Liang-Ming Whang

National Cheng Kung University, 臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan

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Publications (31)98 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: This study presented an approach by combining the real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction with the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) to investigate transcriptional responses of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) to dimethyl sulfide (DMS) inhibition. Batch experiments with added ammonium and DMS were conducted using three activated sludges and Nitrosomonas europaea, and the transcriptional responses of the amo subunit A (amoA) mRNA were evaluated. It was found that DMS inhibited ammonium oxidation and amoA mRNA expression in all batch experiments but the inhibition degree observed was different for different sludges examined. It is likely that the different inhibitory effects of DMS on ammonium oxidation and amoA mRNA expression stemmed from different dominant AOB populations in the sludges. The T-RFLP results for amoA mRNA suggested that inhibition of ammonium oxidation by DMS to Nm. europaea-like AOB with T-RF 219/270 is relatively minor compared to other AOB populations in the examined sludges, such as Nm. europaea-like AOB with T-RF 491/491.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2014; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study applies metabolic flux network analysis (MFA) to evaluate the metabolic flux of fermentative hydrogen production (FHP) with the use of Clostridium tyrobutyricum fed with either glucose or lactate/acetate as substrates. The MFA results suggest that hydraulic retention time (HRT) presents significant impact on hydrogen production from glucose. At HRT between 4 and 18h, increase of HRT increased hydrogen production but decreased lactate production, while at HRT below 4h decrease of HRT increased hydrogen production but decreased lactate production. The flux for lactate, butyrate and acetate seemed to affect H2 production, due presumably to their impacts on the balance of NADH, ferredoxin and ATP. It is suggested that the MFA can be a useful tool to provide valuable information for optimization and design of the fermentative hydrogen production process.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated the linkage between performance of two full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) systems treating thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater and the population dynamics of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO)/dimethylsulfide (DMS) degrading bacteria. High DMSO degradation efficiencies were achieved in both MBRs, while the levels of nitrification inhibition due to DMS production from DMSO degradation were different in the two MBRs. The results of real-time PCR targeting on DMSO/DMS degrading populations, including Hyphomicrobium and Thiobacillus spp., indicated that a higher DMSO oxidation efficiency occurred at a higher Hyphomicrobium spp. abundance in the systems, suggesting that Hyphomicrobium spp. may be more important for complete DMSO oxidation to sulfate compared with Thiobacillus spp. Furthermore, Thiobacillus spp. was more abundant during poor nitrification, while Hyphomicrobium spp. was more abundant during good nitrification. It is suggested that microbial population of DMSO/DMS degrading bacteria is closely linking to both DMSO/DMS degradation efficiency and nitrification performance.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated impact of food to microorganism (F/M) ratio and colloidal chemical oxygen demand (COD) on nitrification performance in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating monoethanolamine (MEA)/dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-containing thin film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) wastewater. Poor nitrification was observed under high organic loading and high colloidal COD conditions, suggesting that high F/M ratio and colloidal COD situations should be avoided to minimize their negative impacts on nitrification. According to the nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMS) statistical analyses on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of ammonia monooxygenase (amoA) gene, the occurrence of Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) was positively related to successful nitrification in the MBR systems, while Nitrosomonas europaea-like AOB was positively linked to nitrification rate, which can be attributed to the high influent total nitrogen condition. Furthermore, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were both abundant in the MBR systems, but the continuously low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB.
    Bioresource Technology 03/2013; · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The diversity and abundance of ammonia-oxidizing Betaproteobacteria and archaea were investigated in a full-scale municipal wastewater treatment plant where the wastewater conductivity level varied considerably (due to seawater salinity intrusion) during this study between 2004 and 2007. Based on the quantitative polymerase chain reaction of ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) genes, an increase in the ammonia oxidizing bacteria amoA gene copies occurred with a decrease in the wastewater salinity level. A corresponding decrease in the average ammonia-oxidizing archaea to bacteria ratio, from 1.22 (2004 and 2005), 0.17 (2006), and then to 0.07 (2007), was observed. Phylogenetic analyses on amoA gene sequences indicated that Nitrosomonas marina-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarcheota Ⅰ.1a (marina group) ammonia-oxidizing archaea were dominant when the wastewater salinity level fluctuated at high values with an average of 4.83 practical salinity unit (psu), while Nitrosomonas urea-like ammonia oxidizing bacteria and Thaumarcheota Ⅰ.1b (soil group) ammonia-oxidizing archaea became dominant when the wastewater salinity decreased to a more stable lower level with an average of 1.93 psu. Based on the amoA gene-based terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses, results from this study demonstrated that the observed shift in ammonia oxidizing bacteria and archaea populations is likely caused by a change of the wastewater salinity level.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 12/2012; · 1.74 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study examined the hypothesis that different inorganic carbon (IC) conditions enrich different ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB) populations by operating two laboratory-scale continuous-flow bioreactors fed with 15 and 100 mg IC/L, respectively. During this study, both bioreactors maintained satisfactory nitrification performance and stably oxidized 250 mg N/L of influent ammonium without nitrite accumulation. Based on results of cloning/sequencing and terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism targeting on the ammonia monooxygenase subunit A (amoA) gene, Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage was identified as the dominant AOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrosomonas europaea and Nitrosomonas nitrosa lineage AOB were dominant in the low-IC bioreactor. Results of real-time polymerase chain reactions for Nitrobacter and Nitrospira 16S rRNA genes indicated that Nitrospira was the predominant NOB population in the high-IC bioreactor, while Nitrobacter was the dominant NOB in the low-IC bioreactor. Furthermore, batch experiment results suggest that N. europaea and Nitrobacter populations are proliferated in the low-IC bioreactor due to their higher rates under low IC conditions despite the fact that these two populations have been identified as weak competitors, compared with N. nitrosa and Nitrospira, under low ammonium/nitrite environments. This study revealed that in addition to ammonium/nitrite concentrations, limited IC conditions may also be important in selecting dominant AOB/NOB communities of nitrifying bioreactors.
    Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 10/2012; · 3.69 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study investigated nitrification performance and nitrifying community in one full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating TFT-LCD wastewater. For the A/O MBR system treating monoethanolamine (MEA) and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), no nitrification was observed, due presumably to high organic loading, high colloidal COD, low DO, and low hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions. By including additional A/O or O/A tanks, the A/O/A/O MBR and the O/A/O MBR were able to perform successful nitrification. The real-time PCR results for quantification of nitrifying populations showed a high correlation to nitrification performance, and can be a good indicator of stable nitrification. Terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) results of functional gene, amoA, suggest that Nitrosomonas oligotropha-like AOB seemed to be important to a good nitrification in the MBR system. In the MBR system, Nitrobacter- and Nitrospira-like NOB were both abundant, but the low nitrite environment is likely to promote the growth of Nitrospira-like NOB.
    Bioresource Technology 05/2012; 122:70-7. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated biological treatment of TMAH in a full-scale methanogenic up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) followed by an aerobic bioreactor. In general, the UASB was able to perform a satisfactory TMAH degradation efficiency, but the effluent COD of the aerobic bioreactor seemed to increase with an increased TMAH in the influent wastewater. The batch test results confirmed that the UASB sludge under methanogenic conditions would be favored over the aerobic ones for TMAH treatment due to its superb ability of handling high strength of TMAH-containing wastewaters. Based on batch experiments, inhibitory chemicals present in TFT-LCD wastewater like surfactants and sulfate should be avoided to secure a stable methanogenic TMAH degradation. Finally, molecular monitoring of Methanomethylovorans hollandica and Methanosarcina mazei in the full-scale plant, the dominant methanogens in the UASB responsible for TMAH degradation, may be beneficial for a stable TMAH treatment performance.
    Bioresource Technology 02/2012; 113:303-10. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, a continuous-flow stirred tank reactor (CSTR) fed with lactate and acetate was operated to enrich hydrogen-producing bacteria. By varying the influent substrate concentrations and hydraulic retention times (HRT), the volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 55.64 kg-COD/m(3)/day seemed to be optimum for this enriched culture for fermentative hydrogen production from lactate and acetate. The results of batch experiments confirmed that the enriched culture tended to fulfill the e(-) equiv requirement for cell growth at a lower VLR condition (21.77 kg-COD/m(3)/day), while it could largely distribute the e(-) equiv for hydrogen production at a higher VLR condition. However, a maximum lactate/acetate concentration allowed for enriching this culture existed, especially at a lower HRT condition in which wash-out can be an issue for this enriched culture. Finally, the results of cloning and sequencing indicated that Clostridium tyrobutyricum was considered the major hydrogen-producing bacteria in the CSTR fed with lactate and acetate.
    Bioresource Technology 01/2012; 113:30-6. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of fermentative bioethanol from rice straw. The obtained results indicate that controlling a proper volumetric loading rate, substrate-to-biomass ratio, or F/M ratio is important to maximizing biohydrogen production from rice straw bioethanol residues. Clostridium tyrobutyricum, the identified major hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor, is likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production. The occurrence of acetogenesis during biohydrogen fermentation may reduce the B/A ratio and lead to a lower hydrogen production. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 2.8 mmol CH(4)/gVSS/h at VLR of 4.6 kg COD/m(3)/d. Finally, approximately 75% of COD in rice straw bioethanol residues can be removed and among that 1.3% and 66.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively.
    Bioresource Technology 01/2012; 113:23-9. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of supplementary carbon addition for the treatment of high-technology industrial wastewater in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated. The MBR was operated for 302 days under different C/N (BOD(L)/NH(4)(+)-N) ratios, i.e. 0.9-1 to 20 days, 1.6-21 to 42 days, 2.9-43 to 82 days, 3.6-83 to 141 days, 4.8-165 to 233 days and 9.3-240 to 302 days. Irrespective of the C/N ratios investigated, SS and BOD(5) removal efficiencies were above 95% and above 80% COD removal efficiency was observed. In addition, complete nitrification was observed throughout the investigation. However, denitrification and total nitrogen removal efficiencies reached their maximum values at the highest C/N ratio (9.3) investigated. Real-time PCR analysis revealed 10 times higher ammonia oxidizing bacteria to total bacteria ratio under the highest C/N ratio condition (9.3) compared to the low C/N ratio condition (1.6).
    Bioresource Technology 12/2011; 113:148-53. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A custom-made atmospheric argon micro-plasma system was employed to dissociate dimethyl sulfide (DMS) into a non-foul-smelling species. The proposed system takes the advantages of low energy requirement and non-thermal process with a constant flow rate at ambient condition. In the experiments, the compositions of DMS/argon plasma, the residual gaseous phases, and solid precipitates were respectively characterized using an optical emission spectrometer, various gas-phase analyzers, and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. For 400 ppm DMS introduced into argon plasma with two pairs of electrodes (90 W), a complete decomposition of DMS was achieved; the DMS became converted into excited species such as C, C(2), H, and CH. When gaseous products were taken away from the treatment area, the excited species tended to recombine and form stable compounds or species, which formed as solid particles and gaseous phases. The solid deposition was likely formed by the agglomeration of C-, H-, and S-containing species that became deposited on the quartz inner tube. For the residual gaseous phases, low-molecular-weight segments mostly recombined into relatively thermodynamic stable species, such as hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, and carbon disulfide. The dissociation mechanism and treatment efficiency are discussed, and a treatment of converting DMS into H(2)-, CS(2)-, and H(2)S-dominant by-products is proposed.
    Journal of hazardous materials 11/2011; 201-202:185-92. · 4.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The materials and energy in an integrated biological hydrogen production and purification system involving hydrolysis, dark fermentation, photo fermentation, CO2 fixation and anaerobic digestion are balanced by integrating the results from multiple experiments, simulations and the literature. The findings are two fold. First, using 1000 kg rice straw as a substrate, 19.8 kg H2 and 138.0 kg CH4 are obtained. The net energy balance (NEB) and net energy ratio (NER) are -738.4 kWh and 77.8%, respectively, both of which imply an unfavorable energy production system. Opportunities to improve the performance particularly lie in the photo fermentation process. Second, greenhouse gas emissions are evaluated for various options. The results were comparable with the emission inventory of electricity generated from fossil fuels. NEB and NER under a zero-carbon-emission constraint were discussed in detail to clarify completely the implications of the energy and material balances on greenhouse gas emissions.
    Bioresource Technology 04/2011; 102(18):8550-6. · 5.04 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the microbial metabolism and energy demand in fermentative biohydrogen production using Clostridium tyrobutyricum FYa102 at different hydraulic retention times (HRT) over a period of 1-18 h. The hydrogen yield shows a positive correlation with the butyrate yield, the B/A ratio, and the Y(H2)/2(Y(HAc)+Y(HBu)) ratio, but a negative correlation with the lactate yield. A decrease in HRT, which is accompanied by an increased biomass growth, tends to decrease the B/A ratio, due presumably to a higher energy demand for microbial growth. The production of lactate at a low HRT, however, may involve an unfavorable change in e(-) equiv distribution to result in a reduced hydrogen production. Finally, the relatively high hydrogen yields observed in the bioreactor with the peptone addition may be ascribed to the utilization of peptone as an additional energy and/or amino-acid source, thus reducing the glucose demand for biomass growth during the hydrogen production process.
    Bioresource Technology 04/2011; 102(18):8378-83. · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • I.-Chun Liu, Liang-Ming Whang, Wei-Jie Ren, Pei-Ying Lin
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates the effect of pH (4–7) on fermentative biohydrogen production by utilizing three isolated Clostridium species. Fermentative batch experiments show that the maximum hydrogen yield for Clostridium butyricum CGS2 (1.77 mmol/mmol glucose) is achieved at pH 6, whereas a high hydrogen production with Clostridium beijerinckii L9 (1.72 mmol/mmol glucose) and Clostridium tyrobutyricum FYa102 (1.83 mmol/mmol glucose) could be achieved under uncontrolled pH conditions (initial pH of 6.4–6.6 and final pH of 4–4.2). Low hydrogen yields (0–0.6 mmol/mmol glucose) observed at pH 4 are due likely to inhibitory effects on the microbial growth, although a low pH can be thermodynamically favorable for hydrogen production. The low hydrogen yields (0.12–0.64 mmol/mmol glucose) observed at pH 7 are attributed not only to thermodynamically unfavorable, but also metabolically unfavorable for hydrogen production. The relatively high levels of lactate, propionate, or formate observed at pH 7 reflect presumably the high enzymatic activities responsible for their production, together with the low hydrogenase activity, resulting in a low hydrogen production. A correlation analysis of the data from present and previous studies on biohydrogen production with pure Clostridium cultures and mixed microflora indicates a close relation between the hydrogen yield (YH2) and the (YH2)/(2(YHAc+YHBu)) ratio, with the observed correlation coefficient (0.787) higher than that (0.175) between YH2 and the molar ratio of butyrate to acetate (B/A). Based on the (YH2)/(2(YHAc+YHBu)) ratios observed at different pHs, a control of pH at 5.5–6.8 would seem to be an effective means to enhance the fermentative biohydrogen production.
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 01/2011; 36(1):439-449. · 3.55 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbon oil (14,000 mg kg−1) were investigated in six biopiles batches, differing in the remediation strategy: bioaugmentation (selected consortium and kitchen waste were introduced), biostimulation (added with rhamnolipid, high-level, or low-level nutrient), and bioaugmentation plus biostimulation (added both with rhamnolipid and bacterial consortia). After the 140-day operation, the kitchen waste (KW) and the low-level nutrient (NEL) batches achieved the highest total petroleum hydrocarbon degradation efficiency (>80%). The result of the hydrocarbon analysis revealed that the bioaugmentation approaches were the most effective ones in removing aromatic component (64% and 68%), and KW and NEL were the only two approaches that can remove the polar component with positive efficiency, 11% and 21%, respectively. The terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism percentage (T-RFLP) abundance applied with nonmetric multidimensional scaling indicated a similarity of the bacterial communities during the early fastest remediation stage. The results of the oligonucleotide array targeting the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region, along with the hydrocarbon fractional analysis, indicated a successive degradation completed by the bacterial–fungi consortia. Before Day 70, the bacterial community was dominant in decomposing the saturated and partially aromatic hydrocarbons. After Day 70, the fungal community found to be dynamic and responsible for degradation of the polar hydrocarbons composing of recalcitrant metabolites.
    International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation - INT BIODETERIOR BIODEGRAD. 01/2011; 65(8):1119-1127.
  • Chun-Po Juang, Liang-Ming Whang, Hai-Hsuan Cheng
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluates a two-stage bioprocess for recovering bioenergy in the forms of hydrogen and methane while treating organic residues of ethanol fermentation from tapioca starch. A maximum hydrogen production rate of 0.77 mmol H(2)/g VSS/h can be achieved at volumetric loading rate (VLR) of 56 kg COD/m(3)/day. Batch results indicate that controlling conditions at S(0)/X(0)=12 with X(0)=4000 mg VSS/L and pH 5.5-6 are important for efficient hydrogen production from fermentation residues. Hydrogen-producing bacteria enriched in the hydrogen bioreactor are likely utilizing lactate and acetate for biohydrogen production from ethanol-fermentation residues. Organic residues remained in the effluent of hydrogen bioreactor can be effectively converted to methane with a rate of 0.37 mmol CH(4)/g VSS/h at VLR of 8 kg COD/m(3)/day. Approximately 90% of COD in ethanol-fermentation residues can be removed and among that 2% and 85.1% of COD can be recovered in the forms of hydrogen and methane, respectively.
    Bioresource Technology 10/2010; 102(9):5394-9. · 5.04 Impact Factor
  • Chin-Nan Lei, Liang-Ming Whang, Po-Chun Chen
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    ABSTRACT: The amount of pollutants produced during manufacturing processes of thin-film transistor liquid crystal display (TFT-LCD) substantially increases due to an increasing production of the opto-electronic industry in Taiwan. This study presents the treatment performance of one aerobic and one anoxic/oxic (A/O) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating synthetic TFT-LCD wastewater containing dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), monoethanolamine (MEA), and tetra-methyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH). The long-term monitoring results for the aerobic and A/O SBRs demonstrate that stable biodegradation of DMSO, MEA, and TMAH can be achieved without any considerably adverse impacts. The ammonium released during MEA and TMAH degradation can also be completely oxidized to nitrate through nitrification in both SBRs. Batch studies on biodegradation rates for DMSO, MEA, and TMAH under anaerobic, anoxic, and aerobic conditions indicate that effective MEA degradation can be easily achieved under all three conditions examined, while efficient DMSO and TMAH degradation can be attained only under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, respectively. The potential odor problem caused by the formation of malodorous dimethyl sulfide from DMSO degradation under anaerobic conditions, however, requires insightful consideration in treating DMSO-containing wastewater.
    Chemosphere 09/2010; 81(1):57-64. · 3.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study evaluated anaerobic hydrogenation performance and microbial ecology in bioreactors operated at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) conditions and fed with glucose–peptone (GP) and starch–peptone (SP). The maximum hydrogen production rates for GP- and SP-fed bioreactors were found to be 1247 and 412 mmol-H2/L/d at HRT of 2 and 3 h, respectively. At HRT > 8 h, hydrogen consumption due to peptone fermentation could occur and thus reduced hydrogen yield from carbohydrate fermentation. Results of cloning/sequencing and denaturant gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium celerecrescens were dominant hydrogen-producing bacteria in the GP-fed bioreactor, presumably due to their capability on protein hydrolysis. In the SP-fed bioreactor, Lactobacillus plantarum, Propionispira arboris, and Clostridium butyricum were found to be dominant populations, but the presence of P. arboris at HRT > 3 h might be responsible for a lower hydrogen yield from starch fermentation. As a result, optimizing HRT operation for bioreactors was considered an important asset in order to minimize hydrogen-consuming activities and thus maximize net hydrogen production. The limitation of simple parameters such as butyrate to acetate ratio (B/A ratio) in predicting hydrogen production was recognized in this study for bioreactors fed with multiple substrates. It is suggested that microbial ecology analysis, in addition to chemical analysis, should be performed when complex substrates and mixed cultures are used in hydrogen-producing bioreactors.
    International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 01/2010;
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two bio-pile studies undertaken in a controlled laboratory were aimed at deciding optimal strategies to remediate two different artificial diesel-contaminated soils. Bioaugmentation with various inoculations, biostimulation with various levels of biosurfactant rhamnolipid, and nutrient enhancement were the proposed remediation courses.RESULTS: In Case I, the average of the first-order kinetic degradation rate constants during the first degradation stage for the bioaugmentation/biostimulation treatments was 0.0195 ± 0.0056 d−1, which was about 2.6-fold higher than that of the control batch (0.0075 d−1). Conversely, in Case II, the rate constants for treatments with amendments and those for the control batch were found to be comparable, 0.0172 ± 0.0015 d−1 and 0.0158 d−1, respectively. Microarray results indicated a less diverse indigenous bacterial community in Case I and an abundant indigenous community in Case II, both from the control batches on Day 0. The dynamics of the two microbial communities, revealed by NMS plots, emphasized the similarity among the different treatments during the first degradation stage.CONCLUSIONS: Prior to a remediation project, the usefulness of a bioaugmentation approach can be investigated using an ITS oligonucliotide microarray. Results from the microarray answered why the bioaugmentation approach was useful in Case I, but not in Case II. The abundance of the diesel-degrading community determined the usefulness of bioaugmentation. Relatively quantified TRFLP results analyzed via the NMS plots demonstrated comparable microbial communities during the first degradation stage, regardless of differences between the two batches. The bacterial community structure might shift with the availability of hydrocarbons. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
    Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology 04/2009; 84(6):808 - 819. · 2.50 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

218 Citations
98.00 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2006–2014
    • National Cheng Kung University
      • Department of Environmental Engineering
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan
  • 2009
    • University of Wisconsin, Madison
      • Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering
      Madison, MS, United States
  • 2008
    • Chung Hwa University of Medical Technology
      臺南市, Taiwan, Taiwan