[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Pancreaticoduodenectomy is the gold standard for patients with resectable periampullary carcinoma. The protection of the anastomosis by positioning of an intraluminal stent is a technique used to lower the frequency of anastomotic fistulas. However the use of anastomotic stents is still debated and stent related complications are reported.
A fifty-three-year old male underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) for a T2N0 periampullary carcinoma with a pancreaticojejunal (duct to mucosa) anastomosis protected by a free floating 6 Fr Nelaton stent in the Wirsung duct. Twenty-three months after surgery the patient accessed Emergency Department for severe abdominal pain associated to temperature, high white blood cell count and an significant increase in C reactive protein. Method Abdominal CT scan shown the presence of a tubular stent in the mesogastrium/lower right quadrant. No evident free intra-abdominal air was detected. The patient was submitted to explorative laparotomy. After debridement for localized peritonitis the Nelaton trans anastomotic stent was found in the abdomen. There was no evidence of bowel perforation, but intestinal loops covered with fibrin and suspect for impending perforation were resected.
There is a lack of evidence about the true rate of post-operative complications related to pancreatic stenting. We believe that in patients presenting with abdominal pain or peritonitis that previously underwent PD with stent-guided pancreaticojejunal anastomosis, the hypothesis of stent migration should at least be taken into consideration.
JOP: Journal of the pancreas 03/2015; 16(2):185-8.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The position of arterial ligation during laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision can affect genito-urinary function, bowel function, oncological outcomes, and the incidence of anastomotic leakage. Ligation to the inferior mesenteric artery at the origin or preservation of the left colic artery are both widely performed in rectal surgery. The aim of this study is to compare the incidence of genito-urinary dysfunction, anastomotic leak and oncological outcomes in laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision with high or low ligation of the inferior mesenteric artery in a controlled randomized trial.
The HIGHLOW study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial in which patients are randomly assigned to high or low inferior mesenteric artery ligation during laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer. Inclusion criteria are middle or low rectal cancer (0 to 12 cm from the anal verge), an American Society of Anesthesiologists score of I, II, or III, and a body mass index lower than 30. The primary end-point measure is the incidence of post-operative genito-urinary dysfunction. The secondary end-point measure is the incidence of anastomotic leakage in the two groups. A total of 200 patients (100 per arm) will reliably have 84.45 power in estimating a 20% difference in the incidence of genito-urinary dysfunctions. With a group size of 100 patients per arm it is possible to find a significant difference (α = 0.05, β = 0.1555). Allowing for an estimated dropout rate of 5%, the required sample size is 212 patients.
The HIGHLOW trial is a randomized multicenter controlled trial that will provide evidence on the merits of the level of arterial ligation during laparoscopic anterior rectal resection with total mesorectal excision in terms of better preserved post-operative genito-urinary function.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02153801
Protocol Registration Receipt 29/5/2014.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Introduction:
Genito-urinary disorders (GUD) for radical rectal cancer surgery range from 10 to 30%. In this study, primary endpoint is to prospectively assess their incidence in patients undergoing Laparoscopic Total Mesorectal Excision (LTME) without neoadjuvant chemo-radiation (NCR). Secondary endpoint is to detect the potential lesion site evaluating video-recordings of surgery.
Patients and methods:
A study of 35 consecutive patients treated by LTME for extra-peritoneal rectal cancer not subjected to NCR, M:F = 23:12, median age 70, was evaluated preoperatively by Uroflowmetry and US postvoid residual urine measurement (PVR), International Prostatic Symptoms Score (IPSS), and International Consultation on Incontinence Modular Questionnaire (ICIQ) at 1 and 9 months post-operatively. Evaluation of sexual function was carried out by International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in males. Data were analyzed performing Fisher and paired samples t tests. Surgical videos of patients affected by GUD were reviewed to identify lesion sites.
Urinary function:IPSS average score: baseline 6.03 ± 5.51, 8.93 ± 6.42 (p = .005) at 1 month, and 7.26 ± 5.55 (p = .041) at 9 months. ICIQ baseline 2.67 ± 5.42, 4.27 ± 6.19 (p = NS) at 1 month, and 3.63 ± 5.23 (p = NS) at 9 months. Maximum urine flow rate baseline 15.95 ± 4.78 ml/s, 14.23 ± 5.27 after 1 month (p = .041), and 15.22 ± 4.01 after 9 months (p = NS). Mean urine flow rate baseline 9.15 ± 2.96 ml/s, 7.99 ± 4.12 ml/s at 1 month (p = .044), and 8.54 ± 4.19 ml/s at 9 months (p = NS). PVR baseline 59.62 ± 54.49, 64.59 ± 58.71 (p = NS) at 1 month, and 68.82 ± 77.72 (p = NS) at 9 months. Sexual function: IIEF baseline 19.38 ± 6.25, 14.06 ± 8.65 at 1 month (p = .011), and 15.4 ± 8.41 at 9 months, (p = NS). Video review of patients with disorders showed potential damage at the site of ligation of IMA (high hypogastric plexus) in 1 case, lateral and posterior mesorectum dissection (hypogastric nerves) in 2 cases, anterior dissection of the Denonvilliers fascia from seminal vesicles in 2 cases.
GUD at 1 month from LTME for rectal cancer are significant but improve at 9 months. Surgical video review of patients with GUD provides an important tool for detection of lesion sites.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Percutaneous central vascular venous access to allow positioning of a totally implantable access port (TIAP) is a widely employed procedure. An open issue is the need to find an ionizing radiation free technique which allows a safe and correct positioning of the device. Echo-guided vein puncture is currently accepted as the best method for decreasing major immediate complications. We describe an entirely echo-based method for the insertion and assessment of correct placement of the totally implantable access ports (TIAP). 20 TIAPs with the described technique have been placed. TIAP can be safely positioned by entirely echo-guided technique avoiding ionizing radiation imaging.
Indian Journal of Surgery 06/2014; 76(3). DOI:10.1007/s12262-012-0692-4 · 0.26 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The value of fast-track (FT) multimodal recovery programs in improving hospitalization of surgical patients has been widely proved. The application of FT protocols to laparoscopic colorectal surgery seems to maximize the effects of the minimally invasive approach. The objectives of this randomized-controlled trial are to compare the short-term outcomes (bowel function, return to oral nutrition, day of discharge, fatigue, time to resume normal activities, functional capabilities, and readmission rate) of patients undergoing elective laparoscopic high anterior resection (HAR) following either a FT or a standard program. The prospective randomized-controlled trial included 52 consecutive patients undergoing elective laparoscopic HAR. Group 1 was treated with a FT rehabilitation program, and group 2 was treated with a standard care (SC) program. Patients were interviewed 14 and 30 days postoperatively. One patient in each group was excluded from the study. Mean hospital stay, time of first bowel movement, and bowel function resumption were significantly shorter in the FT group (P<0.05). Patients in the FT group referred more pain in day 0 versus patients in the SC group (P<0.05) even though the difference disappeared from day 1. Fatigue was significantly reduced at day 14 in the FT group compared with the SC group (P<0.01). Similarly, ability to resume the normal preoperative attitude (walking stairs, cooking, housekeeping, shopping, and walking outdoors) was significantly better at day 14 in the FT group (P<0.005). There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at day 30 for the same parameters. There were no readmissions in both the groups and no need for consultations from general practitioners. FT multimodal program is a safe approach effective on postoperative short-term outcome significantly reducing hospital stay. Early postoperative pain control needs to be optimized.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: JGCA Gastric Cancer Treatment Guidelines (2004) include Laparoscopic Assisted Distal Gastrectomy (LADG) within the chapter of modified surgery. A metanalysis published in 2010 shows that LADG is significantly superior to Open Distal Gastrectomy (ODG) if comparing short term outcomes. Oncologic results prove to be comparable to ODG by one RCT and 2 retrospective studies. Little evidence is available on Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy and concerns are raised about long-term oncologic outcomes.
Laparoscopic Subtotal Gastrectomy is carried out with 4 to 5 ports in the periumbilical region (Hasson trocar for laparoscope) and upper quadrants. After exploration of the abdominal cavity surgical steps include coloepiploic detachment, omentectomy, dissection of the gastrocolic ligament, division of the left gastroepiploic vessels, division of right gastroepiploic vessels, division of pyloric vessels. The duodenum is transected with a linear stapler. Incision of the lesser omentum and dissection of the hepatoduodenal ligament allows completion of D2 lymphadenectomy. The 4/5ths of the stomach are transected starting from the greater curve at the junction of left and right gastroepiploic arcades by linear stapler. Roux-en-Y loop reconstruction is performed through a stapled side-to-side gastro-jejunal anastomosis and a side-to-side jejuno-jejunal anastomosis. Reconstruction after Laparoscopic Total Gastrectomy is performed preferably by a side-to-side esophago-jejunal anastomosis according to Orringer.
A robotic assisted approach adds precision on lymphadenectomy and reconstructive techniques.
Annali italiani di chirurgia 01/2012; 83(3):192-8. · 0.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study is to assess outcomes and 5-year survival after subtotal gastrectomy (SG) for early and advanced distal adenocarcinoma with D2 dissection performed by minimally invasive surgery (MIS).
From June 2000 to October 2009 a total of 70 patients with adenocarcinoma of the lower third of the stomach underwent SG with D2 nodal clearance by MIS. This series enrolled 37 patients with early gastric cancer (EGC) and 33 with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). SG was attempted by conventional laparoscopy (CL) in 52 cases and by robot-assisted (RA) technique in 18. Clinical and histopathologic results with 5-year survival were analyzed.
No intraoperative complication was registered. Conversion to laparotomy was required in five patients. Overall, the mean operating time for SG was 254 min (range = 145-460) and estimated mean blood loss was 146 ml (range = 45-250). Postoperative complications occurred in seven patients, including two duodenal leakages none of which required laparotomy. There were two postoperative deaths, one caused by hepatic failure and one by hemorrhagic stroke. Preoperative understaging occurred in ten cases (three were AGC). On average, 30 ± 8 lymph nodes were collected. The distance of proximal resection margin was 6.6 cm (range = 4-8.5 cm). Short-term results were equal with those of laparoscopic and RA gastrectomy. The mean hospital stay of all patients was 10 days (range = 7-24). The mean follow-up span was 53 months (range = 3-112). Relapse of disease occurred in 12 patients, 10 of whom died from the disease and their mean survival was 25 months (range = 12-38). The overall 3-year survival was 85% for CL gastrectomy and 78% for RA gastrectomy, but this difference was not significant with the log rank test (p > 0.05). The overall 5-year survival was 81% (97% for EGC and 67% for AGC).
D2 subtotal gastrectomy performed by MIS is reproducible and safe. The long-term outcomes and 5-year survival are acceptable. Extended lymphadenectomy was carried out for both EGC and AGC so as to ensure adequate nodal clearance and compensate preoperative underestimation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to assess feasibility and results of laparoscopic approach to repair incisional hernias of the abdominal borders, the weakest points of abdominal wall.
Since 2002 through 2008 a total of 39 patients with fascial defects of the abdominal borders underwent laparoscopic repair. The defects were suprapubic (n=18), subxiphoidal (n=15), and lateral sided (n=6). The body mass index was >oe=30 Kg/m2 in 19 patients. The parietal defects was measured both externally and from within the peritoneal cavity and 56% of meshes were fixed only by tacks, especially in suprapubic site.
The mean operating time was 161.8+/-25 minutes. There was 1 intraoperative complication, an intestinal injury repaired laparoscopically. Conversion was needed in 1 patient for massive adhesions. Postoperative early surgical complications were 7 (1 seroma). Morbidity in obese and nonobese patients showed no statistically relevant difference (P>0.05). There was no postoperative death. Mean hospital stay was 5.1+/-3 days. The mean follow-up was 37 months and recurrence was observed in 3 cases.
The onlay laparoscopic approach for repair of incisional hernias of the abdominal borders can warrant good results. Obesity is not a contraindication to laparoscopic repair. Anyway, further experiences are necessary to confirm these results.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer is still under discussion, but there is evidence that minimal access surgery can be feasible and safe also in this field. The aim of this study was to confirm that laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer can afford good results in terms of recurrence rate and survival.
Since June 1998 through December 2007 as many as 252 patients underwent laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer. Laparoscopic anterior resection (LAR) was performed in 209 and laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection (LAPR) in 43. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy (nCRT) was administered in 48 patients with mid-low rectal cancer stage II and III with evidence of nodal involvement in preoperative work up.
Patients who received nCRT showed a significant longer duration of surgery compared to patients who did not (p=0.004). Conversion to laparotomy was needed in 24 cases, (21 LAR and three LAPR) but no patient receiving nCRT needed conversion. Postoperative surgical complications occurred in 38 patients, 20 of which were represented by anastomotic leak after LAR. Six patients died postoperatively, in half the cases for surgery related causes. Downstaging after nCRT was seen in 40 patients, and complete histological response was observed in six cases. The mean number of lymph nodes harvested was 12, also in patients receiving nCRT. The mean follow-up was 48+/-33 months (range 0.1-120.4), and 10 patients experienced local recurrence. Cumulative 5 year survival was 73.7%.
Laparoscopic resection for rectal cancer is feasible and safe, with morbidity and long-term results quite acceptable also in patients receiving neoadjuvant treatment.
European journal of surgical oncology: the journal of the European Society of Surgical Oncology and the British Association of Surgical Oncology 05/2009; 35(5):497-503. DOI:10.1016/j.ejso.2008.10.015 · 3.01 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Robot-assisted gastrectomy has been practised so far in very few centres in the world. The aims of this study were to assess
the feasibility of robot-assisted gastrectomy for adenocarcinoma with D2 lymph nodal dissection and to analyze our preliminary
results. Between January 2006 and August 2008, as many as 17 patients (11 females, 6 males) underwent laparoscopic robot-assisted
surgery for non-metastatic adenocarcinoma of the stomach by a 3-armed da Vinci® Robotic Surgical System. The mean age of patients was 65.9years. This series included eight patients with early gastric
cancer (EGC) and nine with advanced gastric cancer (AGC). A 4/5 laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy (LSG) with D2 nodal clearance
was the procedure of choice for 16 distal cancers. Laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed
for one AGC of the middle third of the stomach. No intraoperative complication was registered. Conversion to laparotomy was
required in two patients with distal cancer. The mean operating time (excluding converted patients) was 352min (348 for LSG).
Morbidity consisted in one pancreatic leak that healed conservatively. One death occurred postoperatively for haemorragic
stroke. On average, 25.5±4 lymph nodes were collected (range 10–40). The resection margin was 6.4±0.6cm (range 4.2–8),
and the margin was tumour free in all the specimens. The mean hospital stay of totally laparoscopic subtotal gastrectomy was
10±1.2days (range 8–13). The mean follow-up was 14months (range 1–29) and three patients with AGC showed recurrence after
LSG and died of disease. Robotics in gastrectomy for cancer is a feasible and safe procedure, yielding adequate D2 nodal clearance
with respect of oncologic principles. Robotic techniques can represent a remarkable tool to improve laparoscopic surgeon’s
ability and precision in small surgical fields, i.e. during D2 dissection. This study demonstrated the feasibility of robot-assisted
gastrectomy for cancer although further studies are required to validate our preliminary results, especially as far as patients’
benefits are concerned.
Journal of Robotic Surgery 12/2008; 2(4):217-222. DOI:10.1007/s11701-008-0116-4
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study was undertaken to evaluate the outcomes of the simultaneous bilateral laparoscopic adrenalectomy.
This was a retrospective study, including 11 patients with bilateral adrenal lesions, affected by Cushing's syndrome (n=2), Cushing's disease (n=6), pheochromocytoma (n=2), and 1 adrenocorticotrophin-hormone-dependent hypercortisolism of unknown origin.
Elevan bilateral adrenalectomies were carried out by the laparoscopic approach with no conversions. The operations were performed in 7 cases by the lateral transperitoneal adrenalectomy (LTLA), in 3 by the posterior approach (PRA), and in 1 by the combined approach. The mean size of the masses was 5 cm. (range, 4-13). The average operating time was 245 minutes for LTLA and 218 minutes for PRA (P<0.05). The estimated mean blood loss was 87+/-36 mL (range, 20-150). No patients required transfusions. The mean hospital stay was 5+/-1.8 days (range, 4-7). The mean follow-up was 34 months (range, 2-96).
Our study confirms that the bilateral adrenalectomy by the minimally invasive technique is safe and effective, affording acceptable blood loss and morbidity with a short hospital stay.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to analyze feasibility and outcomes of laparoscopic adrenalectomy (LA). Pathology, size and bilateral site of lesions were considered. Between December 1998 and May 2007 in our institution a total of 68 patients of mean age of 53 years underwent unilateral (n=57) or bilateral (n=11) LA. Adrenal masses averaged 5.4cm in size (range 1.2-13cm) and 56.7g in weight (range 10-265) including 71 benign and 8 malignant lesions. A total of 79 adrenal glands were resected, 44 right sided and 35 left sided. Removal was complete in 77 cases and partial (sparing adrenalectomy) in 1 patient affected by bilateral pheochomocytoma. Three left adrenalectomies for pheochromocytoma were robot-assisted. The transperitoneal lateral approach was preferred and the posterior retroperitoneal approach was adopted in 5 patients. The mean duration of surgery for each LA was 138+/-90min and 3.8 trocar were used on average (range 3-6). Conversion was needed in 3 cases owing to difficult dissection of large masses. Estimated mean blood loss for each LA was 95+/-30ml and it was greater for bilateral LA. Mortality was nil and morbidity was 5.8%. The average length of hospital stay (LOS) in surgical unit was 4+/-2.4 days (range 2-8). Patients affected by hormone secreting or bilateral lesions, by unilateral or bilateral pheochromocytoma and by bilateral Cushing's disease were transferred to the endocrinological ward so that their overall hospital stay was prolonged to 9+/-2.8 days on average (range 7-17). Mean duration of follow-up of patients was 38 months (range 2-100) and demonstrated acceptable endocrine results. Three primary cortical carcinomas were discovered as chance findings on histologic examination. While long-term results after LA for cortical carcinomas were poor and LA is not recommended in such cases, long-term results after LA for adrenal metastases were encouraging.