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ABSTRACT: Protein-energy wasting (PEW) is common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). PEW is one of the strongest predictors of mortality in patients with CKD. The International Society of Renal Nutrition and Metabolism (ISRNM) expert panel has defined PEW as a, "state of decreased body stores of protein and energy fuels (body protein and fat masses)". The ISRNM panel has also proposed diagnostic criteria of PEW with four categories. Cachexia is a severe form of PEW. The proposed causes of PEW are multi-factorial and include nutritional and non-nutritional mechanisms. The literature indicates that PEW can be mitigated or corrected with an appropriate diet and enteral nutritional support that targets dietary protein intake. Dietary requirements and enteral nutritional support must also be considered in patients with CKD and diabetes mellitus and in children with CKD, in addition to dialysis patients. Features of ideal dietary supplement have also been discussed. Dietary interventions such as enteral feeding with high-protein meals or supplements might improve the nutritional status and outcomes in dialysis patients.
Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism. 03/2012; 16(2):246-51.