[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) due to hippocampal sclerosis reorganisation in the memory encoding network has been consistently described. Distinct areas of reorganisation have been shown to be efficient when associated with successful subsequent memory formation or inefficient when not associated with successful subsequent memory. We investigated the effect of clinical parameters that modulate memory functions: age at onset of epilepsy, epilepsy duration and seizure frequency in a large cohort of patients.Methods
We studied 53 patients with unilateral TLE and hippocampal sclerosis (29 left). All participants performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging memory encoding paradigm of faces and words. A continuous regression analysis was used to investigate the effects of age at onset of epilepsy, epilepsy duration and seizure frequency on the activation patterns in the memory encoding network.ResultsEarlier age at onset of epilepsy was associated with left posterior hippocampus activations that were involved in successful subsequent memory formation in left hippocampal sclerosis patients. No association of age at onset of epilepsy was seen with face encoding in right hippocampal sclerosis patients. In both left hippocampal sclerosis patients during word encoding and right hippocampal sclerosis patients during face encoding, shorter duration of epilepsy and lower seizure frequency were associated with medial temporal lobe activations that were involved in successful memory formation. Longer epilepsy duration and higher seizure frequency were associated with contralateral extra-temporal activations that were not associated with successful memory formation.Conclusion
Age at onset of epilepsy influenced verbal memory encoding in patients with TLE due to hippocampal sclerosis in the speech-dominant hemisphere. Shorter duration of epilepsy and lower seizure frequency were associated with less disruption of the efficient memory encoding network whilst longer duration and higher seizure frequency were associated with greater, inefficient, extra-temporal reorganisation.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Prefrontal neurons code many kinds of behaviourally relevant visual information. In behaving monkeys, we used a cued target detection task to address coding of objects, behavioural categories and spatial locations, examining the temporal evolution of neural activity across dorsal and ventral regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex (encompassing parts of areas 9, 46, 45A and 8A), and across the two cerebral hemispheres. Within each hemisphere there was little evidence for regional specialisation, with neurons in dorsal and ventral regions showing closely similar patterns of selectivity for objects, categories and locations. For a stimulus in either visual field, however, there was a strong and temporally specific difference in response in the two cerebral hemispheres. In the first part of the visual response (50–250 ms from stimulus onset), processing in each hemisphere was largely restricted to contralateral stimuli, with strong responses to such stimuli, and selectivity for both object and category. Later (300–500 ms), responses to ipsilateral stimuli also appeared, many cells now responding more strongly to ipsilateral than to contralateral stimuli, and many showing selectivity for category. Activity on error trials showed that late activity in both hemispheres reflected the animal's final decision. As information is processed towards a behavioural decision, its encoding spreads to encompass large, bilateral regions of prefrontal cortex.
European Journal of Neuroscience 10/2014; · 3.75 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Purpose
To investigate the utility of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography (FDG-PET) in helping decision making for epilepsy surgery
All patients with medically refractory focal epilepsy and MRI that was normal or discordant with clinical and EEG data underwent FDG-PET. FDG-PET scans were reported by two investigators blinded to clinical data using visual assessment aided by the semiquantitative assessment. All clinical, MRI and FDG-PET data were reviewed in the multidisciplinary patient management conferences for the localization and further decisions, which were recorded in the electronic database. For this study, we reviewed the charts of all these patients to decide the usefulness of PET in further decision making. FDG-PET was considered to be useful if led directly to surgery, helped in planning intracranial EEG or helped in excluding patients from further evaluation.
194 consecutive adult patients (median age, 32.5 years) underwent FDG-PET; 158 had normal MRI, 12 had subtle MRI abnormalities and 24 had discordant noninvasive data. Final localization was temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE, n = 64), frontal lobe epilepsy (FLE, n = 66), temporal-plus epilepsy (n = 26) and other extratemporal lobe epilepsies (ETE, n = 38). PET scans were normal in 72(37%) patients, showed unifocal hypometabolism in 98(50.5%) and bilateral hypometabolism in 24(12%) patients. The TLE group had a higher proportion of abnormal PET scans (67%) than FLE (52%) and ETE (61%). PET data were useful in 103(53%) patients, more in TLE (63%) than FLE (38%) or ETE (50%). It led directly to surgery in 12(6%) cases, helped in planning intracranial EEG in 67(35%) patients and excluded 24(12%) patients from further evaluation. Focal hypometabolism on FDG-PET increased the odds of being selected for surgery or intracranial EEG by five fold [odds ratio, 5.1(2.8-9.4); p < 0.0001].
FDG-PET scan can help decision making in 53% of presurgical patients with normal or discordant MRI. PET findings need to be evaluated in conjunction with other data.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Echo Planar Imaging (EPI) is routinely used in diffusion and functional MR imaging due to its rapid acqui-sition time. However, the long readout period makes it prone to susceptibility artefacts which results in geometric and intensity distortions of the acquired image. The use of these distorted images for neuro-navigation hampers the effectiveness of image-guided surgery systems as critical white matter tracts and functionally eloquent brain areas cannot be accurately localised. In this paper, we present a novel method for correction of distortions arising from susceptibility artefacts in EPI images. The proposed method combines fieldmap and image registration based correction techniques in a unified framework. A phase unwrapping algorithm is presented that can efficiently compute the B 0 magnetic field inhomo-geneity map as well as the uncertainty associated with the estimated solution through the use of dynamic graph cuts. This information is fed to a subsequent image registration step to further refine the results in areas with high uncertainty. This work has been integrated into the surgical workflow at the National Hospital for Neurology and Neurosurgery and its effectiveness in correcting for geometric distortions due to susceptibility artefacts is demonstrated on EPI images acquired with an interventional MRI scanner during neurosurgery.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective: We used functional MRI (fMRI) and a left-lateralizing verbal and a right-lateralizing visual-spatial working memory (WM) paradigm to investigate the effects of levetiracetam (LEV) on cognitive network activations in patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Methods: In a retrospective study, we compared task-related fMRI activations and deactivations in 53 patients with left and 54 patients with right TLE treated with (59) or without (48) LEV. In patients on LEV, activation patterns were correlated with the daily LEV dose. Results: We isolated task-and syndrome-specific effects. Patients on LEV showed normaliza-tion of functional network deactivations in the right temporal lobe in right TLE during the right-lateralizing visual-spatial task and in the left temporal lobe in left TLE during the verbal task. In a post hoc analysis, a significant dose-dependent effect was demonstrated in right TLE during the visual-spatial WM task: the lower the LEV dose, the greater the abnormal right hippocampal activation. At a less stringent threshold (p , 0.05, uncorrected for multiple comparisons), a similar dose effect was observed in left TLE during the verbal task: both hippocampi were more abnormally activated in patients with lower doses, but more promi-nently on the left. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that LEV is associated with restoration of normal activation
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can be conceptualized as a network disease. The network can be characterized by inter-regional functional connectivity, i.e., blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal correlations between any two regions. However, functional connectivity is not constant over time, thus computing correlation at a given time and then at some later time could give different results (non-stationarity). We hypothesized (1) that non-stationarities can be induced by epilepsy (e.g., interictal epileptic activity) increasing local signal variance and that (2) these transient events contribute to fluctuations in connectivity leading to pathological functioning, i.e., TLE semiology. We analyzed fMRI data from 27 patients with TLE and 22 healthy controls focusing on EEG-confirmed wake epochs only to protect against sleep-induced connectivity changes. Testing hypothesis (1), we identified brain regions where the BOLD signal variance was significantly greater in TLE than in controls: the temporal pole - including the hippocampus. Taking the latter as the seed region and testing hypothesis (2), we calculated the time-varying inter-regional correlation values (dynamic functional connectivity) to other brain regions and found greater connectivity variance in the TLE than the control group mainly in the precuneus, the supplementary and sensorimotor, and the frontal cortices. We conclude that the highest BOLD signal variance in the hippocampi is highly suggestive of a specific epilepsy-related effect. The altered connectivity dynamics in TLE patients might help to explain the hallmark semiological features of dyscognitive seizures including impaired consciousness (precuneus, frontal cortex), sensory disturbance, and motor automatisms (sensorimotor cortices, supplementary motor cortex). Accounting for the non-stationarity and state-dependence of functional connectivity are a prerequisite in the search for potential connectivity-derived biomarkers in TLE.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective
Assessment of language dominance using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a standard tool to estimate the risk of language function decline after epilepsy surgery. Although there has been considerable research in the characterization of language networks in bilingual individuals; little is known about the clinical usefulness of language mapping in a secondary language in patients with epilepsy, and how language lateralization assessed by fMRI may differ by the use of native or a secondary language paradigms. In this study we investigate language representation in a population of nonnative English speakers to assess differences in fMRI language lateralization between the first (native) and second language (English).Methods
Sixteen nonnative English-speaking patients with focal drug-resistant epilepsy underwent language fMRI in their first (native) language (L1) and in English (L2). Differences between language maps using L1 and L2 paradigms were examined at the single subject level by comparing within-subject lateralization indexes obtained for each language. Differences at the group level were examined for each of the tasks and languages.ResultsGroup maps for the second language (English) showed overlapping areas of activation with the native language, but with larger clusters, and more bilaterally distributed than for the first language. However, at the individual level, lateralization indexes were concordant between the two languages, except for one patient with bilateral hippocampal sclerosis who was left dominant in English and showed bilateral dominance for verb generation and right dominance for verbal fluency in his native tongue.SignificanceLanguage lateralization can generally be reliably derived from fMRI tasks in a second language provided that the subject can follow the task. Subjects with greater likelihood of atypical language representation should be evaluated more carefully, using more than one language paradigm.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Attenuation correction is an essential requirement for quantification of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) data. In PET/CT acquisition systems, attenuation maps are derived from Computed Tomography (CT) images. However, in hybrid PET/MR scanners, Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) images do not directly provide a patient-specific attenuation map. The aim of the proposed work is to improve attenuation correction for PET/MR scanners by generating synthetic CTs and attenuation maps. The synthetic images are generated through a multi-atlas information propagation scheme, locally matching the MRI-derived patient's morphology to a database of MRI/CT pairs, using a local image similarity measure. Results show significant improvements in CT synthesis and PET reconstruction accuracy when compared to a segmentation method using an Ultrashort-Echo-Time MRI sequence and to a simplified atlasbased method.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We assessed whether display of optic radiation tractography during anterior temporal lobe resection (ATLR) for refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) can reduce the severity of postoperative visual field deficits (VFD) and increase the proportion of patients who can drive and whether correction for brain shift using intraoperative MRI (iMRI) is beneficial.METHODS: A cohort of 21 patients underwent ATLR in an iMRI suite. Preoperative tractography of the optic radiation was displayed on the navigation and operating microscope displays either without (9 patients) or with (12 patients) correction for brain shift. VFD were quantified using Goldmann perimetry and eligibility to drive was assessed by binocular Esterman perimetry 3 months after surgery. Secondary outcomes included seizure freedom and extent of hippocampal resection. The comparator was a cohort of 44 patients who underwent ATLR without iMRI.RESULTS: The VFD in the contralateral superior quadrant were significantly less (p = 0.043) with iMRI guidance (0%-49.2%, median 14.5%) than without (0%-90.9%, median 24.0%). No patient in the iMRI cohort developed a VFD that precluded driving whereas 13% of the non-iMRI cohort failed to meet UK driving criteria. Outcome did not differ between iMRI guidance with and without brain shift correction. Seizure outcome and degree of hippocampal resection were unchanged.CONCLUSIONS: Display of the optic radiation with image guidance reduces the severity of VFD and did not affect seizure outcome or hippocampal resection. Correction for brain shift is possible but did not further improve outcome. Future work to incorporate tractography into conventional neuronavigation systems will make the work more widely applicable.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy is a heritable idiopathic generalized epilepsy syndrome, characterized by myoclonic jerks and frequently triggered by cognitive effort. Impairment of frontal lobe cognitive functions has been reported in patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and their unaffected siblings. In a recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study we reported abnormal co-activation of the motor cortex and increased functional connectivity between the motor system and prefrontal cognitive networks during a working memory paradigm, providing an underlying mechanism for cognitively triggered jerks. In this study, we used the same task in 15 unaffected siblings (10 female; age range 18-65 years, median 40) of 11 of those patients with juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (six female; age range 22-54 years, median 35) and compared functional magnetic resonance imaging activations with 20 age- and gender-matched healthy control subjects (12 female; age range 23-46 years, median 30.5). Unaffected siblings showed abnormal primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area co-activation with increasing cognitive load, as well as increased task-related functional connectivity between motor and prefrontal cognitive networks, with a similar pattern to patients (P < 0.001 uncorrected; 20-voxel threshold extent). This finding in unaffected siblings suggests that altered motor system activation and functional connectivity is not medication- or seizure-related, but represents a potential underlying mechanism for impairment of frontal lobe functions in both patients and siblings, and so constitutes an endophenotype of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Reduced deactivation within the default mode network (DMN) is common in individuals with primary affective disorders relative to healthy volunteers (HVs). It is unknown whether similar network abnormalities are present in temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) patients with a history of affective psychopathology.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry. 05/2014;
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Endocannabinoids are involved in normal cognition, and dysfunction in cannabinoid-receptor-mediated neurotransmission has been suggested in a variety of neurological and psychiatric pathologies. The type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB1) is widely expressed in the human central nervous system. The objective of this study was to quantify the test-retest reproducibility of measures of the PET ligand [(11)C]MePPEP in order to assess the stability of CB1-receptor quantification in humans in vivo.
Fifteen healthy subjects (eight females; median age 32years, range 25 to 65years) had a 90-minute PET scan on two occasions after injection of a median dose of [(11)C]MePPEP of 364MBq. Metabolite-corrected arterial plasma input functions were obtained for all scans. Eight ROIs, reflecting different levels of receptor densities/concentrations, were defined automatically: hippocampus, anterior cingulate gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, nucleus accumbens, thalamus, and pons. We used seven quantification methods: reversible compartmental models with one and two tissue classes, two and four rate constants, and a variable blood volume term (2kbv; 4kbv); model-free (spectral) analyses with and without regularisation, including one with voxel-wise quantification; the simplified reference tissue model (SRTM) with pons as a pseudo-reference region; and modified standard uptake values (mSUVs) calculated for the period of ~30-60 minutes after injection. Percentage test-retest change and between-subject variability were both assessed, and test-retest reliability was quantified by the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). The ratio of binding estimates pallidum:pons served as an indicator of a method's ability to reflect binding heterogeneity.
Neither the SRTM nor the 4kbv model produced reliable measures, with ICCs around zero. Very good (>0.75) or excellent (>0.80) ICCs were obtained with the other methods. The most reliable were spectral analysis parametric maps (average across regions±standard deviation 0.83±0.03), rank shaping regularised spectral analysis (0.82±0.05), and the 2kbv model (0.82±0.09), but mSUVs were also reliable for most regions (0.79±0.13). Mean test-retest changes among the five well-performing methods ranged from 12±10% for mSUVs to 16% for 2kbv. Intersubject variability was high, with mean between-subject coefficients of variation ranging from 32±13% for mSUVs to 45% for 2kbv. The highest pallidum:pons ratios of binding estimates were achieved by mSUV (4.2), spectral analysis-derived parametric maps (3.6), and 2kbv (3.6).
Quantification of CB1 receptor availability using [(11)C]MePPEP shows good to excellent reproducibility with several kinetic models and model-free analyses, whether applied on a region-of-interest or voxelwise basis. Simple mSUV measures were also reliable for most regions, but do not allow fully quantitative interpretation. [(11)C]MePPEP PET is well placed as a tool to investigate CB1-receptor mediated neurotransmission in health and disease.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This review summarises exciting recent and forthcoming advances that will impact on the surgical management of epilepsy in the near future. This does not cover the current accepted diagnostic methodologies or surgical treatments that are routinely practiced today. The content of this review was derived from a PubMed literature search, using the key words 'Epilepsy Surgery', 'Neuromodulation', 'Neuroablation', 'Advances', between 2010 and November 2013.
Journal of neurology, neurosurgery, and psychiatry 04/2014; · 4.87 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Working memory is a crucial cognitive function that is disrupted in temporal lobe epilepsy. It is unclear whether this impairment is a consequence of temporal lobe involvement in working memory processes or due to seizure spread to extratemporal eloquent cortex. Anterior temporal lobe resection controls seizures in 50-80% of patients with drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy and the effect of surgery on working memory are poorly understood both at a behavioural and neural level. We investigated the impact of temporal lobe resection on the efficiency and functional anatomy of working memory networks. We studied 33 patients with unilateral medial temporal lobe epilepsy (16 left) before, 3 and 12 months after anterior temporal lobe resection. Fifteen healthy control subjects were also assessed in parallel. All subjects had neuropsychological testing and performed a visuospatial working memory functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm on these three separate occasions. Changes in activation and deactivation patterns were modelled individually and compared between groups. Changes in task performance were included as regressors of interest to assess the efficiency of changes in the networks. Left and right temporal lobe epilepsy patients were impaired on preoperative measures of working memory compared to controls. Working memory performance did not decline following left or right temporal lobe resection, but improved at 3 and 12 months following left and, to a lesser extent, following right anterior temporal lobe resection. After left anterior temporal lobe resection, improved performance correlated with greater deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant and the contralateral right hippocampus. There was a failure of increased deactivation of the left hippocampal remnant at 3 months after left temporal lobe resection compared to control subjects, which had normalized 12 months after surgery. Following right anterior temporal lobe resection there was a progressive increase of activation in the right superior parietal lobe at 3 and 12 months after surgery. There was greater deactivation of the right hippocampal remnant compared to controls between 3 and 12 months after right anterior temporal lobe resection that was associated with lesser improvement in task performance. Working memory improved after anterior temporal lobe resection, particularly following left-sided resections. Postoperative working memory was reliant on the functional capacity of the hippocampal remnant and, following left resections, the functional reserve of the right hippocampus. These data suggest that working memory following temporal lobe resection is dependent on the engagement of the posterior medial temporal lobes and eloquent cortex.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Most registration algorithms suffer from a directionality bias that has been shown to largely impact on subsequent analyses. Several approaches have been proposed in the literature to address this bias in the context of non-linear registration but little work has been done in the context of global registration. We propose a symmetric approach based on a block-matching technique and least trimmed square regression. The proposed method is suitable for multi-modal registration and is robust to outliers in the input images. The symmetric framework is compared to the original asymmetric block-matching technique, outperforming it in terms accuracy and robustness.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Lacosamide (LCM), a new antiepileptic drug (AED) approved as adjunctive therapy for the treatment of patients with partial-onset seizures, has limited pharmacokinetic and drug interaction data. The main objectives of the present study were to investigate the effects of dose, age, gender, and hepatic enzyme-inducing AEDs on the pharmacokinetics of LCM as assessed by steady state serum LCM values.
An LCM AED therapeutic drug monitoring database was analyzed with regard to LCM serum concentrations and other relevant patient and AED drug information. One hundred twenty eight sera were identified. These were collected from 68 women and 61 men aged 19-66 years, who were prescribed a median LCM dose of 300 mg (range 50-600 mg).
Serum LCM concentrations were observed in the following main groupings: LCM monotherapy (n = 5), LCM with nonenzyme-inducing AEDs (n = 50), LCM with enzyme-inducing AEDs (n = 49), LCM with valproic acid (n = 20), and LCM with enzyme-inducing AEDs plus valproic acid (n = 4). Analysis of variance showed a correlation of dose with LCM concentrations (r = 0.53, P < 0.001), and women had statistically higher mean LCM concentration than did men, 37.2 ± 23.6 versus 26.8 ± 12.9 μmol/L (P = 0.001). Serum LCM concentrations were significantly lower (P = 0.002) in the enzyme-inducing AED group (carbamazepine and phenytoin) compared with the LCM monotherapy group and the nonenzyme-inducing group, 23.5 ± 11.0, 34.5 ± 7.7, and 32.7 ± 17.9 μmol/L, respectively.
Serum LCM concentrations increased dose dependently, were age independent, and were higher in women compared with men. Carbamazepine and phenytoin can significantly decrease serum LCM concentrations, probably via induction of LCM metabolism.
Therapeutic drug monitoring 02/2014; · 2.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: N-methyl d-aspartate (NMDA) ion channels play a key role in a wide range of physiologic (e.g., memory and learning tasks) and pathologic processes (e.g., excitotoxicity). To date, suitable PET markers of NMDA ion channel activity have not been available. (18)F-GE-179 is a novel radioligand that selectively binds to the open/active state of the NMDA receptor ion channel, displacing the binding of (3)H-tenocyclidine from the intrachannel binding site with an affinity of 2.4 nM. No significant binding was observed with 10 nM GE-179 at 60 other neuroreceptors, channels, or transporters. We describe the kinetic behavior of the radioligand in vivo in humans.
Nine healthy participants (6 men, 3 women; median age, 37 y) each underwent a 90-min PET scan after an intravenous injection of (18)F-GE-179. Continuous arterial blood sampling over the first 15 min was followed by discrete blood sampling over the duration of the scan. Brain radioactivity (KBq/mL) was measured in summation images created from the attenuation- and motion-corrected dynamic images. Metabolite-corrected parent plasma input functions were generated. We assessed the abilities of 1-, 2-, and 3-compartment models to kinetically describe cerebral time-activity curves using 6 bilateral regions of interest. Parametric volume-of-distribution (VT) images were generated by voxelwise rank-shaping regularization of exponential spectral analysis (RS-ESA).
A 2-brain-compartment, 4-rate-constant model best described the radioligand's kinetics in normal gray matter of subjects at rest. At 30 min after injection, 37% of plasma radioactivity represented unmetabolized (18)F-GE-179. The highest mean levels of gray matter radioactivity were seen in the putamina and peaked at 7.5 min. A significant positive correlation was observed between K1 and VT (Spearman ρ = 0.398; P = 0.003). Between-subject coefficients of variation of VT ranged between 12% and 16%. Voxelwise RS-ESA yielded similar VTs and coefficients of variation.
(18)F-GE-179 exhibits high and rapid brain extraction, with a relatively homogeneous distribution in gray matter and acceptable between-subject variability. Despite its rapid peripheral metabolism, quantification of (18)F-GE-179 VT is feasible both within regions of interest and at the voxel level. The specificity of (18)F-GE-179 binding, however, requires further characterization with in vivo studies using activation and disease models.
Journal of Nuclear Medicine 02/2014; · 5.77 Impact Factor