[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Idiopathic rhinitis (IR) is a prevalent condition for which capsaicin nasal spray is the most effective treatment. However, the mechanisms underlying IR and the therapeutic action of capsaicin remain unknown.
We sought to investigate the molecular and cellular bases of IR and the therapeutic action of capsaicin.
Fourteen patients with IR and 12 healthy control subjects (HCs) were treated with intranasal capsaicin. The therapeutic effect was assessed in patients with IR by using visual analog scale and therapeutic response evaluation scores, and nasal hyperreactivity was evaluated by means of cold dry air provocation. Nasal samples served to measure the levels of neuromediators and expression of chemosensory cation channels, protein gene product 9.5 (PGP 9.5), and the mast cell marker c-kit. The effects of capsaicin were also tested in vitro on human nasal epithelial cells and mast cells.
Patients with IR had higher baseline transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V, receptor 1 (TRPV1) expression in the nasal mucosa and higher concentrations of substance P (SP) in nasal secretions than HCs. Symptomatic relief was observed in 11 of 14 patients with IR after capsaicin treatment. Expression of TRPV1; transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M, receptor 8 (TRPM8); and PGP 9.5 was only reduced in patients with IR after capsaicin treatment. Capsaicin did not alter c-KIT expression or nasal epithelial morphology in patients with IR and HCs nor did it induce apoptosis or necrosis in cultured human nasal epithelial cells and mast cells.
IR features an overexpression of TRPV1 in the nasal mucosa and increased SP levels in nasal secretions. Capsaicin exerts its therapeutic action by ablating the TRPV1-SP nociceptive signaling pathway in the nasal mucosa.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 10/2013; · 9.17 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The complex genetic aetiology underlying irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) needs to be assessed in large-scale genetic studies. Two independent IBS cohorts were genotyped to assess whether genetic variability in immune, neuronal and barrier integrity genes is associated with IBS.
384 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) covering 270 genes were genotyped in an exploratory cohort (935 IBS patients, 639 controls). 33 SNPs with Puncorrected<0.05 were validated in an independent set of 497 patients and 887 controls. Genotype distributions of single SNPs were assessed using an additive genetic model in IBS and clinical subtypes, IBS-C and IBS-D, both in individual and combined cohorts. Trait anxiety (N=614 patients, 533 controls), lifetime depression (N=654 patients, 533 controls) and mRNA expression in rectal biopsies (N=22 patients, 29 controls) were correlated with SNP genotypes.
Two SNPs associated independently in the exploratory and validation cohort: rs17837965-CDC42 with IBS-C (ORexploratory=1.59 (1.05 to 1.76); ORvalidation=1.76 (1.03 to 3.01)) and rs2349775-NXPH1 with IBS-D (ORexploratory=1.28 (1.06 to 1.56); ORvalidation=1.42 (1.08 to 1.88)). When combining both cohorts, the association of rs2349775 withstood post hoc correction for multiple testing in the IBS-D subgroup. Additionally, three SNPs in immune-related genes (rs1464510-LPP, rs1881457-IL13, rs2104286-IL2RA), one SNP in a neuronal gene (rs2349775-NXPH1) and two SNPs in epithelial genes (rs245051-SLC26A2, rs17837965-CDC42) were weakly associated with total-IBS (Puncorrected<0.05). At the functional level, rs1881457 increased IL13 mRNA levels, whereas anxiety and depression scores did not correlate with rs2349775-NXPH1.
Rs2349775 (NXPH1) and rs17837965 (CDC42) were associated with IBS-D and IBS-C, respectively, in two independent cohorts. Further studies are warranted to validate our findings and to determine the mechanisms underlying IBS pathophysiology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is common in western Europe and North America, and many aspects of its epidemiology, risk factors, and natural history have been described in these regions. Recent data suggest, however, that IBS is also common in the rest of the world and there has been some evidence to suggest some differences in demographics and presenting features between IBS in the west and as it is experienced elsewhere. The World Gastroenterology Organization, therefore, established a Task Force comprising experts on the topic from all parts of the world to examine IBS from a global perspective. IBS does, indeed, seem to be common worldwide though with some significant variations in prevalence rates between regions and countries and there may well be some potentially interesting variations in presenting symptoms and sex distribution. The global map of IBS is far from complete; community-based prevalence data is not available from many areas. Furthermore, while some general trends are evident in terms of IBS impact and demographics, international comparisons are hampered by differences in diagnostic criteria, study location and methodology; several important unanswered questions have been identified that should form the basis for future collaborative research and have the potential to shed light on this challenging disorder.
Journal of clinical gastroenterology 05/2012; 46(5):356-66. · 2.21 Impact Factor