated phantom data and clinical patient data, we demonstrate that the proposed framework can effectively suppress the noise over the whole region of a PET image while minimizing degradation of the image resolution.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A highly enantioselective kinetic resolution of diols via asymmetric acetalization has been achieved using a chiral confined imidodiphosphoric acid catalyst. The reaction is highly efficient for the resolution of tertiary alcohols, giving selectivity factors of up to >300. Remarkably, even in cases where the selectivity factors are only moderate, highly enantioenriched diols are obtained via a stereodivergent resolution to diastereomeric acetals.
Journal of the American Chemical Society 01/2015; 137(5). DOI:10.1021/ja512481d · 11.44 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common peripheral entrapment neuropathy. We report on the first Korean case of carpal tunnel syndrome induced by tophaceous deposition in flexor digitorum tendons of a patient with chronic gout. A 63-year-old male suffered from numbness, decreased sensation over both median nerve distribution, and weakness of thenar muscle for 3 years. Physical examinations revealed positive Tinel's sign and Phalen's test and thenar qjmuscle atrophy was found on both hands. In nerve conduction study, there was no action potential of the sensory and motor of the bilateral median nerve. Ultrasonography showed increased cross-sectional area of median nerve due to tophaceous deposition in flexor digitorum tendons in the carpal tunnel. Dual-energy computed tomography showed diffuse multifocal green color coding tophaceous deposition within the carpal tunnel. His neuropathic symptoms improved after injection of triamcinolone into the carpal tunnel and administration of oral medication including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and colchicine.