G F Gerberick

French National Centre for Scientific Research, Paris, Ile-de-France, France

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Publications (130)312.07 Total impact

  • David A Basketter, G Frank Gerberick, Ian Kimber
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    ABSTRACT: Toxicology endeavors to predict the potential of materials to cause adverse health (and environmental) effects and to assess the risk(s) associated with exposure. For skin sensitizers, the local lymph node assay was the first method to be fully and independently validated, as well as the first to offer an objective end point with a quantitative measure of sensitizing potency (in addition to hazard identification). Fifteen years later, it serves as the primary standard for the development of in vitro/in chemico/in silico alternatives.
    Dermatitis 03/2014; · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The strong sensitizing potencies of the most important primary intermediates of oxidative hair dyes, p-phenylenediamine (PPD) and p-toluylenediamine (PTD, i.e. 2-methyl-PPD) are well established. They are considered as the key sensitizers in hair dye allergic contact dermatitis. While modification of their molecular structure is expected to alter their sensitizing properties, it may also impair their color performance. With introduction of a methoxymethyl side chain we found the primary intermediate 2-methoxymethyl-p-phenylenediamine (ME-PPD) with excellent hair coloring performance but significantly reduced sensitizing properties compared to PPD and PTD: In vitro, ME-PPD showed an attenuated innate immune response when analyzed for its protein reactivity and dendritic cell activation potential. In vivo, the effective concentration of ME-PPD necessary to induce an immune response 3-fold above vehicle control (EC3 value) in the local lymph node assay (LLNA) was 4.3%, indicating a moderate skin sensitizing potency compared to values of 0.1 and 0.17% for PPD and PTD, respectively. Finally, assessing the skin sensitizing potency of ME-PPD under consumer hair dye usage conditions through a quantitative risk assessment (QRA) indicated an allergy induction risk negligible compared to PPD or PTD.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 12/2013; · 3.98 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Noninvasive vaginal infections by S. aureus strains producing the superantigen TSST-1 can cause menstrual toxic shock syndrome (mTSS). With the objective of exploring the basis for differential susceptibility to mTSS the relative responsiveness to TSST-1 of healthy women has been investigated. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from healthy donors were incubated with purified TSST-1, or with the T cell mitogen phytohaemmaglutinin (PHA), and proliferation measured. The concentrations of TSST-1 and PHA required to elicit a response equivalent to 15% of the maximal achievable response (EC15) was determined. Although with PHA EC15 values were comparable between donors, subjects could be classified as being of high, medium or low sensitivity based on responsiveness to TSST-1. Sensitivity to TSST-1-induced proliferation was associated with increased production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-2 and interferon γ (IFN-γ). When the entire T lymphocyte population was considered, there were no differences between sensitivity groups with respect to the frequency of cells known to be responsive to TSST-1 (those bearing CD3(+) Vβ2(+)). However, there was an association between sensitivity to TSST-1 and certain HLA-class II haplotypes. Thus, the frequency of DR7DQ2, DR14DQ5, DR4DQ8, and DR8DQ4 haplotypes were greater among those with high sensitivity; a finding confirmed by analysis of responses to immortalized homozygous B cell lines.Collectively, the results reveal that factors other than neutralising antibody and the frequency of Vβ2(+) T lymphocytes determine immunological responsiveness to TSST-1. Differential responsiveness of lymphocytes to TSST-1 may form the basis of inter-individual variations in susceptibility to mTSS.
    Toxicological Sciences 05/2013; · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In chemico methods, based on the assessment of a hapten's reactivity toward peptides, have been proposed as alternative methods for the assessment of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. However, even with these approaches showing promise, a major drawback is the activation of prohaptens, i.e. molecules needing a metabolic activation to become reactive and therefore sensitizing. Recently, it has been proposed to couple an enzymatic activation step based on horseradish peroxidase (HRP)/hydrogen peroxide to such peptide reactivity assays. To evaluate this approach, the behavior of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol (2M4MP), reported as a moderate sensitizer according to the Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA), has been investigated in this assay. To follow the reaction with the peptides and characterize more easily intermediates and adducts, the molecule was first 13C isotopically substituted at the most probable reactive position. When 2M4MP was incubated with HRP/H2O2 in a mixture PBS (pH 7.4, 0.1M)/acetonitrile 2:1, two main products were formed deriving from the formation of a quinone methide 2M4MQ subsequently trapped by either H2O2 or H2O to form a benzylic hydroperoxide or alcohol, respectively. When nucleophiles such as GSH or a peptide containing a cysteine residue (Pep-Cys) were present in the reaction medium, the quinone methide 2M4MQ was trapped by the more nucleophilic thiol function to form thio-adducts. No modifications of 2M4MP were observed when the same reactions were carried out without HRP confirming that the activation of the molecule was enzyme related. Amino nucleophiles were shown to be far less reactive towards the quinone methide 2M4MQ with only tiny formation of adducts with lysine or arginine side chains. In addition we demonstrated that the same enzymatic activation could also take place in a microemulsion based on sodium dodecyl sulfate/tert-butanol/chloroform/buffer.
    Toxicology Letters 02/2013; · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sensitizing chemicals are commonly associated primarily with either skin or respiratory sensitization. In the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), when compared with skin sensitizers, respiratory allergens have been demonstrated to selectively react with lysine rather than cysteine. The Peroxidase Peptide Reactivity Assay (PPRA) has been developed as a refinement to the DPRA. The PPRA incorporates dose-response analyses, mass spectroscopy for peptide detection and a horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide enzymatic system, increasing the potential to identify pro-haptens. In the investigations reported here, the PPRA was evaluated to determine whether it provides advantages for the identification of respiratory allergens. Twenty respiratory sensitizers, including five predicted to be pre-/pro-haptens were evaluated. The PPRA performed similarly to the DPRA with respect to indentifying inherently reactive respiratory sensitizers. However, three respiratory sensitizers predicted to be pre-/pro-haptens (chlorhexidine, ethylenediamine and piperazine) were non-reactive and the general selectivity of the respiratory allergens for lysine was lost in the PPRA. Overall, the data indicate that the PPRA does not provide an advantage over the DPRA for discriminating allergens as either contact or respiratory sensitizers. Nevertheless, the PPRA provides a number of refinements to the DPRA that allow for an enhanced characterization of reactivity for both classes of chemical allergens.
    Toxicology in Vitro 11/2012; · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: With the availability of the local lymph node assay, and the ability to evaluate effectively the relative skin sensitizing potency of contact allergens, a model for quantitative-risk-assessment (QRA) has been developed. This QRA process comprises: (a) determination of a no-expected-sensitisation-induction-level (NESIL), (b) incorporation of sensitization-assessment-factors (SAFs) reflecting variations between subjects, product use patterns and matrices, and (c) estimation of consumer-exposure-level (CEL). Based on these elements an acceptable-exposure-level (AEL) can be calculated by dividing the NESIL of the product by individual SAFs. Finally, the AEL is compared with the CEL to judge about risks to human health. We propose a simplified approach to risk assessment of hair dye ingredients by making use of precise experimental product exposure data. This data set provides firmly established dose/unit area concentrations under relevant consumer use conditions referred to as the measured-exposure-level (MEL). For that reason a direct comparison is possible between the NESIL with the MEL as a proof-of-concept quantification of the risk of skin sensitization. This is illustrated here by reference to two specific hair dye ingredients p-phenylenediamine and resorcinol. Comparison of these robust and toxicologically relevant values is therefore considered an improvement versus a hazard-based classification of hair dye ingredients.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 10/2012; · 2.13 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established that certain chemicals cause respiratory allergy. In common with contact allergens, chemicals that induce sensitization of the respiratory tract must form stable associations with host proteins to elicit an immune response. Measurement of the reactivity of chemical allergens to single nucleophilic peptides is increasingly well-described, and standardized assays have been developed for use in hazard assessment. This study employed standard and modified peptide reactivity assays to investigate the selectivity of chemical respiratory allergens for individual amino acids under competitive and non-competitive conditions. The reactivity of 20 known chemical respiratory sensitizers (including diisocyanates, anhydrides, and reactive dyes) were evaluated for reactivity towards individual peptides containing cysteine, lysine, histidine, arginine, or tyrosine. Respiratory allergens exhibited the common ability to deplete both lysine and cysteine peptides; however, reactivity for histidine, arginine, and tyrosine varied between chemicals, indicating differences in relative binding affinity toward each nucleophile. To evaluate amino acid selectivity for cysteine and lysine under competitive conditions a modified assay was used in which reaction mixtures contained different relative concentrations of the target peptides. Under these reaction conditions, the binding preferences of reference respiratory and contact allergens (dinitrochlorobenzene, dinitrofluorobenzene) were evaluated. Discrete patterns of reactivity were observed showing various levels of competitive selectivity between the two allergen classes.
    Journal of Immunotoxicology 10/2012; · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic contact dermatitis is an important occupational and environmental disease caused by topical exposure to chemical allergens. An area of considerable interest and, in the context of hazard identification and characterization, an area of great importance is developing an understanding of the characteristics that confer on chemicals the ability to cause skin sensitization. For the successful acquisition of skin sensitization, it is necessary that a chemical must gain access to the viable epidermis, form stable immunogenic associations with host proteins, and provide the necessary stimuli for the activation, mobilization, and maturation of skin dendritic cells (DC). It is the last of these properties that is the subject of this article. The purpose here is to review the mechanisms through which skin sensitizers provide the triggers necessary for engagement of cutaneous DC. Of particular interest are the nature and function of danger signals elicited by skin sensitizing chemicals. Among the pathways considered here are those involving Toll-like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, neuropeptide receptors, prostanoid receptors, and the inflammasome. Collectively, danger signals in the skin provide a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune systems and are of pivotal importance for the initiation of cutaneous immune responses, including those to chemical allergens that result in skin sensitization.
    Journal of Immunotoxicology 09/2012; · 1.57 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: It is well known that some chemicals are capable of causing allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract. Commonly, though not exclusively, chemical allergens are associated with the selective development of skin or respiratory sensitization. The reason for this divergence is unclear, although it is hypothesized that the nature of interactions between the chemical hapten and proteins is influential. The direct peptide reactivity assay (DPRA) has been developed as a screen for the identification of skin-sensitizing chemicals, and here we describe the use of this method to explore whether differences exist between skin and respiratory allergens with respect to their peptide-binding properties. Known skin and respiratory sensitizers were reacted with synthetic peptides containing either lysine (Lys) or cysteine (Cys) for 24h. The samples were analyzed by HPLC/UV, and the loss of peptide from the reaction mixture was expressed as the percent depletion compared with the control. The potential for preferential reactivity was evaluated by comparing the ratio of Lys to Cys depletion (Lys:Cys ratio). The results demonstrate that the majority of respiratory allergens are reactive in the DPRA, and that in contrast to most skin-sensitizing chemicals, preferentially react with the Lys peptide. These data suggest that skin and respiratory chemical allergens can result in different protein conjugates, which may in turn influence the quality of induced immune responses. Overall, these investigations reveal that the DPRA has considerable potential to be incorporated into tiered testing approaches for the identification and characterization of chemical respiratory allergens.
    Toxicological Sciences 06/2012; 129(2):421-31. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To establish further a practical quantitative in chemico reactivity assay for screening contact allergens, lysine peptide was incorporated into a liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry-based assay for reactivity assessments of hapten and pre-/pro-hapten chemical sensitizers. Loss of peptide was determined following 24 h coincubation with test chemical using a concentration-response study design. A total of 70 chemicals were tested in discrete reactions with cysteine or lysine peptide, in the presence and absence of horseradish peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide oxidation system. An empirically derived prediction model for discriminating sensitizers from nonsensitizers resulted in an accuracy of 83% for 26 haptens, 19 pre-/pro-haptens, and 25 nonsensitizers. Four sensitizers were shown to selectively react with lysine including two strong/extreme and two weak sensitizers. In addition, seven sensitizers were identified as having higher reactivity toward lysine compared with cysteine. The majority of sensitizing chemicals (27/45) were reactive toward both cysteine and lysine peptides. An estimate of the relative reactivity potency was determined based on the concentration of test chemical that depletes peptide at or above a threshold positive value. Here, we report the use of EC15 as one example to illustrate the use of the model for screening the skin sensitization potential of novel chemicals. Results from this initial assessment highlight the utility of lysine for assessing a chemical's potential to elicit sensitization reactions or induce hypersensitivity. This approach has the potential to qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate an important mechanism in contact allergy for hazard and quantitative risk assessments without animal testing.
    Toxicological Sciences 05/2011; 122(2):422-36. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Allergic diseases of the skin and respiratory tract resulting from exposure to low molecular weight chemicals remain important issues for consumer product development and occupational/environmental health. Widespread opportunities for exposure to chemical allergens require that there are available effective methods for hazard identification and risk assessment. In the search for new tools for hazard identification/characterization there has been interest in developing alternative methods that will reduce, refine or replace the need for animals. One approach that shows promise is based on the measurement of the peptide reactivity of chemicals; the potential to form stable associations with protein/peptide being a key requirement for the induction of sensitization. Recent investigations using these systems have focused primarily on skin sensitizing chemicals. However, there is interest in the possibility of exploiting these same experimental approaches to distinguish between different forms of chemical allergens - as individual materials are primarily associated with one or the other form of sensitization in humans. These investigations may also provide insight into why chemical sensitizers can differ in the form of allergic disease they will preferentially induce. These opportunities are surveyed here against a background of the immunobiology of allergic sensitization and current state-of-the-art approaches to measurement of peptide/protein reactivity.
    Toxicology in Vitro 03/2011; 25(2):433-45. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an urgent need to develop data integration and testing strategy frameworks allowing interpretation of results from animal alternative test batteries. To this end, we developed a Bayesian Network Integrated Testing Strategy (BN ITS) with the goal to estimate skin sensitization hazard as a test case of previously developed concepts (Jaworska et al., 2010). The BN ITS combines in silico, in chemico, and in vitro data related to skin penetration, peptide reactivity, and dendritic cell activation, and guides testing strategy by Value of Information (VoI). The approach offers novel insights into testing strategies: there is no one best testing strategy, but the optimal sequence of tests depends on information at hand, and is chemical-specific. Thus, a single generic set of tests as a replacement strategy is unlikely to be most effective. BN ITS offers the possibility of evaluating the impact of generating additional data on the target information uncertainty reduction before testing is commenced.
    ALTEX. 01/2011; 28(3):211-25.
  • Fuel and Energy Abstracts 01/2011; 205.
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    ABSTRACT: Usage of hair dye products containing p-phenylenediamine (PPD) is a concern for PPD-allergic individuals. The present study investigates the role of dose and exposure time on elicitation of allergic contact dermatitis under conditions of permanent hair dyeing. Elicitation responses after application of a typical hair dye product containing 2% PPD for 30 min followed by rinsing were analysed in 38 PPD-allergic individuals with a documented history of hair dye-related allergy. Skin binding experiments in vitro were performed to distinguish the dose available for elicitation from the dose applied. A positive reaction was elicited in 20 of 20 patients with grades ++ to +++ and 12 of 18 with grade + according to the classification of the International Contact Dermatitis Research Group. Under conditions of diagnostic patch testing (48 h exposure), the dose available for elicitation is more than 10-fold higher compared with the dose available for hair dyeing (30-min exposure, rinsing of product). This investigation demonstrates that under simulated hair dye use conditions the actual exposure to PPD is more than an order of magnitude lower than under diagnostic patch testing, although sufficient to elicit a clearly noticeable reaction in 84% of PPD patch test-positive individuals.
    British Journal of Dermatology 12/2010; 163(6):1205-11. · 3.76 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The induction by chemicals of allergic sensitization and allergic disease is an important and challenging branch of toxicology. Skin sensitization resulting in allergic contact dermatitis represents the most common manifestation of immunotoxicity in humans, and many hundreds of chemicals have been implicated as skin sensitizers. There are far fewer chemicals that have been shown to cause sensitization of the respiratory tract and asthma, but the issue is no less important because hazard identification remains a significant challenge, and occupational asthma can be fatal. In all areas of chemical allergy, there have been, and remain still, intriguing challenges where progress has required a close and productive alignment between immunology, toxicology, and clinical medicine. What the authors have sought to do here is to exemplify, within the framework of chemical allergy, how an investment in fundamental research and an improved understanding of relevant biological and biochemical mechanisms can pay important dividends in driving new innovations in hazard identification, hazard characterization, and risk assessment. Here we will consider in turn three specific areas of research in chemical allergy: (1) the role of epidermal Langerhans cells in the development of skin sensitization, (2) T lymphocytes and skin sensitization, and (3) sensitization of the respiratory tract. In each area, the aim is to identify what has been achieved and how that progress has impacted on the development of new approaches to toxicological evaluation. Success has been patchy, and there is still much to be achieved, but the journey has been fascinating and there have been some very important developments. The conclusion drawn is that continued investment in research, if coupled with an appetite for translating the fruits of that research into imaginative new tools for toxicology, should continue to better equip us for tackling the important challenges that remain to be addressed.
    Toxicological Sciences 11/2010; 120 Suppl 1:S238-68. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In chemico methods, based on the assessment of hapten reactivity toward peptides, have been proposed as alternative methods for the assessment of the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. However, even if these approaches seem very promising, a major drawback inherent to most in vitro methods is the poor water solubility of many organic molecules in aqueous media. Thus, semiorganic media based on buffer solutions and organic cosolvents such as ethanol or acetonitrile have been proposed, but a narrow equilibrium should be found between the peptide and chemical solubilities. Microemulsions have been shown to be very valuable when reacting a lipophilic organic compound soluble in hydrophobic media with a very hydrophilic organic substance insoluble in most organic solvents. However, the reaction rate between polar and apolar reactants can be influenced, in some cases, by the use of microemulsions. On the basis of NMR experiments, we have compared the reactivity of hydroxycitronellal 1 and citral 2, two weak fragrance sensitizers of major clinical relevance, toward glutathione used as a model nucleophile in a water/acetonitrile 2:1 mixture and in a microemulsion based on chloroform/water/tert-butanol/sodium dodecylsulphate. Hydroxycitronellal and citral were found to react with the thiol group of glutathione to form, in both media, identical adducts, but the observed reaction rates were found to be different. In the case of hydroxycitronellal, the observed reaction rate of glutathione addition on the aldehyde was found to be about three times higher in the microemulsion compared to the classical semiorganic mixture. In the case of citral, the situation was more complex as the Michael addition of glutathione on the conjugated double bond was found to be significantly faster in the classical semiorganic mixture, while the subsequent reaction of a second glutathione molecule on the aldehyde was found to be faster in the microemulsion. This chloroform/water/tert-butanol/sodium dodecylsulphate microemulsion, apparently of the bicontinuous type according to DOSY data, could be of potential interest for the in chemico evaluation of lipophilic chemicals toward peptides to solve solubility problems even if the impact on the chemical rate needs to be further investigated.
    Chemical Research in Toxicology 09/2010; 23(9):1433-41. · 3.67 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Development, evaluation and validation of alternatives to skin sensitisation testing require the availability of reliable databases with which comparative analyses can be conducted to establish performance characteristics. To facilitate this we have published previously a database comprising results from local lymph node assays (LLNAs) conducted with 211 chemicals. That database embraced a substantial range of chemistry, and of relative skin sensitising potency, and has found application in the assessment of new or refined methods. In this paper we describe a second compilation to extend the LLNA database. This second data compilation was derived from previously conducted LLNA studies involving an additional 108 chemicals. In addition, the first database contained a small number of inaccuracies, affecting results recorded with a few chemicals. In this paper these have been corrected. The inclusion of 108 new substances has served to extend and consolidate the areas of chemistry covered by the database. In addition, the entire dataset was evaluated for pre and prohaptens which will facilitate the choice of chemicals for alternative assay developments. It is anticipated that the new revised and extended database totalling over 300 chemicals will now serve as the primary resource to support the development and evaluation of new approaches to hazard identification and potency assessment.
    Dermatitis 02/2010; 21(1):8-32. · 0.93 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Skin protein reactivity is a well established key step in the development of skin sensitization. Understanding the relationship between a chemical's ability to react with or modify skin protein and skin sensitization has led to the development of the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) in our laboratory. A current limitation of the DPRA is that it cannot readily measure the reactivity of pro-hapten chemical sensitizers. Pro-haptens are chemical sensitizers that are not directly reactive and must be bioactivated in vivo to form an electrophilic intermediate(s). Results from this work demonstrate the utility of using horseradish peroxidase and hydrogen peroxide (HRP/P) for assessing the skin sensitization potential of pro-haptens. In comparison with "direct" reactivity assessments without HRP/P, statistically significant increases in peptide depletion for all pro-haptens examined were observed following coincubation with HRP/P. Conversely, the percent peptide depletion for all pre-haptens was equally high (> 40% depletion) with and without HRP/P demonstrating an auto-oxidation pathway. In contrast, peptide depletion for all nonsensitizing chemicals examined was low with and without HRP/P. The optimal HRP/P concentrations, incubation time and optimal peptide:chemical ratio were determined using a sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry detection method. Dithiothreitol was incorporated to reverse the dimerization of the thiol-containing cysteine peptide nucleophile. This preliminary work shows the potential to incorporate an enzyme-mediated activation step for pro-haptens into an in chemico skin sensitization assay that results in the detection of all types of sensitizers.
    Toxicological Sciences 09/2009; 112(1):164-74. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Assessment of skin sensitization hazard of chemicals currently depends on in vivo methods. Considering the forthcoming European Union ban on in vivo testing of cosmetic/toiletry ingredients, the search for alternative non-animal approaches is an urgent challenge for investigators today. For the skin sensitization end-point the concept of protein/peptide haptenation, that could reflect the chemical modification of skin proteins, crucial to form immunogenic structures, has been used to develop in vitro assays to predict the sensitization potential of new chemicals. Using glutathione and nucleophile-containing synthetic peptides we confirmed previously the possibility to screen for skin sensitization potential by measuring peptide depletion following incubation with a set of allergens and non-allergens. In this paper, additionally to our model development work, we performed mechanistic based studies to confirm the peptide reactivity concept under the specific conditions used for haptens in the screening assay as they were somewhat different from the ones expected to happen in vivo. Following the reactivity toward the peptides of 13C labelled MI and MCI, models of true haptens, we showed that the initial step leading to the biological end-point was similar regardless the conditions used even if final adducts could be different. This confirmed the validity of the peptide reactivity concept as well as the choice made to look at peptide depletion rather than at adduct formation.
    Toxicology in Vitro 05/2009; 23(3):439-46. · 2.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Test Guideline 429 for the local lymph node assay (LLNA) indicates a minimum of 4 mice per dose group, or of 5 mice if statistics are required. Recent discussions at the Interagency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) have led to suggestions that there should be a change to LLNA protocol requirements to mandate a minimum of 5 mice per group. Although it is not certain that any such proposal will be made, the debate is an important one and prompts reconsideration of animal requirements in the LLNA. In this paper we have conducted an analysis of published data from our own laboratories to determine whether the use of 4 or of 5 mice has had any practical impact on the outcome of the assay. Of the data sets for 17 chemicals in the 4-animal assay (14 positive, 1 uncertain, and 2 negative), 16 results were identical in the 5-animal assay. A marginally positive result in the 4-animal assay was negative in the 5-animal assay. Where potency determinations were made, the outcomes were essentially identical in the 2 forms of the LLNA. Consequently, it is concluded that there is no scientific justification for removing the option to use a 4-animal version of the LLNA.
    Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology 02/2009; 28(1):19-22. · 1.04 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

4k Citations
312.07 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2010–2013
    • French National Centre for Scientific Research
      • Institut de Chimie (INC)
      Paris, Ile-de-France, France
  • 1990–2013
    • Procter & Gamble
      Cincinnati, Ohio, United States
  • 2012
    • Research Institute for Fragrance Materials
      Hackensack, New Jersey, United States
  • 2010–2012
    • The University of Manchester
      • Faculty of Life Sciences
      Manchester, ENG, United Kingdom
  • 2002–2007
    • Syngenta
      Bâle, Basel-City, Switzerland
  • 2006
    • Health and Safety Executive
      Liverpool, England, United Kingdom
  • 2001–2005
    • Unilever
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom
  • 2003
    • Product Safety Labs
      Dayton, New Jersey, United States
  • 1992
    • IIT Research Institute (IITRI)
      Chicago, Illinois, United States