Miranda de Graaf

Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam, Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (31)246.92 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) rapidly induces activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) upon infection of host cells. After a transient phase of activation, the MCMV M45 protein blocks all canonical NF-κB activating pathways by inducing degradation of the NF-κB essential modulator (NEMO), the gamma subunit of the inhibitor of κB kinase complex (IKKγ). Here we show that the viral M45 protein also mediates the rapid NF-κB activation immediately after infection. MCMV mutants lacking M45 or expressing C-terminally truncated M45 proteins induced neither NF-κB activation nor transcription of NF-κB-dependent genes within the first three hours of infection. The rapid NF-κB activation was absent in MCMV-infected NEMO-deficient fibroblasts, indicating that activation occurs at or upstream of the IKK complex. NF-κB activation was strongly reduced in murine fibroblasts lacking receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1), a known M45-interacting protein, but restored upon complementation with murine RIP1. However, the ability of M45 to interact with RIP1 and NEMO was not sufficient to induce NF-κB activation upon infection. In addition, incorporation of the M45 protein into virions was required. This was dependent on a C-terminal region of M45, which is not required for interaction with RIP1 and NEMO. We propose a model in which M45 delivered by viral particles activates NF-κB, presumably involving an interaction with RIP1 and NEMO. Later in infection, expression of M45 induces the degradation of NEMO and shutdown of canonical NF-κB activation.
    Journal of virology. 09/2014; 88(17):9963.
  • Mathilde Richard, Miranda de Graaf, Sander Herfst
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    ABSTRACT: Zoonotic influenza A viruses originating from the animal reservoir pose a threat for humans, as they have the ability to trigger pandemics upon adaptation to and invasion of an immunologically naive population. Of particular concern are the H5N1 viruses that continue to circulate in poultry in numerous countries in Europe, Asia and Africa, and the recently emerged H7N9 viruses in China, due to their relatively high number of human fatalities and pandemic potential. To start a pandemic, zoonotic influenza A viruses should not only acquire the ability to attach to, enter and replicate in the critical target cells in the respiratory tract of the new host, but also efficiently spread between humans by aerosol or respiratory droplet transmission. Here, we discuss the latest advances on the genetic and phenotypic determinants required for avian influenza A viruses to adapt to and transmit between mammals.
    Future Virology 05/2014; 9(5):513-524. · 0.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, A/H5N1 influenza viruses were shown to acquire airborne transmissibility between ferrets upon targeted mutagenesis and virus passage. The critical genetic changes in airborne A/Indonesia/5/05 were not yet identified. Here, five substitutions proved to be sufficient to determine this airborne transmission phenotype. Substitutions in PB1 and PB2 collectively caused enhanced transcription and virus replication. One substitution increased HA thermostability and lowered the pH of membrane fusion. Two substitutions independently changed HA binding preference from α2,3-linked to α2,6-linked sialic acid receptors. The loss of a glycosylation site in HA enhanced overall binding to receptors. The acquired substitutions emerged early during ferret passage as minor variants and became dominant rapidly. Identification of substitutions that are essential for airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses between ferrets and their associated phenotypes advances our fundamental understanding of virus transmission and will increase the value of future surveillance programs and public health risk assessments.
    Cell 04/2014; 157(2):329-39. · 31.96 Impact Factor
  • Miranda de Graaf, Ron A M Fouchier
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    ABSTRACT: The recent emergence of a novel avian A/H7N9 influenza virus in poultry and humans in China, as well as laboratory studies on adaptation and transmission of avian A/H5N1 influenza viruses, has shed new light on influenza virus adaptation to mammals. One of the biological traits required for animal influenza viruses to cross the species barrier that received considerable attention in animal model studies, in vitro assays, and structural analyses is receptor binding specificity. Sialylated glycans present on the apical surface of host cells can function as receptors for the influenza virus hemagglutinin (HA) protein. Avian and human influenza viruses typically have a different sialic acid (SA)-binding preference and only few amino acid changes in the HA protein can cause a switch from avian to human receptor specificity. Recent experiments using glycan arrays, virus histochemistry, animal models, and structural analyses of HA have added a wealth of knowledge on receptor binding specificity. Here, we review recent data on the interaction between influenza virus HA and SA receptors of the host, and the impact on virus host range, pathogenesis, and transmission. Remaining challenges and future research priorities are also discussed.
    The EMBO Journal 03/2014; · 9.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We determined the attachment pattern of avian-origin H7N9 influenza viruses A/Anhui/1/2013 and A/Shanghai/1/2013 to the respiratory tract in ferrets, macaques, mice, pigs and guinea pigs, and compared it to that in humans. The H7N9 attachment pattern in macaques, mice, and to a lesser extent pigs and guinea pigs resembled that in humans more closely than the attachment pattern in ferrets. This knowledge contributes to our knowledge on the different animal models for influenza.
    Journal of Virology 01/2014; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In the present study, outbreaks of respiratory disease were investigated for the presence of swine influenza virus (SIV). In 14 cases the circulating SIV strains were isolated, fully sequenced and compared with other known SIVs. The viruses causing the outbreaks belonged to the H1N1 (including human pandemic H1N1), H3N2 and H1N2 subtypes. In 11/14 cases the phylogenetic analyses indicated the occurrence of probable reassortment events. In the second part of the study, the genetic evolution of H1N1 SIV was assessed in a longitudinal study in closed groups of pigs over six months. Sequencing of the 22 isolates indicated co-circulation of two different variants for the same virus, as well as the emergence of SIV reassortants at certain time-points. These results indicate that reassortment events in SIV are common, and point towards the need for a better understanding of the epidemiology of SIV, particularly in endemic farms.
    Veterinary Microbiology 01/2014; · 3.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A(H3N2) viruses became widespread in humans during the 1968 H3N2 virus pandemic and have been a major cause of influenza epidemics ever since. The viruses evolve continuously by reassortment and genomic evolution. Antigenic drift is the cause for the need to update the influenza vaccine frequently. Using two datasets that span the entire period of circulation of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses, it was shown that the influenza A(H3N2) virus evolution could be mapped into thirteen antigenic clusters. Here, we have analyzed the full genome of 286 influenza A(H3N2) viruses from these two datasets to investigate the genomic evolution and reassortment patterns. Numerous reassortment events, scattered over the entire period of virus circulation, were found, but most prominently in viruses circulating between 1991 and 1998. Some of these reassortment events persisted over time, and one of these coincided with an antigenic cluster transition. Further, selection pressures and nucleotide and amino acid substitution rates of all proteins were studied, including the recently discovered PB1-N40, PA-X, PA-N155, and PA-N182 proteins. Rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitution were most pronounced for hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, and PB1-F2 proteins. Selection pressures were highest in hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix 1 and non-structural protein 1. This study of genotype in relation to the antigenic phenotype throughout the entire period of circulation of human influenza A(H3N2) viruses leads to a better understanding of its evolution.
    Journal of Virology 12/2013; · 5.08 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A viruses cause yearly seasonal epidemics and occasional global pandemics in humans. In the last century, four human influenza A virus pandemics have occurred. Occasionally, influenza A viruses that circulate in other species cross the species barrier and infect humans. Virus reassortment (i.e. mixing of gene segments of multiple viruses) and the accumulation of mutations contribute to the emergence of new influenza A virus variants. Fortunately, most of these variants do not have the ability to spread among humans and subsequently cause a pandemic. In this review, we focus on the threat of animal influenza A viruses which have shown the ability to infect humans. In addition, genetic factors which could alter the virulence of influenza A viruses are discussed. The identification and characterisation of these factors may provide insights into genetic traits which change virulence and help us to understand which genetic determinants are of importance for the pandemic potential of animal influenza A viruses.
    European Journal of Clinical Microbiology 09/2013; · 3.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Influenza A viruses from animal reservoirs have the capacity to adapt to humans and cause influenza pandemics. The occurrence of an influenza pandemic requires efficient virus transmission among humans, which is associated with virus attachment to the upper respiratory tract. Pandemic severity depends on virus ability to cause pneumonia, which is associated with virus attachment to the lower respiratory tract. Recently, a novel avian-origin H7N9 influenza A virus with unknown pandemic potential emerged in humans. We determined the pattern of attachment of two genetically engineered viruses containing the hemagglutinin of either influenza virus A/Shanghai/1/13 or A/Anhui/1/13 to formalin-fixed human respiratory tract tissues using histochemical analysis. Our results show that the emerging H7N9 virus attached moderately or abundantly to both upper and lower respiratory tract, a pattern not seen before for avian influenza A viruses. With the caveat that virus attachment is only the first step in the virus replication cycle, these results suggest that the emerging H7N9 virus has the potential both to transmit efficiently among humans and to cause severe pneumonia.
    American Journal Of Pathology 09/2013; · 4.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Highly pathogenic avian H5N1 influenza A viruses occasionally infect humans and cause severe respiratory disease and fatalities. Currently, these viruses are not efficiently transmitted from person to person, although limited human-to-human transmission may have occurred. Nevertheless, further adaptation of avian H5N1 influenza A viruses to humans and/or reassortment with human influenza A viruses may result in aerosol transmissible viruses with pandemic potential. Although the full range of factors that modulate the transmission and replication of influenza A viruses in humans are not yet known, we are beginning to understand some of the molecular changes that may allow H5N1 influenza A viruses to transmit via aerosols or respiratory droplets among mammals. A better understanding of the biological basis and genetic determinants that confer transmissibility to H5N1 influenza A viruses in mammals is important to enhance our pandemic preparedness.
    Virus Research 08/2013; · 2.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Wild waterfowl form the main reservoir of influenza A viruses, from which transmission occurs directly or indirectly to various secondary hosts, including humans. Direct avian-to-human transmission has been observed for viruses of subtypes A(H5N1), A(H7N2), A(H7N3), A(H7N7), A(H9N2) and A(H10N7) upon human exposure to poultry, but a lack of sustained human-to-human transmission has prevented these viruses from causing new pandemics. Recently, avian A(H7N9) viruses were transmitted to humans, causing severe respiratory disease and deaths in China. Because transmission via respiratory droplets and aerosols (hereafter referred to as airborne transmission) is the main route for efficient transmission between humans, it is important to gain an insight into airborne transmission of the A(H7N9) virus. Here we show that although the A/Anhui/1/2013 A(H7N9) virus harbours determinants associated with human adaptation and transmissibility between mammals, its airborne transmissibility in ferrets is limited, and it is intermediate between that of typical human and avian influenza viruses. Multiple A(H7N9) virus genetic variants were transmitted. Upon ferret passage, variants with higher avian receptor binding, higher pH of fusion, and lower thermostability were selected, potentially resulting in reduced transmissibility. This A(H7N9) virus outbreak highlights the need for increased understanding of the determinants of efficient airborne transmission of avian influenza viruses between mammals.
    Nature 08/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Interferons (IFN) play a pivotal role in innate immunity, orchestrating a cell-intrinsic anti-pathogenic state and stimulating adaptive immune responses. The complex interplay between the primary response to IFNs and its modulation by positive and negative feedback loops is incompletely understood. Here, we implement the combination of high-resolution gene-expression profiling of nascent RNA with translational inhibition of secondary feedback by cycloheximide. Unexpectedly, this approach revealed a prominent role of negative feedback mechanisms during the immediate (≤60 min) IFNα response. In contrast, a more complex picture involving both negative and positive feedback loops was observed on IFNγ treatment. IFNγ-induced repression of genes associated with regulation of gene expression, cellular development, apoptosis and cell growth resulted from cycloheximide-resistant primary IFNγ signalling. In silico promoter analysis revealed significant overrepresentation of SP1/SP3-binding sites and/or GC-rich stretches. Although signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-binding sites were not overrepresented, repression was lost in absence of STAT1. Interestingly, basal expression of the majority of these IFNγ-repressed genes was dependent on STAT1 in IFN-naïve fibroblasts. Finally, IFNγ-mediated repression was also found to be evident in primary murine macrophages. IFN-repressed genes include negative regulators of innate and stress response, and their decrease may thus aid the establishment of a signalling perceptive milieu.
    Nucleic Acids Research 07/2013; · 8.81 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) encodes a small hydrophobic (SH) protein of unknown function. HMPV from which the SH open reading frame was deleted (HMPVΔSH) was viable and displayed similar replication kinetics, cytopathic effect and plaque size compared with wild type HMPV in several cell-lines. In addition, no differences were observed in infection efficiency or cell-to-cell spreading in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (HPBEC) cultured at an air-liquid interphase. Host gene expression was analyzed in A549 cells infected with HMPV or HMPVΔSH using microarrays and mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques at multiple time points post infection. Only minor differences were observed in mRNA or protein expression levels. A possible function of HMPV SH as apoptosis blocker, as proposed for several members of the family Paramyxoviridae, was rejected based on this analysis. So far, a clear phenotype of HMPV SH deletion mutants in vitro at the virus and host levels is absent.
    PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(3):e58572. · 3.53 Impact Factor
  • Nature 01/2013; · 38.60 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During viral infections cellular gene expression is subject to rapid alterations induced by both viral and antiviral mechanisms. In this study, we applied metabolic labeling of newly transcribed RNA with 4-thiouridine (4sU-tagging) to dissect the real-time kinetics of cellular and viral transcriptional activity during lytic murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection. Microarray profiling on newly transcribed RNA obtained at different times during the first six hours of MCMV infection revealed discrete functional clusters of cellular genes regulated with distinct kinetics at surprising temporal resolution. Immediately upon virus entry, a cluster of NF-κB- and interferon-regulated genes was induced. Rapid viral counter-regulation of this coincided with a very transient DNA-damage response, followed by a delayed ER-stress response. Rapid counter-regulation of all three clusters indicated the involvement of novel viral regulators targeting these pathways. In addition, down-regulation of two clusters involved in cell-differentiation (rapid repression) and cell-cycle (delayed repression) was observed. Promoter analysis revealed all five clusters to be associated with distinct transcription factors, of which NF-κB and c-Myc were validated to precisely match the respective transcriptional changes observed in newly transcribed RNA. 4sU-tagging also allowed us to study the real-time kinetics of viral gene expression in the absence of any interfering virion-associated-RNA. Both qRT-PCR and next-generation sequencing demonstrated a sharp peak of viral gene expression during the first two hours of infection including transcription of immediate-early, early and even well characterized late genes. Interestingly, this was subject to rapid gene silencing by 5-6 hours post infection. Despite the rapid increase in viral DNA load during viral DNA replication, transcriptional activity of some viral genes remained remarkably constant until late-stage infection, or was subject to further continuous decline. In summary, this study pioneers real-time transcriptional analysis during a lytic herpesvirus infection and highlights numerous novel regulatory aspects of virus-host-cell interaction.
    PLoS Pathogens 09/2012; 8(9):e1002908. · 8.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Each year, influenza viruses cause epidemics by evading pre-existing humoral immunity through mutations in the major glycoproteins: the haemagglutinin (HA) and the neuraminidase (NA). In 2004, the antigenic evolution of HA of human influenza A (H3N2) viruses was mapped (Smith et al., Science 305, 371-376, 2004) from its introduction in humans in 1968 until 2003. The current study focused on the genetic evolution of NA and compared it with HA using the dataset of Smith and colleagues, updated to the epidemic of the 2009/2010 season. Phylogenetic trees and genetic maps were constructed to visualize the genetic evolution of NA and HA. The results revealed multiple reassortment events over the years. Overall rates of evolutionary change were lower for NA than for HA1 at the nucleotide level. Selection pressures were estimated, revealing an abundance of negatively selected sites and sparse positively selected sites. The differences found between the evolution of NA and HA1 warrant further analysis of the evolution of NA at the phenotypic level, as has been done previously for HA.
    Journal of General Virology 06/2012; 93(Pt 9):1996-2007. · 3.13 Impact Factor
  • Sam Wilks, Miranda de Graaf, Derek J Smith, David F Burke
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    ABSTRACT: Haemagglutinin is a determinant of many viral properties, and successful adaptation to a human-like form is thought to be an important step toward pandemic influenza emergence. The availability of structurally distinct sialic acid linked receptors in the sites of human and avian influenza infection are generally held to account for the differences observed, but the relevance of other selection pressures has not been elucidated. There is evidence for genetic and structural constraints of haemagglutinin playing a role in restricting haemagglutinin adaptation, and also for differences in the selection pressure to alter binding, specifically when considering virus replication within host compared to transmission between hosts. Understanding which characteristics underlie such adaptations in humans is now possible in greater detail by using glycan arrays. However, results from these assays must also interpreted in context of an as yet still to be determined detailed knowledge of the structural diversity of sialic acids in the human respiratory tract. A clearer understanding of the evolutionary benefits conveyed by different haemagglutinin properties would have substantial impact and would affect the risk we allocate to viral propagation in different species, such as swine and poultry. Relevant to the H5N1 threat, current evidence also suggests that mortality associated with any emergent pandemic from current strains may be reduced if haemagglutinin specificity changes, further emphasising the importance of understanding how and if selection pressures in the human will cause such an alteration.
    Vaccine 06/2012; 30(29):4369-76. · 3.77 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Specific mutations within the hypervariable herpes simplex virus (HSV) gene thymidine kinase (TK) gene lead to acyclovir (ACV) resistance. To uncover the existence of latent ACV-resistant (ACV(R)) HSV-1, we determined the genetic and functional variability of the HSV-1 TK gene pool in paired trigeminal ganglia (TG) of 5 immunocompetent individuals. The latent virus pool consisted of a donor-specific HSV-1 quasispecies, including one major ACV-sensitive (ACV(S)) and multiple phylogenetic-related minor ACV(S) and ACV(R) TK variants. Contrary to minor variants, major TK variants were shared between paired TG. The data demonstrate the coexistence of phylogenetic-related ACV(S) and ACV(R) latent HSV-1 in human TG.
    The Journal of Infectious Diseases 03/2012; 205(10):1539-43. · 5.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: ABSTRACT A novel human coronavirus (HCoV-EMC/2012) was isolated from a man with acute pneumonia and renal failure in June 2012. This report describes the complete genome sequence, genome organization, and expression strategy of HCoV-EMC/2012 and its relation with known coronaviruses. The genome contains 30,119 nucleotides and contains at least 10 predicted open reading frames, 9 of which are predicted to be expressed from a nested set of seven subgenomic mRNAs. Phylogenetic analysis of the replicase gene of coronaviruses with completely sequenced genomes showed that HCoV-EMC/2012 is most closely related to Tylonycteris bat coronavirus HKU4 (BtCoV-HKU4) and Pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 (BtCoV-HKU5), which prototype two species in lineage C of the genus Betacoronavirus. In accordance with the guidelines of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses, and in view of the 75% and 77% amino acid sequence identity in 7 conserved replicase domains with BtCoV-HKU4 and BtCoV-HKU5, respectively, we propose that HCoV-EMC/2012 prototypes a novel species in the genus Betacoronavirus. HCoV-EMC/2012 may be most closely related to a coronavirus detected in Pipistrellus pipistrellus in The Netherlands, but because only a short sequence from the most conserved part of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase-encoding region of the genome was reported for this bat virus, its genetic distance from HCoV-EMC remains uncertain. HCoV-EMC/2012 is the sixth coronavirus known to infect humans and the first human virus within betacoronavirus lineage C. IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses are capable of infecting humans and many animal species. Most infections caused by human coronaviruses are relatively mild. However, the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by SARS-CoV in 2002 to 2003 and the fatal infection of a human by HCoV-EMC/2012 in 2012 show that coronaviruses are able to cause severe, sometimes fatal disease in humans. We have determined the complete genome of HCoV-EMC/2012 using an unbiased virus discovery approach involving next-generation sequencing techniques, which enabled subsequent state-of-the-art bioinformatics, phylogenetics, and taxonomic analyses. By establishing its complete genome sequence, HCoV-EMC/2012 was characterized as a new genotype which is closely related to bat coronaviruses that are distant from SARS-CoV. We expect that this information will be vital to rapid advancement of both clinical and vital research on this emerging pathogen.
    mBio 01/2012; 3(6). · 5.62 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Repeated transmission of animal influenza viruses to humans has prompted investigation of the viral, host, and environmental factors responsible for transmission via aerosols or respiratory droplets. How do we determine-out of thousands of influenza virus isolates collected in animal surveillance studies each year-which viruses have the potential to become 'airborne', and hence pose a pandemic threat? Here, using knowledge from pandemic, zoonotic and epidemic viruses, we postulate that the minimal requirements for efficient transmission of an animal influenza virus between humans are: efficient virus attachment to (upper) respiratory tissues, replication to high titers in these tissues, and release and aerosolization of single virus particles. Investigating 'airborne' transmission of influenza viruses is key to understand-and predict-influenza pandemics.
    Current opinion in virology. 12/2011; 1(6):635-42.

Publication Stats

2k Citations
246.92 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2014
    • Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam
      • Department of Virology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2011–2014
    • University of Cambridge
      • • Department of Medicine
      • • Department of Zoology
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 2004–2014
    • Erasmus MC
      • Department of Virology
      Rotterdam, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 2012
    • Leiden University Medical Centre
      • Department of Medical Microbiology
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands