Ji Hye Kim

Seoul National University Hospital, Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea

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Publications (338)685.89 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: We present a simple method to fabricate flexible, transparent silver nanowire (AgNW) films. Homogenous AgNW networks were formed on a mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane by vacuum filtration and were easily transferable to self-adhesive poly(ethylene terephthalate). The opaque, white MCE membrane became transparent after being subjected to hot acetone vapor. The fabricated AgNW films had an average resistivity of 13 Ω/sq and a transmittance of approximately 67%. Moreover, the AgNW films showed excellent mechanical properties in repeated adhesion tests and bending tests. The AgNW films also showed good resistance against heat and NaCl solutions. AgNW films were patterned by a combination of soft lithography and a solution-based chemical etching technique. The area under the photoresist polymer maintained its conductivity and transmittance after etching, whereas increased resistance and transparency were observed in the etched area. The suitability of the patterned AgNW electrodes for electronic devices was demonstrated via a simple LED chip array. After using standard photolithography to define the working area, AgNW films were used as sensor electrodes for the electrochemical detection of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The AgNW sensors displayed a reasonable detection limit of 46 μM (S/N = 3), a rapid response time (within 2 s), and high sensitivity (749 μA mM-1 cm-2 and 1640 μA mM-1 cm-2). Furthermore, the AgNW sensor was resistant to other potential interfering electroactive species commonly present in physiological samples such as l-ascorbic acid, glucose, and sodium oxalate. These results indicate that the AgNW sensor is selective for electroreduction of H2O2. Additionally, the developed sensor exhibited a stable amperometric response to the reduction of H2O2 even after extended storage.
    Sensors and Actuators B Chemical 11/2015; 224. DOI:10.1016/j.snb.2015.11.006 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For infants and children, an incredible resilience from injury is often observed. There is growing evidence that functional recovery after brain injury might well be a consequence of the reorganization of the neural network as a process of neuroplasticity. We demonstrate the presence of neuroplasticity at work in spontaneous recovery after neonatal hypoxic ischemic (HI) injury, by elucidating a precise picture in which such reorganization takes place using functional MRI techniques. For all 12 siblings, 6 rats were subjected to severe HI brain injury and 6 rats underwent sham operation only. Severe HI brain injury was induced to postnatal day 7 (p7) Sprague-Dawley rats according to the Rice-Vannucci model (right carotid artery occlusion followed by 150 minutes of hypoxia with 8% O2 and 92% of N2). Brain activation maps along with anatomical and functional connectivity maps related to the sensory motor function were obtained at adult (p63) using blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD)-functional MRI (fMRI), resting state-functional MRI (rs-fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI); each of these MRI data was related to sensory motor functional outcome. In-depth investigation of the functional MRI data revealed: 1) intra-hemispheric expansion of BOLD signal activation in the contralesional undamaged hemisphere for ipsilesional forepaw stimuli to include the M2 and Cg1 in addition to the S1 and M1 wide spreading in the anterior and posterior directions, 2) inter-hemispheric transfer of BOLD signal activation for contralesional forepaw stimuli, normally routed to the injured hemisphere, to analogous sites in the contralesional undamaged hemisphere, localized newly to the M1 and M2 with a reduced portion of the S1, 3) inter-hemispheric axonal disconnection and axonal rewiring within the undamaged hemisphere as shown through DTI, and 4) increased functional interactions within the cingulate gyrus in the HI injured rats as shown through rs-fMRI. The BOLD signal amplitudes as well as DTI and rs-fMRI data well correlate with behavioral tests (tape to remove). We found function normally utilizing what would be the injured hemisphere is transferred to the uninjured hemisphere, and functionality of the uninjured hemisphere remains not untouched but is also rewired in an expansion corresponding to the newly formed sensorimotor function from both the contralesional and the ipsilesional sides. The conclusion drawn from the data in our current study is that enhanced motor function in the contralesional hemisphere governs both the normal and damaged sides, indicating that active plasticity with brain laterality was spontaneously generated to overcome functional loss and established autonomously through normal experience via modification of neural circuitry for neonatal HI injured brain.
    NeuroImage 11/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.neuroimage.2015.11.032 · 6.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Polykrikos hartmannii is a phototrophic dinoflagellate with chloroplasts, and it swims as a single zooid or forms a two-zooid pseudo-colony. To investigate the feeding ability of P. hartmannii, its feeding occurrence, prey species, and feeding mechanism were explored. Furthermore, the growth and ingestion rates of P. hartmannii on the mixotrophic dinoflagellate Cochlodinium polykrikoides, the optimal prey, as a function of prey concentration were measured. This study reported for the first time that P. hartmannii is a mixotrophic dinoflagellate. When diverse algal species were provided as potential prey, P. hartmannii could feed only on chain-forming toxic mixotrophic dinoflagellates C. polykrikoides and Gymnodinium catenatum. P. hartmannii ingested cells of these prey by engulfment after anchoring a prey cell using a nematocyst-taeniocyst complex. With increasing mean prey concentration, the ingestion rate of P. hartmannii on C. polykrikoides increased, but reached saturation at a prey concentration of 945ngCml-1 (1350cellsml-1). The maximum ingestion rate of P. hartmannii on C. polykrikoides was 1.9ngCpredator-1d-1 (2.7cellspredator-1d-1). However, the maximum mixotrophic growth rate of P. hartmannii with added C. polykrikoides cells (0.030d-1), at 20°C under a 14:10h light-dark cycle of 100μEm-2s-1, was slightly greater than of those without added prey (0.023d-1). The low maximum ingestion rate of P. hartmannii may be responsible for this small difference between the maximum mixotrophic and autotrophic growth rates. The calculated grazing coefficients for P. hartmannii on co-occurring C. polykrikoides were up to 0.324d-1 (28% of the population of C. polykrikoides was removed by P. hartmannii populations in 1d). The results of the present study suggest that P. hartmannii can have a considerable grazing impact on C. polykrikoides populations.
    Harmful Algae 10/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.hal.2015.08.006 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    Harmful Algae 10/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.hal.2015.07.010 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) is responsible for mitochondrial calcium uptake and homeostasis. It is also a target for the regulation of cellular anti-/pro-apoptosis and necrosis by several oncogenes and tumour suppressors. Herein, we report the crystal structure of the MCU N-terminal domain (NTD) at a resolution of 1.50 Å in a novel fold and the S92A MCU mutant at 2.75 Å resolution; the residue S92 is a predicted CaMKII phosphorylation site. The assembly of the mitochondrial calcium uniporter complex (uniplex) and the interaction with the MCU regulators such as the mitochondrial calcium uptake-1 and mitochondrial calcium uptake-2 proteins (MICU1 and MICU2) are not affected by the deletion of MCU NTD. However, the expression of the S92A mutant or a NTD deletion mutant failed to restore mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake in a stable MCU knockdown HeLa cell line and exerted dominant-negative effects in the wild-type MCU-expressing cell line. These results suggest that the NTD of MCU is essential for the modulation of MCU function, although it does not affect the uniplex formation.
    EMBO Reports 09/2015; DOI:10.15252/embr.201540436 · 9.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a promising tool for bone and tissue regeneration. However, prolonged healing time remains a major problem. Various materials including cells, cytokines, and growth factors have been used in an attempt to enhance bone formation. We examined the effect of percutaneous injection of demineralized bone matrix (DBM) during the consolidation phase on bone regeneration after distraction. The immature rabbit tibial DO model (20 mm length-gain) was used. Twenty-eight animals received DBM 100 mg percutaneously at the end of distraction. Another 22 animals were left without further procedure (control). Plain radiographs were taken every week. Postmortem bone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) studies were performed at the third and sixth weeks of the consolidation period and histological analysis was performed. The regenerate bone mineral density was higher in the DBM group when compared with that in the saline injection control group at the third week postdistraction. Quantitative analysis using micro-CT revealed larger trabecular bone volume, higher trabecular number, and less trabecular separation in the DBM group than in the saline injection control group. Cross-sectional area and cortical thickness at the sixth week postdistraction, assessed using micro-CT, were greater in the regenerates of the DBM group compared with the control group. Histological evaluation revealed higher trabecular bone volume and trabecular number in the regenerate of the DBM group. New bone formation was apparently enhanced, via endochondral ossification, at the site and in the vicinity of the injected DBM. DBM was absorbed slowly, but it remained until the sixth postoperative week after injection. DBM administration into the distraction gap at the end of the distraction period resulted in a significantly greater regenerate bone area, trabecular number, and cortical thickness in the rabbit tibial DO model. These data suggest that percutaneous DBM administration at the end of the distraction period or in the early consolidation period may stimulate regenerate bone formation and consolidation in a clinical situation with delayed bone healing during DO.
    Clinics in orthopedic surgery 09/2015; 7(3):383-91. DOI:10.4055/cios.2015.7.3.383
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    ABSTRACT: In2S3 as an alternative Cd-free buffer in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells was deposited on CIGS substrate by a chemical bath deposition and characterized after post annealing to optimize film properties for CIGS solar cells. A uniform and pinhole-free In2S3 film was deposited on a CIGS substrate by H2O2 treatment prior to chemical bath deposition. The In2S3 layer was an amorphous state due to the co-existence of In-S, In-O, and In-OH bonds. Annealing at 200 °C induced copper diffusion from CIGS into In2S3 layer and lowered the band gap from 3.3 to 1.9 eV, leading to phase change from amorphous state to crystalline state. The conduction band alignment at the In2S3/CIGS interface can be controlled by the post annealing. The shunt current through In2S3 film was prevented down to the thickness of 30 nm and a 1.15 eV shallow defect was eliminated by the annealing. The results indicated that post annealing in air is a critical to fabricate CIGS solar cells with a sub-30 nm CBD-In2S3 buffer layer.
    Current Applied Physics 09/2015; 15(12). DOI:10.1016/j.cap.2015.08.019 · 2.21 Impact Factor
  • Ji Hye Kim · Nam Joo Kang ·

    08/2015; 22(4):607-612. DOI:10.11002/kjfp.2015.22.4.607

  • 08/2015; 22(2):75-80. DOI:10.14776/piv.2015.22.2.75
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    Kiwon Lee · Ji Hye Kim · Hyockman Kwon ·
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    ABSTRACT: A chromosome territory is composed of chromosomal subdomains. The internal structure of chromosomal subdomains provides a structural framework for many genomic activities such as replication and DNA repair, and thus is key to determining the basis of their mechanisms. However, the internal structure and regulating proteins of a chromosomal subdomain remains elusive. Previously, we showed that the chromosome territory expanded after BAF53 knockdown. Because the integrity of chromosomal subdomains is a deciding factor of the volume of a chromosome territory, we examined here the effect of BAF53 knockdown on chromosomal subdomains. We found that BAF53 knockdown led to the disintegration of histone H2B-GFP-visualized chromosomal subdomains and BrdUlabeled replication foci. In addition, the size of DNA loops measured by the maximum fluorescent halo technique increased and became irregular after BAF53 knockdown, indicating DNA loops were released from the residual nuclear structure. These data can be accounted for by the model that BAF53 is prerequisite for maintaining the structural integrity of chromosomal subdomains.
    Moleculer Cells 08/2015; DOI:10.14348/molcells.2015.0109 · 2.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Fluoxetine was originally developed as an antidepressant, but it has also been used to treat obesity. Although the anti-appetite effect of fluoxetine is well-documented, its potential effects on human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) or mature adipocytes have not been investigated. Therefore, we investigated the mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effects of fluoxetine on the proliferation of ASCs. We also investigated its inhibitory effect on adipogenic differentiation. Fluoxetine significantly decreased ASC proliferation, and signal transduction PCR array analysis showed that it increased expression of autophagy-related genes. In addition, fluoxetine up-regulated SQSTM1 and LC3B protein expression as detected by western blotting and immunofluorescence. The autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), significantly attenuated fluoxetine-mediated effects on ASC proliferation and SQSTM1/LC3B expression. In addition, 3-MA decreased the mRNA expression of two autophagy-related genes, beclin-1 and Atg7, in ASCs. Fluoxetine also significantly inhibited lipid accumulation and down-regulated the levels of PPAR-γ and C/EBP-α in ASCs. Collectively, these results indicate that fluoxetine decreases ASC proliferation and adipogenic differentiation. This is the first in vitro evidence that fluoxetine can reduce fat accumulation by inhibiting ASC proliferation and differentiation.
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences 07/2015; 16(7):16655-68. DOI:10.3390/ijms160716655 · 2.86 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Phospholipid derivatives, such as lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), exhibit mitogenic effects on mesenchymal stem cells; however, the molecular mechanism underlying this stimulation has yet to be identified. The aims of the present study were as follows: To evaluate the stimulatory effects of LPA on the proliferation and migration of adipose‑derived stem cells (ASCs); to study the association between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and LPA signaling in ASCs; and to investigate the microRNAs upregulated by LPA treatment in ASCs. The results of the present study demonstrated that LPA increased the proliferation and migration of ASCs, and acted as a mitogenic signal via extracellular signal‑regulated kinases 1/2 and the phosphoinositide 3‑kinase/Akt signaling pathways. The LPA1 receptor is highly expressed in ASCs, and pharmacological inhibition of it by Ki16425 significantly attenuated the proliferation and migration of ASCs. In addition, LPA treatment generated ROS via NADPH oxidase 4, and ROS were able to function as signaling molecules to increase the proliferation and migration of ASCs. The induction of ROS by LPA treatment also upregulated the expression of miR‑210. A polymerase chain reaction array assay demonstrated that the expression levels of adrenomedullin and Serpine1 were increased following treatment with LPA. Furthermore, transfection with Serpine1‑specific small interfering RNA attenuated the migration of ASCs. In conclusion, the present study is the first, to the best of our knowledge, to report that ROS generation and miR‑210 expression are associated with the LPA‑induced stimulation of ASCs, and that Serpine1 mediates the LPA‑induced migration of ASCs. These results further suggest that LPA may be used for ASC stimulation during stem cell expansion.
    Molecular Medicine Reports 07/2015; 12(4). DOI:10.3892/mmr.2015.4023 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Red tides – discolorations of the sea surface due to dense plankton blooms – occur regularly in coastal and offshore waters along much of the world's coastline. Red tides often cause large-scale mortalities of fish and shellfish and significant losses to the aquaculture and tourist industries of many countries. Therefore, understanding and predicting the mechanisms controlling the outbreak, persistence, spread, and decline of red tides are important concerns to scientists, officials, industry, and the public. With increasing knowledge of red-tide species and red-tide events, new mechanisms have been discovered. Based on the nutrition and behaviors of red-tide organisms and biological interactions among them, red-tide outbreaks can be categorized into a hierarchy of four generation mechanisms (GM1–GM4). In the simplest, GM1, all phototrophic red-tide species were treated as exclusively autotrophic organisms without the ability to swim. However, this GM cannot explain red-tide outbreaks in oligotrophic surface waters offshore. Vertical migration (considered in GM2) and mixotrophy (GM3) enable red-tide flagellates to acquire growth factors from nutrient-rich deep waters or co-occurring prey, respectively. In natural environments, all red tides occur by those species outgrowing co-occurring organisms; red-tide species dominate communities by eliminating other species or reducing their abundances. Thus, GM4 contains the direct biological interactions (i.e., inhibition by physical contact or chemical effects) and indirect biological interactions (i.e., acquiring resources faster than others) that can affect the dominance of red-tide species under given conditions. Correctly choosing one of these four GMs for red tides dominated by one causative species is important because the accuracy of predictions may be outweighed by the costs and time required to acquire the relevant information. In this study, mechanisms describing the outbreak, persistence, and decline of red tides were reviewed, the advantages and limitations of each mechanism were evaluated, and insights about the evolution of the mechanisms were developed.
    Harmful Algae 07/2015; 47:97-115. DOI:10.1016/j.hal.2015.06.004 · 3.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aripiprazole (ARI) is a commonly prescribed medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. To date, there have been no studies regarding the molecular pathological and immunotoxicological profiling of aripiprazole. Thus, in the present study, we prepared two different formulas of aripiprazole [Free base crystal of aripiprazole (ARPGCB) and cocrystal of aripiprazole (GCB3004)], and explored their effects on the patterns of survival and apoptosis-regulatory proteins under acute toxicity and cytotoxicity test conditions. Furthermore, we also evaluated the modulatory activity of the different formulations on the immunological responses in macrophages primed by various stimulators such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS), pam3CSK, and poly(I:C) via toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), TLR2, and TLR3 pathways, respectively. In liver, both ARPGCB and GCB3004 produced similar toxicity profiles. In particular, these two formulas exhibited similar phospho-protein profiling of p65/nuclear factor (NF)-κB, c-Jun/activator protein (AP)-1, ERK, JNK, p38, caspase 3, and bcl-2 in brain. In contrast, the patterns of these phospho-proteins were variable in other tissues. Moreover, these two formulas did not exhibit any cytotoxicity in C6 glioma cells. Finally, the two formulations at available in vivo concentrations did not block nitric oxide (NO) production from activated macrophage-like RAW264.7 cells stimulated with LPS, pam3CSK, or poly(I:C), nor did they alter the morphological changes of the activated macrophages. Taken together, our present work, as a comparative study of two different formulas of aripiprazole, suggests that these two formulas can be used to achieve similar functional activation of brain proteins related to cell survival and apoptosis and immunotoxicological activities of macrophages.
    Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 07/2015; 19(4):365-72. DOI:10.4196/kjpp.2015.19.4.365 · 1.38 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps species including Cordyceps bassiana are a notable anti-cancer dietary supplement. Previously, we identified several compounds with anti-cancer activity from the butanol fraction (Cb-BF) of Cordyceps bassiana. To expand the structural value of Cb-BF-derived anti-cancer drugs, we employed various chemical moieties to produce a novel Cb-BF-derived chemical derivative, KTH-13-amine-monophenyl [4-isopropyl-2-(1-phenylethyl) aniline (KTH-13-AMP)], which we tested for anti-cancer activity. KTH-13-AMP suppressed the proliferation of MDA-MB-231, HeLa, and C6 glioma cells. KTH-13-AMP also dose-dependently induced morphological changes in C6 glioma cells and time-dependently increased the level of early apoptotic cells stained with annexin V-FITC. Furthermore, the levels of the active full-length forms of caspase-3 and caspase-9 were increased. In contrast, the levels of total forms of caspases-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and Bcl-2 were decreased in KTH-13-AMP treated-cells. We also confirmed that the phosphorylation of STAT3, Src, and PI3K/p85, which is linked to cell survival, was diminished by treatment with KTH-13-AMP. Therefore, these results strongly suggest that this compound can be used to guide the development of an anti-cancer drug or serve as a lead compound in forming another strong anti-proliferative agent.
    Biomolecules and Therapeutics 07/2015; 23(4):367-73. DOI:10.4062/biomolther.2015.021 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Cordyceps militaris is one of well-known medicinal mushrooms with anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, anti-diabetic, and anti-obesity activities. The objective of the following study is to isolate chemical components from the ethanol extract (Cm-EE) from Cordyceps militaris and to evaluate their anti-inflammatory activities. Column chromatographic separation was performed and anti-inflammatory roles of these compounds were also examined by using NO production and protein kinase B (AKT) activity assays. From Cm-EE, 13 constituents, including trehalose (1), cordycepin (2), 6-hydroxyethyladenosine (3), nicotinic amide (4), butyric acid (5), β-dimorphecolic acid (6), α-dimorphecolic acid (7), palmitic acid (8), linoleic acid (9), cordycepeptide A (10), 4-(2-hydroxy-3-((9E,12E)-octadeca-9,12-dienoyloxy)propoxy)-2-(trimethylammonio)butanoate (11), 4-(2-hydroxy-3-(palmitoyloxy)propoxy)-2-(trimethylammonio)butanoate (12), and linoleic acid methyl ester (13) were isolated. Of these components, compound 2 displayed a significant inhibitory effect on NO production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells. Furthermore, this compound strongly and directly suppressed the kinase activity of AKT, an essential signalling enzyme in LPS-induced NO production, by interacting with its ATP binding site. C. militaris could have anti-inflammatory activity mediated by cordycepin-induced suppression of AKT.
    Pharmacognosy Magazine 07/2015; 11(43):477-85. DOI:10.4103/0973-1296.160454 · 1.26 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
685.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2015
    • Seoul National University Hospital
      • Department of Orthopedic Surgery
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology
      • Department of Life Sciences
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University
      • School of Medicine
      Tsiuentcheou, Jeollabuk-do, South Korea
  • 2014-2015
    • Catholic University of Korea
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Jeju National University
      • Faculty of Biotechnology
      Tse-tsiu, Jeju-do, South Korea
    • Catholic University of Daegu
      • Department of Medicine
      Kayō, Gyeongsangbuk-do, South Korea
    • Konkuk University Medical Center
      Changnyeong, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2013-2015
    • Max Planck Institute for Coal Research
      Mülheim-on-Ruhr, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany
    • MEDIPOST Biomedical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea University of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dankook University Hospital
      Anjŏ, Gyeonggi Province, South Korea
  • 2009-2015
    • Yonsei University
      • • Department of Oral Biology
      • • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyung Hee University
      • • Department of Biomedical Engineering
      • • Department of Applied Chemistry
      • • Institute of Oriental Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Daegu University
      • Department of Food and Nutrition
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Inha University Hospital
      Sinhyeon, Gyeongsangnam-do, South Korea
  • 2007-2015
    • Sungkyunkwan University
      • • Department of Genetic Engineering
      • • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Korea Medical Research Institute
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Hankuk University of Foreign Studies
      • Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Dankook University
      • Department of Microbiology
      Yŏng-dong, North Chungcheong, South Korea
  • 2006-2015
    • Inha University
      • • College of Medicine
      • • Department of Polymer Science and Engineering
      Chemulpo, Incheon, South Korea
    • Chonbuk National University Hospital
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2005-2015
    • Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology
      • • Department of Electrical Engineering
      • • Department of Materials Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Seoul National University
      • • Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences
      • • Department of Orthopaedic Surgery
      • • Department of Health Policy and Management
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2002-2015
    • Hanyang University
      • Division of Chemical Engineering and Bioengineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2013-2014
    • Soonchunhyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Onyang, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
  • 2012-2014
    • Konyang University
      • College of Medicine
      Ronsan, Chungcheongnam-do, South Korea
    • Myongji University
      • Department of Material Science and Engineering
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kyungpook National University
      • School of Applied Biosciences
      Daikyū, Daegu, South Korea
    • Korea University
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Ajou University
      • Department of Surgery
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea
    • The Chinese University of Hong Kong
      • Department of Sociology
      Hong Kong, Hong Kong
  • 2011-2014
    • CHA University
      • Department of Applied Bioscience
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Konyang University Hospital
      Gaigeturi, Jeju, South Korea
  • 2010-2014
    • University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center
      • Department of Experimental Therapeutics
      Houston, Texas, United States
    • Hanyang University Medical Center
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2008-2014
    • Chosun University
      Gwangju, Gwangju, South Korea
    • Sooam Biotech Research Foundation
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
    • Kangwon National University
      • Department of Molecular Bioscience
      Gangneung, Gangwon, South Korea
  • 2006-2014
    • University of Seoul
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2012-2013
    • Pusan National University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Pusan, Busan, South Korea
    • Korea Institute of Science and Technology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2013
    • Ewha Womans University
      • Department of Internal Medicine
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2009-2013
    • Gyeongsang National University
      • • Institute of Agriculture and Life Science
      • • Division of Applied Life Science
      Shinshū, South Gyeongsang, South Korea
  • 2004-2013
    • Samsung Medical Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Department of Radiology
      Sŏul, Seoul, South Korea
  • 2010-2011
    • The Ohio State University
      • College of Pharmacy
      Columbus, Ohio, United States
  • 2006-2011
    • Konkuk University
      • • Department of Chemical Engineering
      • • Department of Bioscience and Technology
      Seoul, Seoul, South Korea