María Gormaz

Hospital Universitari i Politècnic la Fe, Valenza, Valencia, Spain

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Publications (8)15.96 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: The role of microbial colonization is indispensable for keeping a balanced immune response in life. However, the events that regulate the establishment of the microbiota, their timing, and the way in which they interact with the host are not yet fully understood. Factors such as gestational age, mode of delivery, environment, hygienic measures and diet influence the establishment of microbiota in the perinatal period. Environmental microbes constitute the most important group of exogenous stimuli in this critical time frame. However, the settlement of a stable gut microbiota in preterm infants is delayed compared to term infants. Preterm infants have an immature gastrointestinal tract and immune system which predisposes to infectious morbidity. Neonatal microbial dynamics and alterations in early gut microbiota may precede and/or predispose to diseases such as necrotizing enterocolitis, late-onset sepsis or others. During this critical period, nutrition is the principal contributor for immunological and metabolic development, and microbiological programming. Breast milk is a known source of molecules that act synergistically to protect the gut barrier and enhance the maturation of the gut-related immune response. Host-microbe interactions in preterm infants and the protective role of diet focused on breast milk impact are beginning to be unveiled.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.54.
    Pediatric Research 03/2015; 77(6). DOI:10.1038/pr.2015.54 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Lyophilization appears to be a viable method for storing human milk, assuring no microbiological contamination and preserving its health benefits and antibacterial properties. To evaluate and compare the effects of different storage methods (lyophilization and freezing at -20°C and -80°C) and maternal factors (gestational length or time postpartum) upon the microbiological contents and bactericidal activity of human milk. The possible relationship between bactericidal activity and the content of certain nutrients and functional components is also investigated. Microbiological content, bactericidal activity, sialic acid and ganglioside contents, as well as protein, fat and lactose concentrations were assessed in 125 human milk samples from 65 healthy donors in the Human Milk Bank of La Fe (Valencia, Spain). Lyophilization and storage at -80°C significantly reduced the content of mesophilic aerobic microorganisms and S. epidermidis when compared to storage at -20°C. Bactericidal activity was not significantly modified by lyophilization when compared to freezing at either -20°C or -80°C. Bactericidal activity was not correlated with fat, protein or lactose content, but was significantly correlated to ganglioside content. The bactericidal activity was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in mature milk and in milk from women with term delivery than in milk from early lactation (days1-7 postpartum) and milk from women with pre-term delivery, respectively. Lyophilization and storage at -80°C of human milk yields similar results and are superior to storage at -20C with regard to microbial and bactericidal capacities, being a feasible alternative for human milk banks.
    Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition 11/2014; 60(4). DOI:10.1097/MPG.0000000000000641 · 2.87 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The variability of human milk (HM) composition renders analysis of its components essential for optimal nutrition of preterm fed either with donor's or own mother's milk. To fulfil this requirement, various analytical instruments have been subjected to scientific and clinical evaluation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of a rapid method for the analysis of macronutrients in HM as compared with the analytical methods applied by cow's milk industry. Mature milk from 39 donors was analysed using an infrared human milk analyser (HMA) and compared with biochemical reference laboratory methods. The statistical analysis was based on the use of paired data tests. The use of an infrared HMA for the analysis of lipids, proteins and lactose in HM proved satisfactory as regards the rapidity, simplicity and the required sample volume. The instrument afforded good linearity and precision in application to all three nutrients. However, accuracy was not acceptable when compared with the reference methods, with overestimation of the lipid content and underestimation of the amount of proteins and lactose contents. The use of mid-infrared HMA might become the standard for rapid analysis of HM once standardisation and rigorous and systematic calibration is provided.
    Maternal and Child Nutrition 07/2012; DOI:10.1111/j.1740-8709.2012.00431.x · 2.97 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Aquaporins (AQPs) constitute a family of channel proteins implicated in transmembrane water transport. Thirteen different AQPs (AQP0-12) have been described but their precise biologic function still remains unclear. AQPs 1, 3, 4, 8, and 9 expression has been described in human chorion, amnion and placenta; however, AQP4 is the only that has been identified in the first trimester of human pregnancy. To assess multiplicity of AQPs expression from 10th to 14th week gestation. Chorionic villi samples (CVS) collected in pregnant women for prenatal diagnosis were analysed by real time-PCR to assess cDNA expression of AQPs 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11, and compared with AQPs expression in placentas from normal term pregnancies. 26 CVS corresponding to 26 pregnant women (age: 32.7±4.5 years; gestational age: 12.4±0.9 weeks) and 10 placental samples corresponding to normal term pregnancies were analysed. In CVS karyotype was normal in 16 cases, trisomy in 6 cases, mosaicism in 1 and unknown in 1. We found high mRNA expression for AQPs 1, 3, 9 and 11, low for AQPs 4, 5, and 8, and non-detectable for AQPs 2, 6, and 7 in chorionic villi. This is the first study systematically assessing the expression of a multiplicity of AQPs in chorionic villi samples between 10th and 14th weeks of gestation. High expression of AQP11 has been identified for the first time in early stages of human pregnancy. Chromosomal abnormalities did not alter AQPs' expression.
    Early human development 02/2012; 88(8):589-94. DOI:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2012.01.009 · 1.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background/objectives: Aquaporins (AQPs) are a family of proteins (AQP0-12) ubiquitously expressed acting as cell membrane water channels. AQP 1/3/8/9 expression has been found in human placenta and fetal membranes; however, AQP4 is the only identified in first trimester fetal tissue samples. We aimed to determine AQP mRNA expression in first trimester of pregnancy and compare it to the expression in placenta at delivery.
    Pediatric Research 11/2011; 70:575-575. DOI:10.1038/pr.2011.800 · 2.84 Impact Factor
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    M Miranda · M Gormaz · F J Romero · D Silvestre
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal milk is the optimal feeding way for the infant at least for the first six months of life. Its properties include nutrients intake and, particularly, to provide the infant with several beneficial compounds improving his growth and protecting him from the diseases typical of this time period. These properties justify the manipulating processes before its intake in order to promote and warrant the adherence to it, both at the hospital and at home, being more important in premature infants and/or with low birth weight given their increased vulnerability, is spite of the fact that during these processes some of its properties may be partially lost. There exist, therefore, an interest in knowing the impact of the procedures applied to human milk on its qualitative properties, such as the antioxidant capacity. This work assesses the stability of the antioxidant capacity of human milk during its storage at 4º C, longitudinally from its extraction until 48 h of refrigeration, as well as the pH changes. the milk from 30 healthy women was analyzed. The milk's antioxidant capacity was assessed by the following parameters: total antioxidant capacity and level of malondialdehyde. The results obtained showed that pH decreases gradually from the storage beginning, whereas the antioxidant capacity remains constant for the first 24 hours, with a different result depending on the parameter used, and thereafter significant changes were observed. In case of needing extraction and storage of maternal milk before its consumption, the storage time should be minimized, preferably less than 24 hours in order to preserve the oxidative stress.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2011; 26(4):722-8. DOI:10.1590/S0212-16112011000400009 · 1.25 Impact Factor
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    M. Miranda · M. Gormaz · F. J. Romero · D. Silvestre
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    ABSTRACT: Maternal milk is the optimal feeding way for the infant at least for the first six months of life. Its properties include nutrients intake and, particularly, to provide the infant with several beneficial compounds improving his growth and protecting him from the diseases typical of this time period. These properties justify the manipulating processes before its intake in order to promote and warrant the adherence to it, both at the hospital and at home, being more important in premature infants and/or with low birth weight given their increased vulnerability, is spite of the fact that during these processes some of its properties may be partially lost. There exist, therefore, an interest in knowing the impact of the procedures applied to human milk on its qualitative properties, such as the antioxidant capacity. Objective: This work assesses the stability of the antioxidant capacity of human milk during its storage at 4o C, longitudinally from its extraction until 48 h of refrigeration, as well as the pH changes. Method: the milk from 30 healthy women was analyzed. The milk's antioxidant capacity was assessed by the following parameters: total antioxidant capacity and level of malondialdehyde. The results obtained showed that pH decreases gradually from the storage beginning, whereas the antioxidant capacity remains constant for the first 24 hours, with a different result depending on the parameter used, and thereafter significant changes were observed. Conclusions: In case of needing extraction and storage of maternal milk before its consumption, the storage time should be minimized, preferably less than 24 hours in order to preserve the oxidative stress.
    Nutricion hospitalaria: organo oficial de la Sociedad Espanola de Nutricion Parenteral y Enteral 08/2011; 26(4):722-728. · 1.25 Impact Factor