Robert H Pietrzak

The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia

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Publications (154)643.54 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the extent to which decline in memory and working memory in beta-amyloid (Aβ) positive non-demented individuals was related to hippocampal atrophy and Aβ accumulation over 36 months. Cognitively normal older adults (CN) (n = 178) and adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n = 49) underwent positron emission tomography neuroimaging, magnetic resonance imaging, and cognitive assessments at baseline, 18- and 36-months. Relative to Aβ- CNs, Aβ+ CNs and Aβ+ MCIs showed greater rates of cognitive decline, Aβ accumulation, and hippocampal atrophy. Analysis of interrelationships between these Alzheimer's disease markers in Aβ+ CNs and MCIs indicated that rate of Aβ accumulation was associated with rate of hippocampal atrophy (β = -0.05, p = .037), which was in turn associated independently with rate of decline in memory (β = -0.03, p = .032). This suggests that Aβ accumulation precedes any neurodegeneration or clinical symptoms, and that the relationship between Aβ and cognitive decline is mediated by hippocampal atrophy. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.
    Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology 12/2014; · 2.00 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current study examined contributions of post-disaster stressful life events in relation to the maintenance of WTC-related posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and overall functioning among rescue, recovery, and clean-up workers who responded to the September 11, 2001 World Trade Center (WTC) terrorist attacks.Methods Participants were 18,896 WTC responders, including 8,466 police officers and 10,430 non-traditional responders (85.8% male; 86.4% Caucasian; Mage = 39.5, SD = 8.8) participating in the WTC Health Program who completed an initial examination between July, 2002 and April, 2010 and who were reassessed, on average, 2.5 years later.ResultsPath analyses were conducted to evaluate contributions of life events to the maintenance of WTC-related posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and overall functioning. These analyses were stratified by police and non-traditional responder groups and adjusted for age, sex, time from 9/11 to initial visit, WTC exposures (three WTC contextual exposures: co-worker, friend, or a relative died in the disaster; co-worker, friend, or a relative injured in the disaster; and responder was exposed to the dust cloud on 9/11), and interval from initial to first follow-up visit. In both groups, WTC-related posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and overall functioning were stable over the follow-up period. WTC exposures were related to these three outcomes at the initial assessment. WTC-related posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and overall functioning, at the initial assessment each predicted the occurrence of post-disaster stressful life events, as measured by Disaster Supplement of the Diagnostic Interview Schedule. Post-disaster stressful life events, in turn, were associated with subsequent mental health, indicating partial mediation of the stability of observed mental health.Conclusions The present findings suggest a dynamic interplay between exposure, post-disaster stressful life events, and WTC-related posttraumatic stress, depressive symptoms, and overall functioning among WTC disaster responders.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Several revisions to the symptom clusters of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have been made in the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5). Central to the focus of this study was the revision of PTSD’s tripartite structure in DSM-IV into four symptom clusters in DSM-5. Emerging confirmatory factor analytic (CFA) studies have suggested that DSM-5 PTSD symptoms may be best represented by one of two 6-factor models: (1) an Externalizing Behaviors model characterized by a factor which combines the irritability/anger and self-destructive/reckless behavior items; and (2) an Anhedonia model characterized by items of loss of interest, detachment, and restricted affect. The current study conducted CFAs of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms assessed using the PTSD Checklist for DSM-5 (PCL-5) in two independent and diverse trauma-exposed samples of a nationally representative sample of 1,484 U.S. veterans and a sample of 497 Midwestern U.S. university undergraduate students. Relative fits of the DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model, the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model, the two 6-factor models, and a newly proposed 7-factor Hybrid model, which consolidates the two 6-factor models, were evaluated. Results revealed that, in both samples, both 6-factor models provided significantly better fit than the 4-factor DSM-5 model, the DSM-5 Dysphoria model and the DSM-5 Dysphoric Arousal model. Further, the 7-factor Hybrid model, which incorporates key features of both 6-factor models and is comprised of re-experiencing, avoidance, negative affect, anhedonia, externalizing behaviors, and anxious and dysphoric arousal symptom clusters, provided superior fit to the data in both samples. Results are discussed in light of theoretical and empirical support for the latent structure of DSM-5 PTSD symptoms.
    Journal of Psychiatric Research. 11/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to natural disasters has been linked to a range of adverse outcomes, including mental health problems (e.g., posttraumatic stress symptoms [PTSS], depression), declines in role functioning (e.g., occupational difficulties), and physical health problems (e.g., somatic complaints). However, prior research and theory suggest that the modal postdisaster response in each of these domains is resilience, defined as low levels of symptoms or problems in a given outcome over time, with minimal elevations that are limited to the time period during the disaster and its immediate aftermath. However, the extent to which disaster survivors exhibit mental health wellness (resilience across multiple mental health conditions) or general wellness (resilience across mental health, physical health, and role functioning domains) remains unexplored. The purpose of this study was to quantify mental health and general wellness, and to examine predictors of each form of wellness, in a three-wave population-based study of Hurricane Ike survivors (N = 658). Latent class growth analysis was used to determine the frequency of resilience on four outcomes (PTSS: 74.9%; depression: 57.9%; functional impairment: 45.1%; days of poor health: 52.6%), and cross-tabulations were used to determine the frequency of mental health wellness (51.2%) and general wellness (26.1%). Significant predictors of both mental health and general wellness included lower peri-event emotional reactions and higher community-level collective efficacy; loss of sentimental possessions or pets and disaster-related financial loss were negative predictors of mental health wellness, and loss of personal property was a negative predictor of general wellness. The results suggest that studies focusing on a single postdisaster outcome may have overestimated the prevalence of mental health and general wellness, and that peri-event responses, personal property loss and collective efficacy have a cross-cutting influence across multiple domains of postdisaster functioning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Social science & medicine (1982). 11/2014; 124C:162-170.
  • Julia M Whealin, Eric Kuhn, Robert H Pietrzak
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    ABSTRACT: Despite the availability of effective mental health interventions, the vast majority of veterans with a mental disorder underutilize psychological services. Contemporary research has revealed that several factors such as low education, stigma, stoicism, lack of knowledge, and negative beliefs about mental health services are associated with veterans' underutilization of services. In this article, the authors provide an overview of factors that affect symptomatic veterans' decisions about whether to seek mental health services. Second, they describe the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen & Fishbein, 1980), a useful model for understanding mental health care seeking that can inform the development of technology-based interventions designed to increase veterans' willingness to seek psychological services. Third, the authors describe the development of Considering Professional Help, a personalized web-based tool developed by the Department of Veterans Affairs, which has been designed to promote mental health care seeking in veterans with mental health problems. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).
    Psychological Services 11/2014; 11(4):486-94. · 1.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hidden pathway maze learning tasks (HPMLTs) have been used in neuropsychological research and practice for more than 80 years. These tasks require the use of visual and auditory task feedback signals to learn the order and direction of a pathway, typically within a grid of stepping-stones, or alleys. Hidden pathway maze learning tasks are purported to assess both visuospatial learning and executive processes. The original motivation for the HPMLT paradigm for humans was to reduce a complex tactual planning task to one in which decisions could be directly measured by discrete actions at choice points guided by visual cues. Hidden maze learning paradigms were used extensively throughout the 20th century, initially to study exploratory, anticipatory, and goal-related behavior within the context of memory research, and later as an experimental tool in neuropsychology. Computerization of HPMLTs have allowed for the measurement of different move categories according to the rule structure and ipso facto, clinically meaningful differences in memory and monitoring functions during spatial search and learning. Hidden pathway maze learning tests have been used to understand the cognitive effects of ageing, neurological disorders, and psychopharmacological challenges. We provide a review of historical antecedents relevant to contemporary applications of HPMLTs in neuropsychology. It is suggested that contemporary applications of HPMLTs could be advanced by analysis of component operations necessary for efficient performance that can inform theoretical interpretations of this class of tests in clinically meaningful terms.
    Neuropsychology Review 10/2014; · 6.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Population-based data are lacking on the prevalence and comorbidity of subsyndromal depression (SSD) and its associated risk for incident psychiatric disorders in older adults. Methods Using nationally representative data from 10,409 US adults aged 55 years and older who participated in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, we evaluated associations between lifetime SSD at Wave 1, and lifetime and incident mood, anxiety, and substance use disorders over a 3-year period. Results Some 13.8% of older adults met criteria for SSD, and 13.7% met criteria for major depressive disorder (MDD). After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics, older adults with SSD at Wave 1 had significantly increased odds of lifetime mood (adjusted odds ratios (AORs) = 3.65–10.55), anxiety (AORs = 1.61–2.50), and any personality (AOR = 1.62) disorders. After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid psychiatric disorders, older adults with SSD at Wave 1 had significantly increased odds of developing new-onset MDD (AOR = 1.44, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.01–2.05), as well as an anxiety disorder (AOR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.04–2.20) at Wave 2. Conclusion In addition to the 13.7% of US older adults with lifetime MDD, an additional 13.8% have lifetime SSD, which is not a formally recognized diagnosis. In addition to its high prevalence, SSD is associated with elevated rates of comorbid mood, anxiety, and personality disorders, as well as the development of a new-onset MDD and anxiety disorder. These results underscore the importance of dimensional approaches to assessing depressive symptoms in older persons, as diagnostic approaches that rely on rigorous categorical classifications may fail to identify a substantial proportion of at-risk individuals.
    International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry 10/2014; · 3.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a prevalent, chronic, and disabling anxiety disorder that may develop following exposure to a traumatic event. Despite the public health significance of PTSD, relatively little is known about the etiology or pathophysiology of this disorder, and pharmacotherapy development to date has been largely opportunistic instead of mechanism-based. Recently, an accumulating body of evidence has implicated the endocannabinoid system in the etiology of PTSD, and targets within this system are believed to be suitable for treatment development. Herein, we describe evidence from translational studies arguing for the relevance of the endocannabinoid system in the etiology of PTSD. We also show mechanisms relevant for treatment development. There is convincing evidence from multiple studies for reduced endocannabinoid availability in PTSD. Brain imaging studies show molecular adaptations with elevated cannabinoid type 1 (CB1) receptor availability in PTSD which is linked to abnormal threat processing and anxious arousal symptoms. Of particular relevance is evidence showing reduced levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide and compensatory increase of CB1 receptor availability in PTSD, and an association between increased CB1 receptor availability in the amygdala and abnormal threat processing, as well as increased severity of hyperarousal, but not dysphoric symptomatology, in trauma survivors. Given that hyperarousal symptoms are the key drivers of more disabling aspects of PTSD such as emotional numbing or suicidality, novel, mechanism-based pharmacotherapies that target this particular symptom cluster in patients with PTSD may have utility in mitigating the chronicity and morbidity of the disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Psychoneuroendocrinology 10/2014; · 5.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Three of the most common trauma-related mental disorders—posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD)—are highly comorbid and share common transdiagnostic symptom dimensions of threat (i.e., fear) and loss (i.e., dysphoria) symptomatology. However, empirical evaluation of the dimensional structure of component aspects of these disorders is lacking.Methods Using structured clinical interview data from U.S. military veterans with chronic military-related PTSD, we evaluated the transdiagnostic dimensional structure of PTSD, MDD, and GAD symptoms. We then examined the relationship between the best-fitting transdiagnostic model of these symptoms, and measures of physical and mental functioning, and life satisfaction and well-being.ResultsExploratory factor analysis revealed that a 3-factor transdiagnostic model comprised of loss (i.e., dysphoria), threat (i.e., anxious arousal, re-experiencing, and avoidance symptoms), and somatic anxiety (i.e., physiological manifestations of anxiety) symptoms provided the best representation of trauma-related PTSD, MDD, and GAD symptoms. Somatic anxiety symptoms were independently associated with physical functioning, while loss symptoms were independently associated with mental functioning and life satisfaction and well-being.LimitationsEvaluation of study aims in a relatively homogeneous sample of veterans with chronic, military-related PTSD.Conclusions Results of this study suggest that a 3-factor transdiagnostic model best characterizes the dimensional structure of PTSD, MDD, and GAD symptoms in military veterans with chronic military-related PTSD. This model evidenced external validity in demonstrating differential associations with measures of physical and mental functioning, and life satisfaction and well-being. Results provide support for emerging contemporary models of psychopathology, which emphasize transdiagnostic and dimensional conceptualizations of mental disorders. Such models may have utility in understanding the functional status of trauma survivors.
    Journal of Affective Disorders. 10/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Accumulation of β-amyloid (Aβ) in the brain is associated with memory decline in healthy individuals as a prelude to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Genetic factors may moderate this decline. We examined the role of apolipoprotein E (ε4 carrier[ε4+], ε4 non-carrier[ε4−]) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNFVal/Val, BDNFMet) in the extent to which they moderate Aβ-related memory decline. Healthy adults (n=333, Mage=70 years) enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle study underwent Aβ neuroimaging. Neuropsychological assessments were conducted at baseline, 18-, 36- and 54-month follow-ups. Aβ positron emission tomography neuroimaging was used to classify participants as Aβ− or Aβ+. Relative to Aβ−ε4−, Aβ+ε4+ individuals showed significantly faster rates of cognitive decline over 54 months across all domains (d=0.40–1.22), while Aβ+ε4− individuals showed significantly faster decline only on verbal episodic memory (EM). There were no differences in rates of cognitive change between Aβ−ε4− and Aβ−ε4+ groups. Among Aβ+ individuals, ε4+/BDNFMet participants showed a significantly faster rate of decline on verbal and visual EM, and language over 54 months compared with ε4−/BDNFVal/Val participants (d=0.90–1.02). At least two genetic loci affect the rate of Aβ-related cognitive decline. Aβ+ε4+/BDNFMet individuals can expect to show clinically significant memory impairment after 3 years, whereas Aβ+ε4+/BDNFVal/Val individuals can expect a similar degree of impairment after 10 years. Little decline over 54 months was observed in the Aβ− and Aβ+ ε4− groups, irrespective of BDNF status. These data raise important prognostic issues in managing preclinical AD, and should be considered in designing secondary preventative clinical trials.
    Molecular Psychiatry 10/2014; · 15.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prevalence of military sexual trauma (MST) among US veterans, identify sociodemographic and military characteristics of MST, and examine the relationships between MST and psychiatric comorbidities, functioning/quality of life, and mental health treatment utilization.
    The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 10/2014; 75(10):e1133-9. · 5.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To conduct a qualitative study of older American veterans' subjective perceptions of factors that contribute to successful physical, emotional, and cognitive aging. A nationally representative sample of 2,025 veterans aged 60 or older (range: 60-96; 96.9% male, 39.4% combat veterans) participated in the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study. Using qualitative analysis software, the authors coded responses to three open-ended questions, inductively developed categories, aggregated similar categories into factors, and grouped factors into broader themes. A total of 53, 56, and 61 categories of responses was identified in response to questions about successful physical, cognitive, and emotional aging, respectively, with 10 aggregate factors linking these categories. The most prominent theme overall was "What you do," which received 2,295, 2,210, and 1,247 mentions for each of these domains of successful aging, with health behaviors the most common factor for both successful physical and cognitive aging and social engagement the most common for successful emotional aging. The theme "Who you are" was the second-most common factor (discerned from 376, 247, and 943 total mentions, respectively), with the factors that comprise this theme-personality and explanatory style, moral compass, and emotional dispositions-more commonly endorsed for successful emotional aging. External factors such as healthcare were least commonly endorsed across all domains. Older U.S. Veterans emphasize health behaviors, social engagement, and dispositional characteristics as key determinants of successful aging. Prevention and treatment initiatives that target these potentially modifiable factors may help promote successful aging in this growing segment of the population. Copyright © 2015 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    The American journal of geriatric psychiatry: official journal of the American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry 09/2014; · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT Background: While it is well known that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is characterized by heterogeneous symptom clusters, little is known about predominant typologies of PTSD symptoms in older adults. Methods: Latent profile analyses (LPAs) were employed to evaluate predominant typologies of PTSD symptoms in a sample of 164 treatment-seeking older adults with childhood war-related trauma. Multinomial logistic regressions were conducted to evaluate predictors of class membership. Results: LPAs revealed that a 3-class solution best fit the data. These included an Intermediate Disturbance class (50.0%) and two Pervasive Disturbance classes, which differed with respect to severity of avoidance symptoms (Pervasive Disturbance-Low Avoidance: 33.5%, Pervasive Disturbance-High Avoidance: 16.5%). A greater number of traumatic events predicted membership in the Pervasive Disturbance classes. The Pervasive Disturbance-Low Avoidance class had a higher level of education than the Pervasive Disturbance-High Avoidance class. Compared to the Intermediate Disturbance class, the Pervasive Disturbance classes had the highest levels of depression, anxiety and somatization symptoms. Conclusion: These results suggest that PTSD in treatment-seeking older adults may be characterized by three predominant typologies, which are differentiated by overall severity and avoidance symptoms, lifetime trauma burden, education level, and comorbid depression, anxiety, and somatization symptoms. These results underscore the importance of considering heterogeneity in the phenotypic presentation of PTSD in assessment and treatment approaches for this disorder in older adults.
    International psychogeriatrics / IPA. 09/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: Background There has been growing interest in the relation between anxiety disorders and physical conditions in the general adult population. However, little is known about the nature of this association in older adults. Understanding the complex relationship between these disorders can help to inform prevention and treatment strategies unique to this rapidly growing segment of the population. Methods A total of 10,409 U.S. adults aged 55 + participated in Wave 1 (2001–2002) and Wave 2 (2004–2005) of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Lifetime and past-year DSM-IV anxiety, mood, and substance use disorders, and lifetime personality disorders, were assessed in both waves. Participants self-reported on whether they had been diagnosed by a healthcare professional with a broad range of physical health conditions; this study focuses on cardiovascular disease, gastrointestinal disease, and arthritis. Multivariable logistic regressions adjusted for sociodemographics, comorbid mental disorders, and number of physical health conditions assessed: (1) the relation between past-year physical conditions at Wave 1 and incident past-year anxiety disorders at Wave 2 and; (2) the relation between individual lifetime anxiety disorders at Wave 1 and incident physical conditions at Wave 2. A second set of adjusted multinomial logistic regressions examined Wave 1 sociodemographic and physical and mental health risk factors associated with incident physical condition alone, anxiety disorder alone, and comorbid anxiety and physical condition at Wave 2. Results Past-year arthritis at Wave 1 was significantly associated with increased odds of incident generalized anxiety disorder at Wave 2. Further, any lifetime anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder at Wave 1 were significantly associated with increased odds of incident gastrointestinal disease at Wave 2. Differential sociodemographic and physical and mental health predictors were significantly associated with increased odds of incident comorbid anxiety disorder and physical conditions. Conclusion Results of the current study elucidate the longitudinal bidirectional relationships between anxiety disorders and physical health conditions in a large, nationally representative sample of older adults. These results have important implications for identifying at risk older adults, which will not only impact this growing segment of the population directly, but will also potentially lessen burden on the healthcare system as a whole.
    Experimental Gerontology 09/2014; · 3.91 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Exposure to trauma increases the risk for developing threat (ie, fear) symptoms, such as reexperiencing and hyperarousal symptoms, and loss (ie, dysphoria) symptoms, such as emotional numbing and depressive symptoms. While preclinical data have implicated the activated dynorphin/κ-opioid receptor (KOR) system in relation to these symptoms, the role of the KOR system in mediating these phenotypes in humans is unknown. Elucidation of molecular targets implicated in threat and loss symptoms is important because it can help inform the development of novel, mechanism-based treatments for trauma-related psychopathology.
    JAMA Psychiatry 09/2014; · 12.01 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to elucidate the dimensional structure of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and potential moderators and functional correlates of this structure in disaster-affected adolescents. A population-based sample of 2000 adolescents aged 12-17 years (M = 14.5 years; 51% female) completed interviews on post-tornado PTSD symptoms, substance use, and parent-adolescent conflict between 4 and 13 months (M = 8.8, SD = 2.6) after tornado exposure. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that all models fit well but a 5-factor dysphoric arousal model provided a statistically significantly better representation of adolescent PTSD symptoms compared to 4-factor dysphoria and emotional numbing models. There was evidence of measurement invariance of the dysphoric arousal model across gender and age, although girls and older adolescents aged 15-17 years had higher mean scores than boys and younger adolescents aged 12-14 years, respectively, on some PTSD dimensions. Differential magnitudes of association between PTSD symptom dimensions and functional correlates were observed, with emotional numbing symptoms most strongly positively associated with problematic substance use since the tornado, and dysphoric arousal symptoms most strongly positively associated with parent-adolescent conflict; both correlations were significantly larger than the corresponding correlations with anxious arousal. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimensional structure of tornado-related PTSD symptomatology in adolescents is optimally characterized by five separate clusters of re-experiencing, avoidance, numbing, dysphoric arousal, and anxious arousal symptoms, which showed unique associations with functional correlates. Findings emphasize that PTSD in disaster-exposed adolescents is not best conceptualized as a homogenous construct and highlight potential differential targets for post-disaster assessment and intervention.
    Journal of psychiatric research. 09/2014;
  • Jack Tsai, Julia M Whealin, Robert H Pietrzak
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    ABSTRACT: Objectives. We (1) compared use of various health services nationally between Asian American and Pacific Islander (AA/PI) veterans and veterans of other racial/ethnic groups and (2) specifically compared perceived barriers and stigma related to mental health services. Methods. Using bivariate and multivariable statistics, we analyzed a population-weighted sample of 8315 veterans from the 2010 National Survey of Veterans and a random sample of 567 recent veterans from Hawaii. Results. A total of 1.5% of veterans were AA/PI compared with 0.4% a decade ago. Compared with other veterans, AA/PI veterans reported higher socioeconomic status and better mental health, although these findings may be specific to AA veterans. Adjusting for sociodemographic and health differences, we found no differences in health service use or perceived barriers or stigma related to mental health services. Conclusions. AA/PIs are a small but fast-growing racial/ethnic group within the veteran population that deserves attention. Although veteran status may be protective against some barriers to mental health care found in the general AA/PI population, efforts to reduce barriers to health care among veterans should be continued.
    American journal of public health. 09/2014; 104 Suppl 4:S538-47.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: The detection of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) can rely on subjective and informant reports of cognitive impairment. However, relationships between subjective cognitive impairment, objectively measured cognitive function, and amyloid-β (Aβ) biomarkers remain unclear. Objective: To determine the extent to which impairment or decline in subjective and informant rated cognitive impairment was associated with memory in healthy older adults with high Aβ. Methods: Healthy older adults (n = 289) enrolled in the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study were studied at baseline. Pittsburgh Compound B was used to determine Aβ status at baseline. At baseline and 18 months assessments, subjective memory impairment was assessed using the Memory Complaint Questionnaire and the Short Form of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly. Cognition was measured using the Cogstate Brief Battery. Results: At baseline, there were no differences between low and high Aβ groups in subjective or informant-rated cognitive impairment, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or cognitive function. Longitudinal analyses showed moderate decline in learning and working memory over the 18 months in the high Aβ group. However there was no change over time in subjective or informant-rated cognitive impairment, depressive and anxiety symptoms, or cognition in either Aβ group. Conclusions: Although healthy older adults with high Aβ levels show decline in learning and working memory over 18 months, subjective or informant ratings of cognitive impairment do not change over the same period suggesting subjective cognitive impairment may have limited utility for the very early identification of AD.
    Journal of Alzheimer's disease: JAD 08/2014; · 4.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Trauma-focused cognitive behavioral treatments are known to be effective for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adults. However, evidence for effective treatments for older persons with PTSD, particularly elderly war trauma survivors, is scarce. In an open trial, 30 survivors of World War II aged 65 to 85 years (mean, 71.73 years; SD, 4.8; n = 17 women) with PTSD symptoms were treated with a Web-based, therapist-assisted cognitive-behavioral/narrative therapy for 6 weeks. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed a significant decrease in PTSD severity scores (Cohen's d = 0.43) and significant improvements on secondary clinical outcomes of quality of life, self-efficacy, and posttraumatic growth from pretreatment to posttreatment. All improvements were maintained at a 3-month follow-up. The attrition rate was low (13.3%), with participants who completed the trial reporting high working alliance and treatment satisfaction. Results of this study suggest that integrative testimonial therapy is a well accepted and potentially effective treatment for older war trauma survivors experiencing PTSD symptoms.
    The Journal of nervous and mental disease. 08/2014;
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    Becca R Levy, Corey E Pilver, Robert H Pietrzak
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    ABSTRACT: Older military veterans are at greater risk for psychiatric disorders than same-aged non-veterans. However, little is known about factors that may protect older veterans from developing these disorders. We considered whether an association exists between the potentially stress-reducing factor of resistance to negative age stereotypes and lower prevalence of the following outcomes among older veterans: suicidal ideation, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants consisted of 2031 veterans, aged 55 or older, who were drawn from the National Health and Resilience in Veterans Study, a nationally representative survey of American veterans. The prevalence of all three outcomes was found to be significantly lower among participants who fully resisted negative age stereotypes, compared to those who fully accepted them: suicidal ideation, 5.0% vs. 30.1%; anxiety, 3.6% vs. 34.9%; and PTSD, 2.0% vs. 18.5%, respectively. The associations followed a graded linear pattern and persisted after adjustment for relevant covariates, including age, combat experience, personality, and physical health. These findings suggest that developing resistance to negative age stereotypes could provide older individuals with a path to greater mental health.
    Social science & medicine (1982). 07/2014; 119C:170-174.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
643.54 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • United States Department of Veterans Affairs
      Bedford, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2014
    • Yale University
      • • Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Pediatric Diagnostic Radiology
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • Yale-New Haven Hospital
      • Department of Laboratory Medicine
      New Haven, Connecticut, United States
    • RMIT University
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
  • 2013
    • University of Greifswald
      • Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy
      Greifswald, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany
    • University of Hawaiʻi at Hilo
      Hilo, Hawaii, United States
    • University of Manitoba
      Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada
  • 2008–2013
    • University of Melbourne
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      • • Melbourne School of Psychological Sciences
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Alpert Medical School - Brown University
      • Department of Pediatrics
      Providence, RI, United States
  • 2011
    • Naval Health Research Center
      • Department of Warfighter Performance
      San Diego, CA, United States
    • Melbourne Institute of Technology
      Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
    • Georgetown University
      Washington, Washington, D.C., United States
  • 2006–2011
    • University of Connecticut
      • Department of Psychology
      Storrs, CT, United States
  • 2006–2008
    • UConn Health Center
      • • Division of Behavioral Sciences and Community Health
      • • Department of Psychiatry
      Farmington, CT, United States
  • 2005
    • Colby College
      Waterville, Maine, United States