[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thoracotomy causes severe pain in the postoperative period. Perioperative thoracic paravertebral block reduces pain score and may improve outcome after pediatric cardiac surgery. This prospective study was designed for the efficacy and duration of a single level, single injection ultrasound-guided thoracic paravertebral block (TPVB) for fifteen infants undergoing aortic coarctation repair.
After approval of the ethical committee and the relatives of the patients, 15 infants who had undergone thoracotomy were enrolled in the study. The patients received 0.5 ml·kg(-1) a bolus 0.25% bupivacaine with epinephrine 1 : 200 000 at T5-6 level after standard general anesthesia induction. Anesthesia depth with Index of Consciousness (IOC) and tissue oxygen saturation with cerebral (rSO2-C) and somatic thoracodorsal (rSO2-S) were monitored. Intraoperative hemodynamic and postoperative hemodynamic and pain scores were evaluated for 24 h after surgery. Face, Legs, Activity, Cry, Consolability (FLACC) score was utilized to measure postoperative pain in the intensive care unit. Rescue 0.05 mg·kg(-1) IV morphine was applied to patients in whom FLACC was >3.
The median age of the patients was 4.5 (1-11) months, and the median intraoperative endtidal isoflurane concentration was 0.6% (0.3-0.8). The amount of remifentanil used intraoperatively was 4.5 (2.5-14) μg·kg(-) (1) ·h(-1) . Intraoperative heart rate and blood pressure values significantly decreased compared with values detected at 5th, 10th, and 15th min after TPVB application, after incision prior and after cross-clamp (P < 0.01). The median time of first dose of morphine application after block was 320 (185-430) min. The median morphine consumption in 24 h was 0.16 (0.09-0.4) mg·kg(-1) . The median length of postoperative intensive care unit and in-hospital stay times was 23 (1-67) h and 4 (1-10) days, respectively.
We believe that TPVB, as part of a balanced anesthetic and analgesic regime, provides effective pain relief in patients undergoing aortic coarctation repair.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) technique has been used in aortic arch and isthmus hypoplasia for many years. However, with the demonstration of the deleterious effects of prolonged DHCA, selective cerebral perfusion (SCP) has started to be used in aortic arch repair. For SCP, perfusion via the innominate artery route is generally preferred (either direct innominate artery cannulation or re-routing of the cannula in the aorta is used). Herein, we describe our technique and the result of arch reconstruction in combination with selective cerebral and myocardial perfusion (SCMP) and short-term total circulatory arrest (TCA) (5-10 min) through ascending aortic cannulation.
Thirty-seven cases with aortic arch and isthmus hypoplasia accompanying cardiac defects were operated on with SCMP and short TCA in Baskent University Istanbul Research and Training Hospital between January 2007 and Sep 2012. There were 17 cases with ventricular septal defect (VSD)-coarctation with aortic arch hypoplasia (CoAAH), 4 cases of transposition of the great arteries-VSD-CoAAH, 4 cases of Taussing Bing Anomaly-CoAAH, 2 cases complete atrioventricular canal defect-CoAAH, 3 cases single ventricle-CoAAH, 3 cases of type A interruption-VSD, 2 subvalvular aortic stenosis-CoAAH and 2 cases of isolated CoAAH. The aorta was cannulated in the middle of the ascending aorta in all cases. The cross-clamp was applied to the aortic arch distal to either the innominate artery or the left carotid artery. In addition, a side-biting clamp was applied to the descending aorta. The aorta between these two clamps was reconstructed with gluteraldehyde-treated autogeneous pericardium, using SCMP. The proximal arch and distal ascending aorta reconstructions were carried out under short TCA.
The mean age of the patients was 2.5±2 months. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass and cross-clamp times were 144±58 and 43±27 minutes, respectively. The mean SCMP and descending aorta ischemia times were 22.6±4.8 and 27±6.3 minutes, respectively. Mean TCA time was 7.6±2.1 minutes (min: 4, max 10 min). The mean in-hospital stay time was 8.6±1.9 days. None of the cases operated with this technique had neurological defects. The mortality rate was 2.7% (1 patient).
SCMP with aortic cannulation and short TCA (under 10 minutes) in aortic reconstruction is safe and practical in this high-risk patient group.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background and aim: We investigated the clinical outcome of early initiated peritoneal dialysis (PD) use in our newborn patients who underwent arterial switch operation (ASO) for transposition of the great arteries (TGA) and had routine intraoperative PD catheter implantation. We determined the risk factors for PD, factors associated with prolonged PD, morbidity, and mortality. The aim of the present study was to describe our experience of using PD in this patient cohort. Materials and Methods: Eighty two patients who were diagnosed with TGA and TGA-ventricular septal defect (VSD) and who had undergone TGA correction operation in Başkent University, Istanbul Medical Research and Training Hospital between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively investigated. All the patients were under 30 days old. PD catheters were routinely implanted intraoperatively at the end of the operation. PD was initiated in transient renal insufficiency. In the absence of oliguria and increased creatinine level, PD was established in the presence of one of the following: clinical signs of fluid overload, hyperkalemia (>5 mEq/L), persistent metabolic acidosis, lactate level above 8 mmol/L or low cardiac output syndrome. The patients were divided into two groups according to the need for postoperative PD (PD group and non-PD group). PD was initiated in 32 (39%) patients after the operation, whereas 50 (61%) patients did not need dialysis. The clinical outcomes and perioperative data of the two groups were compared. Results: The demographics in the two groups were similar. Cardiopulmonary bypass time was longer in the PD group [non-PD group, 175.24 ± 32.39 min; PD group, 196.22 ± 44.04 min (p < 0.05)]. Coronary anomaly was found to be higher in the PD group [non-PD group, n = 2 patients (4.0%); PD group, n = 7 patients (21.9%); p < 0.05]. There was more need for PD in TGA + VSD patients [simple TGA patients, n = 14; TGA + VSD patients, n = 18 (p < 0.05)]. PD rate was higher in patients whose sterna were left open at the end of the operation (p < 0.05). The ventilator time [non-PD group, 4.04 ± 1.51 days; PD group, 8.12 ± 5.21 days (p < 0.01)], intensive care unit stay time [non-PD group, 7.98 ± 5.80 days; PD group, 15.93 ± 18.31 days (p < 0.01)], and hospital stay time were significantly longer in the PD group [non-PD group, 14.98 ± 10.14 days; PD group, 22.84 ± 20.87 days (p < 0.01)]. Conclusion: We advocate routine implantation of PD catheters to patients with TGA-VSD, coronary artery anomaly, and open sternum in which we have determined high rate of postoperative PD need.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aneurysmal circumflex coronary artery fistula connected to the coronary sinus is a rare clinical entity that usually remains asymptomatic until later in life. The timing of surgical treatment for asymptomatic patients is crucial. The decision to leave or exclude the aneurysmatic coronary artery following ligation of the fistula is controversial. Herein, we report the successful management of a coronary fistula between the circumflex artery and the coronary sinus without using cardiopulmonary bypass during the newborn period.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 10/2012; · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Delayed sternal closure (DSC) after cardiac surgery is a therapeutic option in the treatment of the severely impaired heart in pediatric cardiac surgery. The results with the technique of DSC over a 4-year period are examined with regard to mortality and morbidity. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of 38 patients who had undergone DSC among 1100 congenital cardiac operations. Indication of DSC, time to sternal closure, pre and post closure cardiopulmonary and metabolic status, mortality, rate of wound and bloodstream infections were recorded. RESULTS: The mean sternal closure time was 2.9 days. The mortality rate was 34.2% (n = 13). Twenty (52.6%) patients required prolonged antibiotic use due to postoperative infection. There was gram negative microorganism predominance. There were 4 (10.5%) patients with postoperative mediastinitis. Postoperative infection rate statistically increased with cardiopulmonary bypass time (CPBT), sternal closure time (SCT) and intensive care unit (ICU) stay time (p = 0.039;p = 0.01;p = 0.012). On the other hand, the mortality rate significantly increased with increased cross clamp time (CCT), SCT, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) use (p = 0.017; p = 0.026; p = 0.03). Single ventricular physiology was found to be risk factor for mortality in delayed sternal closure (p < 0.007). CONCLUSIONS: Elective DSC does not reduce the morbidity. The prolonged sternal closure time is associated with increased rate of postoperative infection rate; therefore early closure is strongly advocated.
Journal of Cardiothoracic Surgery 10/2012; 7(1):102. · 0.90 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A coronary artery anomaly precludes the use of a trans-annular patch in right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) reconstruction. Herein we present three patients with coronary artery anomalies who underwent total corrective operations without using a conduit.
Between 2007 and 2010, 84 patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) were operated on. Nine (9.4%) of them had a coronary artery anomaly. Three (3.1%) of the patients were operated on using the double-outflow technique and two had a Blalock-Taussig shunt before the total corrective operation. In two patients, the left anterior descending artery (LAD) and in one, the right coronary artery (RCA) crossed the RVOT.
Postoperatively, the right-to-left ventricular pressure ratios were 0.45, 0.59 and 0.60 after cardiopulmonary bypass. No gradient was detected in the RVOT in postoperative echocardiographical measurements (< 15 mmHg gradient). In all three patients, there were moderate pulmonary insufficiencies. All were discharged home on the sixth day postoperatively. Mean follow-up duration was 9.8 ± 8 months. In the follow up of all three patients, there were moderate pulmonary insufficienciencies but no right ventricular dysfunction.
The 'double-outflow' technique is appropriate for TOF patients with a major coronary artery anomaly since it can easily be performed without the need of a conduit.
Cardiovascular journal of Africa. 03/2012; 23(2):e8-10.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We describe a successful surgical treatment in a 2.5-year old boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome, in whom we performed aortic arch and ascending aorta replacement with a valve-sparing operation (VSO) of the aortic root because of significant aortic insufficiency and dilation of the aortic root. We believe that VSO is ideal for treating young patients with aortic root aneurysm with normal or minimally diseased aortic cusps to avoid the disadvantages of prosthetic valve replacements.
European journal of cardio-thoracic surgery: official journal of the European Association for Cardio-thoracic Surgery 01/2012; 41(5):1184-5. · 2.40 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: 1. Follow-up data of patients with simple transposition of great arteries (TGA) and TGA with ventricular septal defect (VSD), who had arterial switch operation (ASO) are compared. 2. Factors affecting mortality and morbidity after ASO are described.
Seventy-six patients, who had an ASO between April 2007 and August 2010 were studied retrospectively. The patients with intact ventricular septum (IVS) (n=36) were in Group 1, and those with VSD (n=40) in Group 2. The pre and postoperative clinical and echocardiographic variables and intensive care unit (ICU) outcomes were compared among groups using Mann-Whitney U, Pearson correlation and logistic regression tests.
The mean age at operation was 44.1 days, weight was 3.6±0.98 kg. Patients were followed for 15.5±11.21 months. The aortic cross-clamp (AoCC) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) times were higher in patients with VSD (p=0.001, p=0.004). Patients in Group 1 had longer inotropic agent infusion (p=0.001). Length of stay in ICU was similar in two groups (p>0.05). There was no correlation between the length of stay in ICU and age, weight, CPB time, AoCC time. Aortic regurgitation was more frequent in Group 2 (p=0.02). During follow-up, 12 patients died (15.7%), and 8 patients had a revision operation (10.5%) (diaphragmatic plication in 4, pulmonary artery reconstruction in 1, recoarctation operation in 3 patients). Mortality was similar in groups (p>0.05).
Arterial switch operation provides anatomical correction in TGA. Appropriate timing and good perioperative planning facilitates low morbidity and mortality in patients with VSD as in patients with simple TGA.
Anadolu kardiyoloji dergisi: AKD = the Anatolian journal of cardiology 11/2011; 11(8):726-31. · 0.72 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We evaluated the patients who had had a Damus-Kaye-Stansel (DKS) operation for single-ventricular physiology with the aorta originating from a hypoplastic ventricle and the pulmonary artery from the systemic ventricle.
Seven patients who were operated on between May 2007 and November 2010 were evaluated retrospectively. The patients had been diagnosed with a transposed double-inlet left ventricle and triscuspid atresia, and had been waiting for a Fontan operation. Systemic outflow stenosis was defined echocardiographically as those with a gradient greater than 20 mmHg, and angiographically those with greater than 5 mmHg in the subaortic region.
The mean age and weight of the patients was 15 ± 9.7 months and 8 ± 3.3 kg, respectively. The mean gradient between the systemic ventricle and the aorta was 35 ± 25 mmHg. This gradient decreased to 14.3 ± 4 mmHg postoperatively. The early hospital mortality was 14% (one patient). The mean extubation time and mean time in the intensive care unit (ICU) were 13 ± 7.3 hours and 2.2 ± 0.5 days, respectively. The mean follow-up time was 11 ± 2 months. No mortality and semi-lunar valve insufficiency were observed after discharge.
One of the major problems that occur while waiting for a Fontan operation is systemic ventricular hypertrophy and deterioration in the compliance of the ventricle due to systemic ventricular outflow stenosis. When the disadvantages of outflow resection are encountered, a DKS proves to be a good alternative.
Cardiovascular journal of Africa. 08/2011; 23(5):252-4.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Recently, extra-anatomical bypass surgery has been widely used in complicated adult aortic coarctation cases with concomitant intracardiac repair. Stent implantation has been widely used for primary aortic coarctation as well. The procedure has been shown to be effective with long term follow ups. However, failed stent implantations like stent fracture and dislodgement may complicate the clinical status and subsequent surgical procedure. Extra-anatomic bypass can provide effective results and lower morbidity in cases with concomitant intracardiac problems and stent failure. Here we present an adult aortic coarctation patient who had undergone a Bentall operation and two unsuccessful stent implantations for recurrent aortic coarctation. The patient then got an extra-anatomic bypass for aortic coarctation and concomitant mitral valve commissurotomy through median sternotomy.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Ischemic mitral regurgitation (IMR) is an important risk factor in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) operations. The decision to perform concomitant mitral annuloplasty along with the CABG depends on the surgeon's choice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the results of posterior annuloplasty procedures with autologous pericardium performed in patients with midadvanced and advanced functional ischemic mitral regurgitation.
Study participants were 36 patients with IMR (mean age 59 +/- 10 years) who underwent posterior pericardial annuloplasty and CABG operations between 2002 and 2007. Preoperative and postoperative (mean follow-up 18 +/- 1 months) MR grade, left atrium diameter, left ventricle end systolic diameter, left ventricle end diastolic diameter, left ventricle ejection fraction, and mitral valve gradients were measured with transthoracic echocardiography.
There was one late mortality (2, 8%) but none of the patients required reoperation for residual MR. We did not observe thromboembolism, bleeding, or infective endocarditis. The mean MR grade decreased from 3.4 +/- 0.5 to 0.5 +/- 0.6 (P < .01), left atrium diameter decreased from 45.3 +/- 5.5 mm to 43.2 +/- 3.8 mm (P < .01), left ventricle end diastolic diameter decreased from 53.2 +/- 5.6 mm to 50.9 +/- 5.5 mm (P < .01), and left ventricle end systolic diameter decreased from 39.7 +/- 5.8 mm to 34.6 +/- 6.5 mm (P < .01), whereas mean left ventricle ejection fraction increased from 37.9% +/- 6.1% to 43.7% +/- 7.3% (P < .01). In the late postoperative term, the functional capacity of the patients increased from mean New York Heart Association class 2.6 +/- 0.9 to 1.1 +/- 0.5. We did not observe any gradient in the mitral valve preoperatively in any patient, but in the follow-up, the mean gradient increased to 1.3 +/- 2.1 mmHg (P < .01).
Posterior pericardial annuloplasty with CABG in the treatment of IMR provides efficient mitral repair and significant decrease in the left atrium and left ventricle diameters, and provides a significant increase in left ventricular function. These results show IMR to be as effective as the other annuloplasty techniques. IMR is performed with autologous material and therefore does not entail any risk of complications from prosthetic material and is highly cost-effective.
Heart Surgery Forum 10/2009; 12(5):E285-90. · 0.63 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A 41-year-old woman with rheumatoid triple valve disease was operated. Mitral and aortic valves were replaced with prosthetic valves. The tricuspid valve annulus was highly stenotic (valve area: 1.4 cm (2)), therefore a bidirectional Glenn shunt procedure was performed to preserve the right ventricular function. In the long term, 4 years after the operation, the patient is still hemodynamically stable.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 05/2009; 57(3):170-2. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: P-selectin is an adhesion molecule that plays a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to assess whether or not the treatment with fluvastatin for 3 weeks preoperatively would reduce the levels of circulating P-selectin in patients with coronary heart disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting surgery (CABG).
Forty-six patients referred to CABG operation were included in the study. The patients were randomized into two groups (1:1): one treated with fluvastatin (80 mg/day, fluvastatin group, n = 23), and the other one treated with placebo (placebo group, n = 23) for three weeks before surgery. All patients underwent CABG using CPB. Blood samples were collected at baseline (the day before surgery), before and after aortic cross-clamping (ACC), at postoperative 0 h (the end of surgical intervention), and at 4, 12, and 24 hours postoperatively. Concentrations of soluble P-selectin (sP-selectin) were analyzed.
The sP-selectin values measured in the fluvastatin group were significantly lower than the values measured in the placebo group. There was less use of intraoperative inotropic agents in the fluvastatin group ( P < 0.015) and the difference in the length of ICU and hospital stay showed a significantly shorter stay for the fluvastatin group.
Pretreatment with fluvastatin seemed to reduce P-selectin levels compared to patients given placebo, and hence, we think that pretreatment with a statin, fluvastatin in our study, might reduce the perioperative cardiac injury caused by cardiopulmonary bypass-induced inflammatory changes. We believe that routine preoperative use of fluvastatin should be carefully considered.
The Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgeon 04/2009; 57(2):91-5. · 0.93 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although transaortic septal myectomy in obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (OHC) is accepted as a safe procedure, it may end up with serious peroperative complications. We developed a practical method to avoid this unfavorable outcome by using a 20-cc syringe body. We believe this apparatus will provide safe and effective septal myectomy procedures without additional cost.
Heart and Vessels 02/2009; 24(1):70-2. · 2.13 Impact Factor