Sue C Kaste

The University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tennessee, United States

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Publications (248)992.89 Total impact

  • Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2015; DOI:10.1002/pbc.25598 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is limited information on body composition, energy balance and fitness among childhood ALL survivors, especially those treated without cranial radiation (CRT). This analysis compares these metrics among 365 ALL survivors with a mean age of 28.6±5.9 years (149 treated with and 216 without CRT) and 365 age-, sex-, and race-matched peers. We also report risk factors for outcomes among survivors treated without CRT. Male survivors not exposed to CRT had abnormal body composition when compared to peers (%body fat 26.2±8.2 vs. 22.7±7.1). Survivors without CRT had similar energy balance, but had significantly impaired quadriceps strength (-21.9±6.0 Nm/kg, 60°/s) and endurance (-11.4±4.6 Nm/kg, 300°/s), exercise capacity (-2.0±2.1 ml/kg/min), low-back and hamstring flexibility (-4.7±1.6 cm), and dorsiflexion range of motion (-3.1±0.9°), and higher modified total neuropathy scores (+1.6±1.1) than peers. Cumulative asparaginase dose ≥120,000 IU/m(2) was associated with impaired flexibility, vincristine dose ≥39 mg/m(2) with peripheral neuropathy, glucocorticoid (prednisone equivalent) dose ≥8000 mg/m(2) with hand weakness, and intrathecal methotrexate dose ≥225 mg with dorsiflexion weakness. Physical inactivity was associated with hand weakness and decreased exercise capacity. Smoking was associated with peripheral neuropathy. Elimination of CRT from ALL therapy has improved, but not eliminated, body composition outcomes. Survivors remain at risk for impaired fitness. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hematology.
    Blood 03/2015; 125(22). DOI:10.1182/blood-2015-01-621680 · 10.43 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diagnostic utility of obtaining chest and abdomen CT evaluating for invasive fungal infection (IFI) pre-and post-HSCT remains unclear. The study was conducted as a Quality Improvement project. Chest and abdomen CT of patients who underwent an allogeneic HSCT over a 13 month period were reviewed. Scans included those done pre-transplant in all patients, and day 0-100 post-transplant in selected patients. There were 66 patients with chest and abdomen CT scans pre-transplant. Chest CT was suggestive of IFI in 9 (13.6%) patients including 3 patients with prior history of IFI. After transplant, 37 patients had initial chest CT, and 14 patients had initial abdominal CT. The first chest CT post-transplant was suggestive of IFI in 3 patients; all had an abnormal CT pre-transplant. Following the initial post-transplant evaluation 15 patients had 28 additional CT scans of the chest, and 12 patients had 19 additional CT scans of the abdomen. An abnormal chest CT with proven evidence of IFI was seen in only one patient. None of the 99 abdominal CT scans performed pre-or post-transplant had evidence of IFI. There is little benefit in obtaining abdominal CT scans in HSCT patients for detecting IFI either pre-or post-transplant. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Biology of blood and marrow transplantation: journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation 03/2015; 21(6). DOI:10.1016/j.bbmt.2015.02.023 · 3.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Childhood cancer survivors (CCSs) are at risk for obesity. The purpose of this project was to determine which clinical measures of body composition are most accurate among CCSs in comparison with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). The agreement between the body mass index (BMI), skinfold percent body fat, and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and DXA was evaluated among 1361 CCSs (mean age, 32.4 ± 7.7 years) 10 or more years after the diagnosis. The sensitivity and specificity of BMI, skinfold, and WHtR obesity classifications were calculated with respect to DXA. Log-binomial regression, stratified by sex, was used to evaluate treatment-related factors for misclassification as nonobese by BMI, skinfolds, and WHtR. The mean body fat values were 23.3% ± 7.7% (males) and 32.3% ± 8.1% (females) for skinfolds and 26.9% ± 7.4% (males) and 38.4% ± 7.7% (females) for DXA. Pearson correlations between skinfolds and DXA were high (R = 0.83 for males, R = 0.84 for females). Skinfolds incorrectly classified 34.5% of obese males and 27.3% of obese females. BMI measures were the least sensitive with false-negative rates of 46.4% (males) and 53.1% (females). Males exposed to abdominal/pelvic radiation were at increased risk for misclassification as nonobese by BMI (relative risk, 1.57; 95% confidence interval, 1.25-1.95). The percentages classified as obese were highest with DXA (males, 63.1%; females, 84.8%) and lowest with BMI (males, 35.7%; females, 39.7%). Although skinfolds and WHtR underestimated the percentage classified as obese in comparison with DXA, the differences were not as large. Findings suggest that skinfolds and WHtR are better than BMI for obesity classification in CCSs. Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of misclassifying obese CCSs as nonobese. Cancer 2015. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.
    Cancer 02/2015; 121(12). DOI:10.1002/cncr.29300 · 4.90 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Hip osteonecrosis frequently complicates treatment with glucocorticoids. When extensive (affecting ≥ 30% of the epiphyseal surface), 80% of joints collapse within 2 years, so interventions are needed to prevent this outcome. This prospective cohort magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening study included all consecutive children treated for acute lymphoblastic leukemia on a single protocol. Hip MRI was performed at 6.5 and 9 months from diagnosis (early screening) and at completion of chemotherapy (final evaluation) to determine whether screening could identify extensive hip osteonecrosis before symptom development. Of 498 patients, 462 underwent screening MRI. Extensive asymptomatic osteonecrosis was identified by early screening in 26 patients (41 hips); another four patients (seven hips) were detected after the screening period, such that screening sensitivity was 84.1% and specificity was 99.4%. The number of joints screened to detect one lesion was 20.1 joints for all patients, 4.4 joints for patients older than 10 years, and 198 joints for patients ≤ 10 years old (P < .001). Of the 40 extensive lesions in patients older than 10 years, 19 required total hip arthroplasty and none improved. Of eight extensive lesions in younger patients, none required arthroplasty and four improved. In patients age 10 years old or younger who require prolonged glucocorticoid therapy, screening for extensive hip osteonecrosis is unnecessary because their risk is low and lesions tend to heal. In children older than 10 years, early screening successfully identifies extensive asymptomatic lesions in patients who would be eligible for studies of interventions to prevent or delay joint collapse. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 01/2015; 33(6). DOI:10.1200/JCO.2014.57.5480 · 17.88 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Standardization of imaging obtained in children with neuroblastoma is not well established. This study examines chest CT in pediatric patients with high-risk neuroblastoma.ProcedureMedical records and imaging from 88 patients with high-risk neuroblastoma, diagnosed at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital between January, 2002 and December, 2009, were reviewed. Surveillance imaging was conducted through 2013. Ten patients with thoracic disease at diagnosis were excluded. Event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated. Size specific dose estimates for CT scans of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis were used to estimate absolute organ doses to 23 organs. Organ dosimetry was used to calculate cohort effective dose.ResultsThe 5 year OS and EFS were 51.9% ± 6.5% and 42.6% ± 6.5%, respectively. Forty-six (58.9%) patients progressed/recurred and 41 (52.6%) died of disease. Eleven patients (14%) developed thoracic disease progression/recurrence identified by chest CT (1 paraspinal mass, 1 pulmonary nodules, and 9 nodal). MIBG (metaiodobenzylguanidine) scans identified thoracic disease in six patients. Five of the 11 had normal chest MIBG scans; three were symptomatic and two were asymptomatic with normal chest MIBG scans but avid bone disease. The estimated radiation dose savings from surveillance without CT chest imaging was 42%, 34% when accounting for modern CT acquisition (2011–2013).Conclusions Neuroblastoma progression/recurrence in the chest is rare and often presents with symptoms or is identified using standard non-CT imaging modalities. For patients with non-thoracic high-risk neuroblastoma at diagnosis, omission of surveillance chest CT imaging can save 35–42% of the radiation burden without compromising disease detection. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 01/2015; 62(6). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25400 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background. Mesenchymal chondrosarcoma is an aggressive, uncommon histologic entity arising in bone and soft tissues. We reviewed our institutional experience with this rare diagnosis. Methods. We conducted a retrospective chart review on patients with mesenchymal chondrosarcoma over a 24-year period. Clinicopathologic and radiographic features were reviewed. Results. Twelve patients were identified. Nine were females; median age was 14.5 years (1.2-19.7 years). The most common site was the head/neck (7/12). Disease was localized in 11/12 patients (one with lung nodules). Six with available tissue demonstrated NCOA2 rearrangement by FISH. Six underwent upfront surgical resection, and six received neoadjuvant therapy (2 chemotherapy alone and 4 chemotherapy and radiation). All patients received adjuvant chemotherapy (most commonly ifosfamide/doxorubicin) and/or radiation (median dose 59.4 Gy). At a median follow-up of 4.8 years, 5-year disease-free survival and overall survival were 68.2% (95% CI 39.8%, 96.6%) and 88.9% (95% CI 66.9%, 100%). Two patients had distant recurrences at 15 and 42 months, respectively. Conclusion. Aggressive surgical resection of mesenchymal chondrosarcoma with chemoradiotherapy yields excellent local control and may reduce likelihood of late recurrence. Characterization of downstream targets of the HEY1-NCOA2 fusion protein, xenograft models, and drug screening are needed to identify novel therapeutic strategies.
    Sarcoma 01/2015; 2015:1-6. DOI:10.1155/2015/608279
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    ABSTRACT: Malignancies arising in connective tissue comprise a clinically important and histologically diverse category of pediatric cancers. These have traditionally been classified by presumed cell of origin or type of differentiation, with the caveat that some diagnoses originate from undefined cell types. Newer genetic data indicates that molecular perturbations, particularly translocations and their derivative chimeric fusions, correlate with histological types and better predict clinical behavior and outcome. Many diagnostic imaging techniques can be profitably applied to these tumors for the purposes of diagnosis, staging, and disease monitoring. These range from ultrasonography to newer positron emission tomography (PET) scans. Rhabdomyosarcomas constitute a large proportion of sarcomas in children, but in older children and adolescents, non-rhabdomyosarcomatous soft tissue sarcomas (NRSTS) predominate as a group. This review will cover classification, grading, morphological and genetic diagnosis, and diagnostic imaging features of these diverse lesions, Rarely adult types of sarcomas occur in children, but they will be included in this relatively brief chapter.
    Pediatric Malignancies: Pathology and Imaging, 01/2015: pages 19-68; , ISBN: 978-1-4939-1728-0
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    ABSTRACT: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for treatment-related musculoskeletal late effects. Early detection and orthopedic intervention can help ameliorate musculoskeletal late effects and prevent subsequent complications. This systematic review summarizes the literature describing associations between cancer, its treatment, and musculoskeletal late effects. We searched PubMed and Web of Science for English language articles published between January 1970 and December 2012. The search was limited to investigations with at least 15 participants and conducted at least 2 years after completion of therapy for childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer. Some late skeletal effects, including low bone mineral density, osteonecrosis, slipped capital femoral epiphyses, oncogenic rickets, and hormone-related growth disturbances have been previously reviewed and were excluded, as were outcomes following amputation and limb-salvage procedures. Of 2347 references identified, 30 met inclusion criteria and were retained. An additional 54 studies that met inclusion criteria were found in reference lists of retained studies. Of 84 studies, 60 focused on associations between radiotherapy, six between chemotherapy, and 18 between surgery and musculoskeletal late effects. We found that younger age, higher radiation dosage, and asymmetric or partial bone radiation volume influences the effects of radiation on the musculoskeletal system. Methotrexate and vincristine are associated with long-term muscular strength and flexibility deficits. Laminectomy and chest wall resection are associated with spinal malalignment, and enucleation is associated with orbital deformities among survivors. Radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery are associated with musculoskeletal late effects independently and additively. Associations are additionally influenced by host and treatment characteristics - See more at:
    Current Pediatric Reviews 11/2014; 10(4). DOI:10.2174/1573400510666141114223827
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    ABSTRACT: Modular and non-invasive expandable prostheses have been developed to provide a functional knee joint that allows future expansion as growth occurs in the contralateral extremity in children with bone sarcomas that require removal of the growth plate. This study aimed to evaluate the functional outcomes of paediatric patients who received either a non-invasive expandable or modular prosthesis for bone sarcomas arising around the knee. We evaluated clinician-reported, patient-reported and measured function in 42 paediatric patients at least one year (median age at assessment 19.1years) after limb salvage surgery, and compared patients who received modular system prostheses (N=29, median age 15.5), who did not require lengthening procedures to those who received non-invasive expandable prostheses (N=13, median age 11.1) requiring lengthening procedures (median 5). The number of revisions and time to first revision did not differ between the two groups. There were no differences between the two groups in total scores on the Enneking Musculoskeletal Tumor Society Scale, the Toronto Extremity Salvage Scale, and the Functional Mobility Assessment. Children with non-invasive expandable prostheses climbed stairs (11.93±4.83 versus 16.73±7.24s, p=0.02) in less time than those with modular prostheses. Our results suggest that the non-invasive expandable prosthesis produces similar functional results to the more traditional modular prosthesis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
    European journal of cancer (Oxford, England: 1990) 10/2014; 50(18):3212-3220. DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2014.10.005 · 4.82 Impact Factor
  • Ophthalmology 10/2014; 122(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ophtha.2014.09.021 · 6.17 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background We investigated the effects of demographic, lifestyle (self-reported smoking status and physical activity levels), cancer-related treatment factors (radiation and chemotherapy), and diet (calcium and vitamin D intake) on bone turnover and the relationship of bone turnover to lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) Z-scores (LS-BMD Z-scores) determined by quantitative computed tomography (QCT) in 418 ≥5-year survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).ProcedureBone turnover was assessed by biomarkers including serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BALP), osteocalcin (OC), and urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen indexed to creatinine (NTX/Cr). The 215 males ranged in age from 9 to 36 years (median age 17 years).ResultsAge and tanner score were inversely associated with all biomarkers (BALP, OC, NTX/Cr) (P < 0.001). Males had higher BALP and OC than females (P < 0.001). Body mass index (BMI) was inversely associated with OC and NTX/Cr (P < 0.001). There was no significant association of biomarkers with lifestyle related factors, ALL treatment-related factors, dietary calcium, vitamin D, or LS-BMD Z-score.Conclusions In this population of long-term survivors of ALL, bone turnover was significantly associated with age, gender, tanner stage, and BMI. ALL-related treatments did not influence bone turnover and bone turnover was not predictive of volumetric LS-BMD Z-score. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 08/2014; 61(8). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25025 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT This study describes skeletal, neuromuscular and fitness impairments among 109 children (median age 10 (range 4-18) years, 65.1% male, 63.3% white) with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), enrolled on a physical activity trial from 2009 to 2013. Outcomes were measured 7-10 days after diagnosis and compared to age- and sex- specific expected values. Associations between function and HRQL were evaluated with logistic regression. Children low values for BMD z-scores/height (mean±standard error: -0.53±0.16 vs. 0.00±0.14, p <0.01), body mass index percentile (57.6±3.15 vs. 50.0±3.27%, p=0.02), quadriceps strength (201.9±8.3 vs. 236.1±5.4 Newtons, p<0.01), six minute walk distance (385.0±13.1 vs. 628.2±7.1 meters, p < 0.001), and Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (23±2.5 vs. 50±3.4%, p < 0.001). Quadriceps weakness was associated with a 20.9-fold (95% CI 2.5-173.3) increase in poor physical HRQL. Children with newly diagnosed ALL have weakness and poor endurance and may benefit from early rehabilitation that includes strengthening and aerobic conditioning. Clinical Trials Registration Number: NCT00902213.
    Leukemia and Lymphoma 07/2014; 56(4):1-28. DOI:10.3109/10428194.2014.944519 · 2.61 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and the degree of recovery or decline, are not well elucidated. Study subjects (age ≥ 18 years and ≥10 years post-diagnosis) participated in an institutional follow-up protocol and risk-based clinical evaluation based on Children's Oncology Group guidelines. Trabecular volumetric BMD was ascertained using quantitative computed tomography, reported as age- and sex-specific Z-scores. At median age 31 years, 5.7% of 845 subjects had a BMD Z-score of ≤-2 and 23.8% had a Z-score of -1 to -2. Cranial radiation dose of ≥24 Gy, but not cumulative methotrexate or prednisone equivalence doses, was associated with a twofold elevated risk of a BMD Z-score of ≤-1. The cranial radiation effect was stronger in females than in males. In a subset of 400 subjects, 67% of those who previously had a BMD Z-score of ≤-2 improved by one or more categories a median of 8.5 years later. Very low BMD was relatively uncommon in this sample of adult survivors of childhood ALL, and BMD Z-scores tended to improve from adolescence to young adulthood. High-dose cranial or craniospinal radiation exposure was the primary predictor of suboptimal BMD in our study. Given that cranial radiation treatment for childhood ALL is used far more sparingly now than in earlier treatment eras, concerns about persistently low BMD among most current childhood ALL patients may be unwarranted. Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 07/2014; 61(7). DOI:10.1002/pbc.25010 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We sought to improve lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) in long-term survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) using calcium and cholecalciferol supplementation. This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 275 participants (median age, 17 [9-36.1] years) with age- and gender-specific LS-BMD Z-scores <0 to receive nutritional counseling with supplementation of 1,000 mg/day calcium and 800 International Unit cholecalciferol or placebo for 2 years. The primary outcome was change in LS-BMD assessed by quantitative computerized tomography (QCT) at 24 months. Linear regression models were employed to identify the baseline risk factors for low LS-BMD and to compare LS-BMD outcomes. Pre-randomization LS-BMD below the mean was associated with male gender (P = 0.0024), White race (P = 0.0003), lower body mass index (P < 0.0001), and cumulative glucocorticoid doses of ≥5,000 mg (P = 0.0012). One hundred eighty-eight (68%) participants completed the study; 77% adhered to the intervention. Mean LS-BMD change did not differ between survivors randomized to supplements (0.33 ± 0.57) or placebo (0.28 ± 0.56). Participants aged 9-13 years and those 22-35 years had the greatest mean increases in LS-BMD (0.50 ± 0.66 and 0.37 ± 0.23, respectively). Vitamin D insufficiency (serum 25[OH]D <30 ng/ml) found in 296 (75%), was not associated with LS-BMD outcomes (P = 0.78). Cholecalciferol and calcium supplementation provides no added benefit to nutritional counseling for improving LS-BMD among adolescent and young adult survivors of ALL (93% of whom had LS-BMD Z-scores above the mean at study entry). Pediatr Blood Cancer © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 05/2014; 61(5). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24882 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Multi-modality therapy has resulted in improved survival for childhood malignancies. The Children's Oncology Group Long-Term Follow-Up Guidelines for Survivors of Childhood, Adolescent, and Young Adult Cancers provide practitioners with exposure- and risk-based recommendations for the surveillance and management of asymptomatic survivors who are at least 2 years from completion of therapy. This review outlines the pathophysiology and risks for oral and dental late effects in pediatric cancer survivors and the rationale for oral and dental screening recommended by the Children's Oncology Group. An English literature search for oral and dental complications of childhood cancer treatment was undertaken via MEDLINE and encompassed January 1975 to January 2013. Proposed guideline content based on the literature review was approved by a multi-disciplinary panel of survivorship experts and scored according to a modified version of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network "Categories of Consensus" system. The Children's Oncology Group oral-dental panel selected 85 relevant citations. Childhood cancer therapy may impact tooth development, salivary function, craniofacial development, and temporomandibular joint function placing some childhood cancer survivors at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Additionally, head and neck radiation and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation increase the risk of subsequent malignant neoplasms in the oral cavity. Survivors require routine dental care to evaluate for potential side effects and initiate early treatment. Certain childhood cancer survivors are at an increased risk for poor oral and dental health. Early identification of oral and dental morbidity and early interventions can optimize health and quality of life.
    Supportive Care in Cancer 04/2014; 22(7). DOI:10.1007/s00520-014-2260-x · 2.50 Impact Factor
  • Aswin V Kumar, Sue C Kaste
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    ABSTRACT: The growing population of long-term survivors of childhood cancer in the United States estimated in 2009 to be nearly 330,000 mandates familiarity with imaging findings that may be related to prior disease, therapy and toxicities. More than 24% of these patients have survived more than 30 years from the time of diagnosis of their malignancy. Thus, imagers of adult as well as pediatric patients should be cognizant of findings seen in this patient cohort. This image-based review will discuss findings demonstrated on chest radiographs that may suggest that the imaged patient is a childhood cancer survivor.
  • Sue C Kaste
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 03/2014; 61(3). DOI:10.1002/pbc.24823 · 2.56 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Medical imaging that uses ionizing radiation, such as CT, radiography, nuclear medicine, and fluoroscopy, is a cornerstone of the care of oncology patients and provides great benefit. Ionizing radiation at high doses is a known carcinogen.The exact degree of the risk of carcinogenesis from the lower doses of ionizing radiation used in medical imaging is less clear. The purpose of this review is to provide the oncology community with knowledge about the doses used in medical imaging, radiation-induced cancer risks from imaging, considerations to keep in mind when balancing imaging benefits and risks in pediatric and adult oncologic settings, dose reduction strategies, and the "Image Gently" and "Image Wisely" campaigns; the latter campaigns facilitate the translation of existing evidence into best practices for providers and patients.
    Oncology (Williston Park, N.Y.) 03/2014; 28(3):232-8, 243. · 2.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk for dental late effects. This systematic review summarizes associations between treatment exposures and dental late effects among survivors of childhood cancer. We included investigations with at least 20 study participants conducted for 2 or more years after completion of childhood, adolescent, or young adult cancer therapy. This review suggests both independent and additive effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy on dental complications, and identifies vulnerable groups with specific host and treatment characteristics. This summary provides information that will assist clinicians to prevent, detect, and facilitate early intervention for dental late effects. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2014;61:407-416. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Pediatric Blood & Cancer 03/2014; 61(3):407-16. DOI:10.1002/pbc.24842 · 2.56 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
992.89 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2015
    • The University of Tennessee Health Science Center
      • • Department of Pediatrics
      • • Division of General Internal Medicine
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1992–2015
    • St. Jude Children's Research Hospital
      • • Department of Radiological Sciences
      • • Division of Diagnostic Imaging
      • • Department of Oncology
      • • Department of Surgery
      • • Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States
  • 1994–2012
    • University of Tennessee
      • Department of Radiology
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
  • 2008–2010
    • The University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville
      Knoxville, Tennessee, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1998–1999
    • The University of Memphis
      Memphis, Tennessee, United States