[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to estimate the dietary glycemic index (GI) and glycemic load (GL) of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander and non-Indigenous rural children and identify the main foods contributing to their GI and GL.
A cross-sectional analysis of food intake of 215 children (38.1% were Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders) 10 to 12 y old obtained by three 24-h recalls was conducted. The foods were ranked according to their total contribution to total carbohydrates, GI, and GL.
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander participants had a significantly higher dietary GL (155.8 ± 46.8 versus 135.4 ± 31.2, P < 0.001) and GI (58.3 ± 3.9 versus 56.9 ± 3.8, P = 0.008) than the non-Indigenous participants. White breads were the main contributors of GI and GL in both groups and were a main driver for the increasing GI. Fiber was not associated with GI, whereas sugar and starch were positively associated. Subjects with a higher GI tended to be less physically active.
The quality of carbohydrates in the diets of the participants was low, with poorer dietary items contributing most of the GI and GL. Substituting white breads with low/lower GI alternatives may be a useful strategy.