Xiumin Jiang

Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China

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Publications (48)95.08 Total impact

  • Hai Zhang, Xiumin Jiang, Jiaxun Liu, Jun Shen
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    ABSTRACT: Comprehensive theoretical calculations are carried out to investigate the nitric oxide (NO) heterogeneous reduction mechanism in the presence of hydroxyl ( 2 2
    Energy Conversion and Management 07/2014; 83:167–176. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This is the age of oil when many parts of the economy, particularly transportation, still rely heavily upon oil. The uncertainty in petroleum prices, its growing worldwide consumption and limited availability have motivated many countries rich in oil shale resources to investigate more efficient technologies to produce and use shale oil as an alternative to traditional petroleum. This review considers some aspects of oil shale based technologies. Among many differences in the flow and operational characteristics of several typical industrial oil shale retorting processes, one of the most important concerns how to treat semicoke and transfer the pyrolytic heat required for retorting oil shale. This will not only affect the yield and quality of shale oil, but also involves a series of serious issues related to energy and environment. Semicoke, one of the final products formed after retorting oil shale, is a potentially harmful solid waste often containing some toxic organic compounds and heavy metals, disposal of which can result in very great environmental contamination. However, the organic compounds remaining in semicoke lead to it having a potential heat of combustion, and thus semicoke may be considered for combustion utilization as a fuel. This paper reviews the fundamental characteristics and combustion utilization possibilities for semicoke that would allow treating and utilizing semicoke efficiently and in an environmentally friendly manner. Although properties of semicoke vary widely with both the retorting processes and their operational parameters, it generally contains significant amounts of inorganic minerals from the oil shale matrix, some organic compounds and lesser amounts of trace elements. Its leaching elutes have shown acceptable limit values at a landfill for non-hazardous waste and thus the leaching of heavy metals is not necessarily a problem. However the leaching of organic compounds may often exceed the limits for dissolved organic carbon. Thus, the incineration of semicoke will often be desirable both to ensure relatively low harm to the environment as well as efficient resource recycling for energy. Based on the current status and probable future development of oil shale industries, and the combustion characteristics of semicoke, two technical routes have been recommended for utilizing semicoke. These might also be regarded as references or benchmarks for evaluating the new development of oil shale retorting processes. One method involves an integrated utilization system for oil shale in which semicoke is actively treated and utilized in a circulating fluidized bed boiler for providing heat for both retorting the oil shale and for generating steam. The other option is to employ circulating fluidized bed technology to burn semicoke which has been previously produced and might still be a byproduct of some retorting technologies. With regard to both options, industrial circulating fluidized bed combustion results are discussed, in an effort to establish the feasibility of burning semicoke in a circulating fluidized bed boiler.
    Fuel 06/2014; 126:143–161. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    Jiaxun Liu, Xiumin Jiang, Jun Shen, Hai Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: EPR and NMR techniques were combined to study free radical characteristics of superfine pulverized coal. EPR spectra are the superpositions of 1 Gaussian and 3 Lorentzian lines. Coal maturities and particle sizes have significant influences on EPR parameters.Figure optionsDownload full-size imageDownload as PowerPoint slide
    Advanced Powder Technology 05/2014; · 1.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Oil shale samples from Huadian were retorted in a stainless-steel cylindrical retort under argon atmosphere to determine retorting temperature effect on the product yield and characteristics of shale oil and non-condensable gases produced. Increasing temperature from 430 °C to 520 °C improved both oil and gas yields, but reduced the oil/gas yield ratio. Raising temperature increased nitrogen content in the derived shale oil and decreased the atomic H/C ratio and oxygen content, but had no significant effect on the sulfur content. It was also noticed that the boiling point of shale oil generated at 490 °C was lowest, and the shale oils obtained at 430 °C and 460 °C showed similar boiling point distributions. The produced shale oils had similar atomic H/C ratio as well as higher light oil content compared to crude oils produced in China, and could be classified as sweet and high-nitrogen oil in terms of the classification method of crude oil. The oil derived at 490 °C contained the lowest amount of saturates and the highest amount of aromatics, asphaltenes and non-hydrocarbons. C1–C4 hydrocarbon gas contents rose with increasing temperature. Higher ethene/ethane, propene/propane, butene/butane and alkene/alkane ratios obtained at higher temperature were linked to secondary cracking reactions.
    Fuel Processing Technology 05/2014; 121:9–15. · 2.82 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To obtain a deep understanding of the pyrolysis mechanism of oil shale kerogen, critical organic intermediates were firstly prepared by heating Huadian oil shale up to the critical temperature point (∼350 °C), and then analyzed using Gas Chromatograph–Mass Spectrometer (GC–MS), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FT-IR), Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer (NMR) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), etc. According to the results, there are about 84.3 aliphatic carbons per 100 carbons in the critical organic intermediates, less than that in the kerogen matrix studied previously, showing that the aliphatic carbons will decrease during thermal decomposition from kerogen to the critical organic intermediates. This might be mainly attributed to the breakup of aliphatic carbon chains and the resulting hydrocarbon gas emissions. Meanwhile, aromatic carbon structures are well retained in the critical organic intermediates, resulting in an increase in the aromaticity. In addition, the distributions of some heteroatoms (O, N and S) present in the critical organic intermediates were discussed as well. These results will be important for both the exploration of pyrolysis mechanism of kerogen and the improvement of quality and yield of shale oil.
    Fuel 04/2014; 121:109–116. · 3.36 Impact Factor
  • Hai Zhang, Xiumin Jiang, Jiaxun Liu, Jun Shen
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    ABSTRACT: New insights into the heterogeneous reduction reaction between NO and char-bound nitrogen [char(N)] were obtained by a combination of density functional theory (DFT) and conventional transition state theory (TST). A detailed description of the nature of NO chemisorption is reported based on the HOMO and LUMO, Mulliken atomic charges, and spin densities. It is suggested that, during chemisorption, char(N) contributes electrons to NO. The seven most stable structures (I–VII) resulting from NO chemisorption were identified, and the exothermicity was found to increase in the order III < V < IV < VI < VII< II < I. This finding is reasonable considering the fact that the HOMO of char(N) is predominantly reflected in the active C(2) atom and the LUMO of NO is mainly concentrated on the N(8) atom. Three stepwise reactions leading to N2 formation have been characterized with low energetic penalty acceptable for occurring at the practical heterogeneous combustion temperature. The highest energy penalty was calculated to be 270.794 kJ/mol. A kinetic similarity over the temperature range of 850–1000 K between the rate-limiting step and char gasification was found (10–3–100 compared to 10–4–10–1 s–1, respectively). By comparison with previous experiments, the calculated results were validated, and on the basis of these results, the reburning of superfine bituminous coal is recommended.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research 04/2014; 53(15):6307–6315. · 2.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For exploring and optimizing the oil shale fluidized bed retort with fine oil-shale ash as a solid heat carrier, retorting experiments of oil shale and fine oil-shale ash mixtures were conducted in a lab-scale retorting reactor to investigate the effects of fine oil-shale ash on shale oil. Oil shale samples were obtained from Dachengzi Mine, China, and mixed with fine oil-shale ash in the ash/shale mass ratios of 0:1, 1:4, 1:2, 1:1, 2:1 and 4:1. The experimental retorting temperature was enhanced from room temperature to 520 °C and the average heating rate was 12 °C min−1. It was found that, with the increase of the oil-shale ash fraction, the shale oil yield first increased and then decreased obviously, whereas the gas yield appeared conversely. Shale oil was analyzed for the elemental analysis, presenting its atomic H/C ratio of 1.78–1.87. Further, extraction and simulated distillation of shale oil were also conducted to explore the quality of shale oil. As a result, the ash/shale mixing mass ratio of 1:2 was recommended only for the consideration of increasing the yield and quality of shale oil.
    Applied Energy 11/2013; 111:234–239. · 5.26 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The pyrolysis of two seaweed (Enteromorpha clathrata and Sargassum natans) was investigated for the production of bio-oil under different conditions. The constituents of seaweed bio-oils were greatly different from those of terrestrial biomass, especially in the presence of many nitrogen-containing compounds. Besides nitrogen-containing compounds, major components of seaweed bio-oil were hydrocarbon, ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, and phenolic compounds, as well as carboxylic acids and their derivatives. It was found from the comparison between two bio-oils that E. clathrata bio-oil had lots of hydrocarbons, carboxylic acids and their derivatives, however S. natans bio-oil contains many steroids and alcohols compounds. In addition, the oleic acid, palmitate, and peanut acid were also detected in S. natans bio-oil. Pyrolysis temperature played an important role on the distribution of seaweed bio-oil compositions, while the influence of the carrier gas was not obvious. The liquid derived from pyrolysis of protein contained more than 50% nitrogen-containing organic compounds, few phenolic compounds and aldehydes. It was concluded that the generations of hydrocarbon matters in seaweed bio-oil were associated with carbohydrates and lipids, and the nitrogen compounds were in accordance with protein.
    Energy Conversion and Management 04/2013; 68:273–280. · 3.59 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A demineralized Huadian oil shale sample, p-kerogen, is obtained through HCl&HF treatment. The XRD test for oil shale identifies the minerals in it. The catalytic effect of minerals in oil shale on the pyrolysis and combustion of kerogen is investigated through the TG–FTIR test to original oil shale and p-kerogen. The resultant effect of all minerals in oil shale promotes the decomposition and release of the organic matter in the sample during the pyrolysis. The promoting effect of minerals on the oxidation of kerogen expresses in two aspects: on the one hand, the catalytic effect of minerals makes more organic matter oxidized in the first oxidation stage; on the other hand, the presence of inorganic framework creates the additional porosity in oil shale after the first oxidation stage, which significantly decreases the resistance of oxygen diffusing into the inner of sample particles. Part of the pyrite in the sample will be converted into new organic sulfur compounds in the absence of other minerals while most of pyritic sulfurs are oxidized into SO2 directly and then deposited within sample particles in the presence of minerals during the combustion.
    Fuel 02/2013; 104:307–317. · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Combustion experiments of Shidongkou sewage sludge from China were carried out by using a small lab-scale fluidized bed, and the effects of moisture content and feed rate of sewage sludge and the transfer of heavy metals were analyzed. Studied sewage sludge with a moisture content of no more than 40% can stably burn in the fluidized bed without any auxiliary fuel input. Enhancing the bed temperature of the dense phase, strengthening the gas–solid mixing of dense phase, and increasing the feed rate of sludge are very necessary for the ignition of sludge with higher moisture content; however, higher feed rate will give rise to an increase of both the incomplete combustion heat loss and the physical absorbing heat amount of new sludge into the fluidized bed, reducing the bed temperature. Gaseous pollutants from the fluidized bed were discussed under different experimental conditions. At last, it was presented that heavy metals except Zn within sewage sludge are mostly concentrated in bottom ashes and bag filter ashes.
    Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research. 08/2012; 51(32):10565–10570.
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    ABSTRACT: A novel comprehensive utilization system of oil shale involving retort subsystem, combustion subsystem, electricity generation and ash processing subsystem is recommended for Huadian oil shale. To ensure the thermal balance and stable operation of the whole system, part of non-condensable gases from retort process, as auxiliary fuel, are introduced into a combustor connected before the CFB furnace. The system performance is simulated using ASPEN software tool in this paper. The influence of retorting temperature, residence time, temperature and pressure of the CFB furnace, content of oil shale for combustion, content of non-condensable gases for combustion on the system performance are discussed. In order to explore advantages of this system, a retort system and a combustion system are investigated. The results show that increasing retorting temperature, residence time, pressure of CFB furnace and content of non-condensable gases for combustion has positive significant effect on improving the total profit and the output energy efficient of the comprehensive utilization system. The solid heat carrier technology is more adaptable for this system. Compared with other utilization modes for oil shale, the comprehensive utilization system has higher utilization efficiency of oil shale resources, more diversified products, lower pollutants emission and higher total profit.
    Energy 06/2012; 42(1):224–232. · 4.16 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Superfine pulverized coal combustion is a new pulverized coal combustion technology that has better combustion stability, higher combustion efficiency, and comprehensive cost-effective operation. The novelty of this present paper is that fundamental experiments on an electrically heated drop-tube furnace were carried out to understand the NOx emissions of air-staging combustion for two superfine pulverized bituminous coals used in China for the first time. The results indicate that high-volatile-containing Neimenggu (NMG) coal possesses better effectiveness of NOx abatement than low-volatile-containing Shenhua (SH) coal. Interesting saddle-point effects of the highest NOx emissions have been found for both coals around the average particle size of 17.44 μm for SH coal and 30 μm for NMG coal. For different stoichiometric ratios and positions of over fire air (OFA) ports, NMG coal provides a higher ability of deNOx efficiency than SH coal. The superfine pulverized coal combustion of the NMG_25.86 μm particle can even reach the highest deNOx efficiency up to 70%. The findings of this paper will provide guidance for further studies on the NOx emission characteristics of superfine pulverized coal combustion.
    Energy & Fuels. 10/2011; 25(11).
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    ABSTRACT: A sample of kerogen isolated from Huadian oil shale was studied using a combination of solid-state 13C NMR, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques to evaluate its structural characteristics. 13C NMR results indicate that the carbon skeletal structure of this kerogen is mainly composed of a fairly high fraction of aliphatic carbon (86.1%), with a very low aromaticity (fa) of 9.7%; methylene (CH2) carbons dominate in all types of aliphatic carbons and the majority of them exist as many long straight chains but not saturated alicyclics. The average methylene carbon chain length (Cn) is between 12 and 24. There are only one fused aromatic ring (e.g., naphthalene) or two single aromatic rings (one benzene ring and one penta-heterocycle) per 100 carbon atoms. However, aromatic rings in this kerogen have a very high value of substitutive degree (δ = 0.42–0.75). Furthermore, XRD analysis suggests that most methylene straight chains and aromatic carbons can not form crystalline but amorphous structure and are linked to each other by various bridge bonds and methylene (CH2) chains. FT-IR, XPS, and 13C NMR results show that organic oxygen in the kerogen exists as mainly three types of oxygen functional groups. Both XPS and 13C NMR results agree on the same ordering of their respective contents: C–O and C–OH groups are dominant, followed by O═C–O, and C═O or O–C–O groups. The 13C NMR results further suggest that more oxygen of C–O and C–OH groups is bound to aromatic carbons. XPS shows that over half the total amount of organic nitrogen in Huadian kerogen exists as aromatic heterocycles, which concludes pyrrolic nitrogen richest in total organic nitrogen, pyridinic, and protonated-pyridinic forms. A relatively high content of amino nitrogen over 30 mol % also is present in this kerogen, which is much higher than that of other same type kerogens. Organic sulfur is distributed in this kerogen as aromatic and aliphatic sulfur, sulfone, and sulfoxide in the order of the relative mole fraction.
    Energy & Fuels 08/2011; 25(9). · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Surface nitrogen complex formation upon reaction of coal char with NO at 600°C was studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Particle size had a noticeable effect on the magnitude of changes, which was observed on the surface of the coal char in the nitrogen functional group. The surface increased its -NO, pyridine-N-oxide, and -NO2 functional group contents with a decrease in particle size. The chemisorption processes of NO molecules on the char were simulated using the ab initio Hartree-Fock method and density functional theory. Molecular modeling was applied to determine the thermodynamics of the reactions. Mechanisms were proposed to explain the formation of the -NO, pyridine-N-oxide, and -NO2 functional groups at 600°C. KeywordsNO reduction–chemisorption–particle size–X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy–density functional theory (DFT)
    06/2011; 5(2):221-228.
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    ABSTRACT: Superfine pulverized coal combustion is a new pulverized coal combustion technology that has better combustion stability, higher combustion efficiency, and lower NOx and SO2 emissions. In this paper, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) measurements were utilized to calculate the diffuse interfacial thickness of superfine pulverized coal and char particles. Porod’s law was applied to quantitatively analyze the SAXS curves with gray relational analysis (GRA) used for further investigation of the influencing factors on the thickness of the diffuse interfacial layer. Negative deviations from Porod’s law of SAXS curves were found for all the coal samples, indicating the existence of diffuse interfacial layers in the grains. When considered in conjunction with coal pyrolysis experiments and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy investigations, it is proposed that the interfacial layer is caused by the organic groups linked to the matrix of the coals. As the variation of interfacial thickness is so small, analysis of variance and multiple comparisons were applied to confirm the statistical significance. The effect of inorganic elements on the diffuse interfacial layer of coal particles was also studied using the demineralized samples. Final results indicate that the interfacial thickness of the superfine pulverized coal particles ranges from 0.23 to 0.66 nm and decreases with increasing coal quality and particle size. For the char particles, the interfacial thickness decreases with increasing pyrolysis temperature. Demineralized coal particles in the similar experiments show the same trends as the raw coals; however, the acid washing process increases the diffuse interfacial thickness. The findings from this work will help form the basis of, and provide guidance for, further studies on the chemical and combustion characteristics of superfine pulverized coal particles.
    Energy & Fuels. 01/2011; 25(2).
  • Jianguo Liu, Xiumin Jiang, Xiangxin Han
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    ABSTRACT: Devolatilization of oil sludge pellets was investigated in nitrogen and air atmosphere in a lab-scale bubbling fluidized bed (BFB). Devolatilization times were measured by the degree of completion of the evolution of the volatiles for individual oil sludge pellets in the 5-15 mm diameter range. The influences of pellet size, bed temperature and superficial fluidization velocity on devolatilization time were evaluated. The variation of devolatilization time with particle diameter was expressed by the correlation, τ(d) = Ad(p)(N). The devolatilization time to pellet diameter curve shows nearly a linear increase in nitrogen, whereas an exponential increase in air. No noticeable effect of superficial fluidization velocity on devolatilization time in air atmosphere was observed. The behavior of the sludge pellets in the BFB was also focused during combustion experiments, primary fragmentation (a micro-explosive combustion phenomenon) was observed for bigger pellets (>10mm) at high bed temperatures (>700 °C), which occurred towards the end of combustion and remarkably reduce the devolatilization time of the oil sludge pellet. The size analysis of bed materials and fly ash showed that entire ash particle was entrained or elutriated out of the BFB furnace due to the fragile structure of oil sludge ash particles.
    Journal of hazardous materials 01/2011; 185(2-3):1205-13. · 4.33 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The devolatilization of solid fuels will cause remarkable changes to the pore structures of the resulting char particles, which has a significant influence on successive reactions, such as the combustion of the char particles and the formation of ash. In the present work, the pore structures of shale chars prepared under different retorting conditions were measured by employing a N2 adsorption−desorption method. On the basis of the measured results and thermal degradation mechanisms of the kerogen within oil shale, the effects of four retorting parameters on the pore structures of shale char were discussed. An elevating retorting temperature will notably increase the pore volume and specific surface area in shale char. However, at the higher retorting temperatures, the cracking and carbonization of residual organic matter within shale char become more intensive. Subsequently, the pores are easily blocked (especially small pores), and the specific surface area of the char particles decreases slightly. In terms of the residence time of retorting at a low temperature of 430 °C, sufficient residence time is required for forming more extensive porosity within shale char particles. The particle size and low heating rate were found to have little effect on the surface area and pore volume of shale char.
    Energy & Fuels. 12/2010; 25(1).
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    ABSTRACT: Super fine pulverized coal combustion is a new pulverized coal combustion technology which has better stability, higher combustion efficiency and lower NOx and SO2 emission than that using conventional particle sizes. In this paper we applied fractal analysis based on power spectral density (PSD) and slit island method (SIM), three-dimensional (3D) surface roughness measurement and surface-topography observations from AFM to form a proper investigative tool which may give a relatively full picture of surface morphology of super fine pulverized coal particles for the first time. The final results indicate that both fractal dimensions calculated by SIM and PSD and roughness of coal particle size increase with the increase of the coal particle size. Besides, the grey relational analysis was used to study the degree of relative importance of the influential factors about the microroughness of coal particle surfaces. The results show that the influence of the coal particle size is the greatest compared with the coal qualities and fractal dimensions.This work provides some reference for a relatively full picture of surface morphology of super fine pulverized coal particles. The findings from this work will be helpful to form the basis and provide guidance for further studies on the chemical and combustion characteristics of super fine pulverized coal particles.
    Fuel 12/2010; · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The effects of particle size, stoichiometric ratio (λ), atmosphere, temperature, and recycled NO on the emissions of three fractional nitrogens, [N]N2O, [N]NO, and [N]NO2, during the combustion of superfine pulverized coal in O2/CO2 atmosphere were investigated in the present study. NO2 has shown little contribution to NOx compared with N2O and NO in all the cases. As the stoichiometric ratio increases, the trend is much similar in CO2/O2 and N2/O2. However, the conversion ratio from fuel-N to NOx in CO2/O2 atmosphere is less than that in N2/O2 atmosphere especially at λ > 1.2. [N]NO makes up the largest portion of [N]NOx at λ > 1, and [N]N2O dominates at λ < 1 resulting from the presence of hydrocarbons and CO at low stoichiometric ratio. For the three coals, [N]N2O increases as the mean particle size increases while [N]NO shows the opposite trend because the evolution of volatile nitrogen was delayed and the reburning-like scheme happened. There exists a minimum for the conversion ratio from fuel-N to NOx at the particle size range of 15−25 μm under the combined effects of [N]N2O and [N]NO. As temperature goes up, [N]NO and the conversion ratio from fuel-N to NOx increase while the [N]N2O decreases obviously. The conversion ratio from fuel-N to NOx decreases while the reduction rate increases as recycled NO increases. Recycled NO is destroyed in the flame through its reactions with hydrocarbon radicals in the form of CHi, and reduction reactions occur between recycled NOx and fuel-N. The increase in NO concentration accelerates the formation reactions of N2O and also promotes the conversion of char-N to N2O.
    Energy & Fuels 11/2010; 24(12). · 2.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The anisotropy of mass transfer for oxygen in the ash layer of Dachengzi shale char particles has been studied by burning the cubic shale char particles with different open surfaces in a TG209F1 thermogravimetric analyzer according to the modified one-dimensional combustion model. The combustions of the cubic shale char particles undergo three stages, and the mass-transfer resistance gradually increases. The burn-out of the cubic char particle at 900 °C needs less time than that at 750 °C for the same mass-transfer direction. In addition, the burn-out time of the cubic char particle for the combustion along the direction perpendicular to the bedding planes is much more than that along the direction parallel to the bedding planes under the same burning temperature. The impact of the mass-transfer direction on the combustion rate is much greater than that of the burning temperature, and increasing the air flow rate is considered to be an effective way to accelerate the combustion rate of the whole char particle. The average ash layer effective diffusivity of shale char is 0.80 × 10−5 m2 s−1 (900 °C) and 0.43 × 10−5 m2 s−1 (750 °C), respectively, along the direction perpendicular to the bedding planes, while it is 6.55 × 10−5 m2 s−1 (900 °C) and 5.90 × 10−5 m2 s−1 (750 °C), respectively, along the direction parallel to the bedding planes. The severe anisotropy of mass transfer for oxygen in the ash layer of the shale char particle is confirmed through the analysis of the experimental results.
    Energy & Fuels 05/2010; 24(6). · 2.85 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

90 Citations
95.08 Total Impact Points


  • 2006–2014
    • Shanghai Jiao Tong University
      • • Institute of Thermal Energy Engineering
      • • School of Mechanical Engineering
      Shanghai, Shanghai Shi, China
  • 2010
    • Harbin Institute of Technology
      • School of Energy Science and Engineering
      Charbin, Heilongjiang Sheng, China