[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical characteristics of acute hepatitis A during a recent outbreak in Korea. Data of patients diagnosed with acute hepatitis A from 2007 to 2009 were collected from 21 tertiary hospitals retrospectively. Their demographic, clinical, and serological characteristics and their clinical outcomes were analyzed. A total of 4,218 patients (mean age 33.3 yr) were included. The median duration of admission was 9 days. The mean of the highest ALT level was 2,963 IU/L, total bilirubin was 7.3 mg/dL, prothrombin time INR was 1.3. HBsAg was positive in 3.7%, and anti-HCV positive in 0.7%. Renal insufficiency occurred in 2.7%, hepatic failure in 0.9%, relapsing hepatitis in 0.7%, and cholestatic hepatitis in 1.9% of the patients. Nineteen patients (0.45%) died or were transplanted. Complications of renal failure or prolonged cholestasis were more frequent in patients older than 30 yr. In conclusion, most patients with acute hepatitis A recover uneventfully, however, complication rates are higher in patients older than 30 yr than younger patients. Preventive strategies including universal vaccination in infants and active immunization of hepatitis A to adult population should be considered for prevention of community-wide outbreaks of hepatitis A in Korea.
Journal of Korean medical science 02/2014; 29(2):248-53. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To evaluate the prognostic influence of adenocarcinoma (AC) and adenosquamous carcinoma (ASC) in patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer who received radical hysterectomy followed by adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CCRT).
We analyzed 1323 patients who satisfied the following criteria: histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), AC, or ASC of the uterine cervix; FIGO stage IB-IIA disease; no history of neoadjuvant chemotherapy; and a history of radical hysterectomy with pelvic lymph node (PLN) dissection, followed by postoperative pelvic RT at a dose≥45Gy. The median age was 50years. Median RT dose delivered to the whole pelvis was 50.4Gy, and 219 (16.6%) patients received brachytherapy at a median dose of 24Gy. Concurrent chemotherapy was delivered to 492 (37.2%) patients.
Pathologic risk factors were not different according to pathologic subtype. The median follow-up duration was 75.7months. Locoregional recurrence-free survival, relapse-free survival (RFS), and overall survival were significantly affected by histology, tumor size, PLN metastasis, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and deep stromal invasion. The 5-year RFS rates were 83.7%, 66.5%, and 79.6% in patients with SCC, AC, and ASC histology, respectively (P <0.0001). By multivariate analysis, AC histology was the only significant prognostic factor affecting all survival outcomes.
AC histology was associated with poor survival outcomes in patients with FIGO stage IB-IIA cervical cancer who received adjuvant RT or CCRT. Prognosis of ASC histology was closer to that of SCC histology than that of AC histology.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To assess the clinical efficacy and toxicity of whole pelvic intensity-modulated radiotherapy (WP-IMRT) for high-risk prostate cancer.
Patients with high-risk prostate cancer treated between 2008 and 2013 were reviewed. The study included patients who had undergone WP-IMRT with image guidance using electronic portal imaging devices and/or cone-beam computed tomography. The endorectal balloon was used in 93% of patients. Patients received either 46 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 76 Gy to the prostate in 2 Gy daily fractions, or 44 Gy to the whole pelvis plus a boost of up to 72.6 Gy to the prostate in 2.2 Gy fractions.
The study cohort included 70 patients, of whom 55 (78%) had a Gleason score of 8 to 10 and 50 (71%) had a prostate-specific antigen level > 20 ng/mL. The androgen deprivation therapy was combined in 62 patients. The biochemical failure-free survival rate was 86.7% at 2 years. Acute any grade gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity rates were 47% and 73%, respectively. The actuarial rate of late grade 2 or worse toxicity at 2 years was 12.9% for GI, and 5.7% for GU with no late grade 4 toxicity.
WP-IMRT was well tolerated with no severe acute or late toxicities, resulting in at least similar biochemical control to that of the historic control group with a small field. The long-term efficacy and toxicity will be assessed in the future, and a prospective randomized trial is needed to verify these findings.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: A nomogram is a predictive statistical model that generates the continuous probability of a clinical event such as death or recurrence. The aim of the study was to construct a nomogram to predict 5-year overall survival after postoperative radiation therapy for stage IB to IIA cervical cancer.
The clinical data from 1702 patients with early-stage cervical cancer, treated at 10 participating hospitals from 1990 to 2011, were reviewed to develop a prediction nomogram based on the Cox proportional hazards model. Demographic, clinical, and pathologic variables were included and analyzed to formulate the nomogram. The discrimination and calibration power of the model was measured using a concordance index (c-index) and calibration curve.
The median follow-up period for surviving patients was 75.6 months, and the 5-year overall survival probability was 87.1%. The final model was constructed using the following variables: age, number of positive pelvic lymph nodes, parametrial invasion, lymphovascular invasion, and the use of concurrent chemotherapy. The nomogram predicted the 5-year overall survival with a c-index of 0.69, which was superior to the predictive power of the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) staging system (c-index of 0.54).
A survival-predicting nomogram that offers an accurate level of prediction and discrimination was developed based on a large multi-center study. The model may be more useful than the FIGO staging system for counseling individual patients regarding prognosis.
International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics 11/2013; 87(4):659-64. · 4.59 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We investigated the effects of sorafenib monotherapy on advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal vein tumor thrombosis (PVTT) in a clinical setting.
In total, 143 consecutive patients with unresectable HCC were treated with sorafenib. Among these patients, 30 patients with advanced HCC and PVTT (Vp3 or 4) were treated with sorafenib monotherapy.
All patients had a performance status of 1 to 2 (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 1/2, 20/10) and Child-Pugh class A or B (A/B, 17/13). Eleven patients had modified Union for International Cancer Control stage IVA tumors, whereas 19 had stage IVB tumors. All patients had PVTT (Vp3, 6; Vp4, 24). Following sorafenib monotherapy, three patients (10.0%) had a partial response with PVTT revascularization, and nine (30.0%) had stable disease, with a disease control rate of 33.3%. The median overall survival was 3.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.70 to 3.50), and the median progression-free survival was 2.0 months (95% CI, 1.96 to 2.05). Fatigue and hand-foot skin reactions were the most troublesome side effects.
A limited proportion of patients with advanced HCC and PVTT exhibited a remarkable outcome after sorafenib monotherapy, although the treatment results in this type of patient is extremely poor. Further studies to predict good responders to personalized therapy are warranted.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The relationship between portal hemodynamics and fundal varices has not been well documented. The purpose of this study was to understand the pathophysiology of fundal varices and to investigate bleeding risk factors related to the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts, and to examine the hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG) between fundal varices and other varices.
In total, 85 patients with cirrhosis who underwent HVPG and gastroscopic examination between July 2009 and March 2011 were included in this study. The interrelationship between HVPG and the types of varices or the presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts was studied.
There was no significant difference in the HVPG between fundal varices (n=12) and esophageal varices and gastroesophageal varices type 1 (GOV1) groups (n=73) (17.1±7.7 mm Hg vs 19.7±5.3 mm Hg). Additionally, there was no significant difference in the HVPG between varices with spontaneous portosystemic shunts (n=28) and varices without these shunts (n=57) (18.3±5.8 mm Hg vs 17.0±8.1 mm Hg). Spontaneous portosystemic shunts increased in fundal varices compared with esophageal varices and GOV1 (8/12 patients [66.7%] vs 20/73 patients [27.4%]; p=0.016).
Fundal varices had a high prevalence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts compared with other varices. However, the portal pressure in fundal varices was not different from the pressure in esophageal varices and GOV1.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to radiotherapy and are responsible for tumor recurrence of various malignant tumors, including prostate cancer.
In order to define the radioresistance mechanism of prostate CSCs, their proliferative activity, cell cycle distribution, expression of CD133 stem cell marker, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and DNA repair efficiency were examined using prostatospheres and adherent LNCaP cells as a model of prostate CSC and bulk model of differentiated cells, respectively.
Compared to adherent cells, prostatospheres exhibited greater number of low-to-intermediate ROS-producing cells and CD133-positive cells. Prostatospheres showed higher expression of DNA repair proteins after ionizing radiation (IR).
Low vulnerability to ROS-induced cellular damage and the efficient repair of IR-induced DNA injury may explain the radioresistance of prostate CSCs. Therefore, increasing ROS-induced cytotoxicity and inhibition of DNA repair in prostate CSCs may help achieve complete eradication of prostate CSCs by radiotherapy.
Anticancer research 10/2013; 33(10):4469-4474. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective Management of unrecognized recurrent laryngeal nerve injury typically entails delayed phonosurgical intervention and laryngeal reinnervation while; on the other hand, in case of recognized injury, nerve anastomosis has been considered standard management. However, well organized outcome analysis of nerve anastomosis has been insufficient. We performed immediate direct anastomosis of recurrent laryngeal nerves injured during surgery for thyroid cancer, and subsequent patient outcomes were analyzed. Study Design A total 14 patients sustaining recurrent laryngeal nerve injury during thyroidectomy were recruited for the study. Patients undergoing immediate direct reparative anastomosis of the injured nerves constituted the test group, whereas the controls of group 2 (n=4) did not. Methods As follow up, all patients submitted to rigid laryngoscopy at 3, 6, and 12 months postoperatively. Subjective and objective outcomes of the two groups were then compared. Results At 12 months postoperatively, the group 1 showed greater improvement in maximum phonation time, glottic gap scores, GRBAS (grade, roughness, breathiness, asthenia, and strain) scales, aspiration scoring, and voice handicap index than controls of group 2. Moreover, group 1 showed an improvement in all five categories at 12 months postoperatively, compared with status at 3 months. None of the patients in group 1 showed laryngoscopic evidence of vocal cord atrophy. Conclusion In this study, patients undergoing immediate direct recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis demonstrated better phonation and perceptually rated voice quality than those who did not undergo repair.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The most appropriate treatment for acute gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) is currently endoscopic gastric variceal obturation (GVO) using Histoacryl®. However, the secondary prophylactic efficacy of beta-blocker (BB) after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB has not yet been established. The secondary prophylactic efficacy of BB after GVO for the first acute episode of GVB was evaluated in this study.
Ninety-three patients at Soonchunhyang University Hospital with acute GVB who received GVO using Histoacryl® were enrolled between June 2001 and March 2010. Among these, 42 patients underwent GVO alone (GVO group) and 51 patients underwent GVO with adjuvant BB therapy (GVO+BB group). This study was intended for patients in whom a desired heart rate was reached. The rates of rebleeding-free survival and overall survival were calculated for the two study groups using Kaplan-Meyer analysis and Cox's proportional-hazards model.
The follow-up period after the initial eradication of gastric varices was 18.14±25.22 months (mean±SD). During the follow-up period, rebleeding occurred in 10 (23.8%) and 21 (41.2%) GVO and GVO+BB patients, respectively, and 39 patients died [23 (54.8%) in the GVO group and 16 (31.4%) in the GVO+BB group]. The mean rebleeding-free survival time did not differ significantly between the GVO and GVO+BB groups (65.40 and 37.40 months, respectively; P=0.774), whereas the mean overall survival time did differ (52.54 and 72.65 months, respectively; P=0.036).
Adjuvant BB therapy after GVO using Histoacryl® for the first acute episode of GVB could decrease the mortality rate relative to GVO alone. However, adjuvant BB therapy afforded no benefit for the secondary prevention of rebleeding in GV.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 09/2013; 19(3):280-7.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Capsular contracture is one of the most common complications resulting from implants placed during mammoplasty and rhinoplasty, and there is no definitive solution or a method for preventing it. Recent reports suggest that botulinum toxin A (BoTA) is effective at reducing keloid scars clinically. Peri-implant capsules are histologically similar to keloid scars and hypertrophic scars. Therefore, we hypothesized that BoTA may reduce peri-implant capsule formation.To test our hypothesis, we divided 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats into an experiment group and a control group. We created two 15 × 15-mm subpanniculus pockets in each rat. Botulinum toxin A (0.5 mL; 5 U) was injected into the carnosa layer of the experimental group's pockets and 0.5 mL normal saline was similarly injected in the control group. Hemispherical silicone implants, 15 mm in diameter, were inserted into the pockets. After 6 weeks, the peri-implant capsule was excised and examined by histologic evaluation, immunohistochemical stain, scanning electron microscope, and real-time polymerase chain reaction.Capsular thickness, number of inflammatory cells, number of vessels, and transforming growth factor β1 expression were reduced in the experimental group compared to the control group (P < 0.01). The experimental group's collagen pattern was loose and well organized. The total myofibroblast content was lower in the experimental group than in the control group; however, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.32). Additionally, the experimental group had a smaller fibrosis index than the control group (P < 0.05).Our results suggest that BoTA may provide an alternative treatment for reducing capsule formation and preventing contracture, and further studies may reveal the mechanism of action.
Annals of plastic surgery 07/2013; · 1.29 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background: The genotypic shift of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and its correlation with clinical course has not been evaluated in acute hepatitis A (AHA). Methods: From June 2007 to May 2009, we prospectively enrolled 546 AHA patients. We performed a nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the serum samples in addition to phylogenetic analysis, then we compared patient clinical features. Results: Among 351 successfully genotyped patients, we found genotype IIIA in 178 patients (51%) and IA in 173 patients (49%). The sequences of genotype IA are identical to previously reported Korean genotype IA, and the new IIIA genotype is closely related to NOR24/Norway. We retrospectively analyzed 41 AHA samples collected from 2000 to 2006 and found that all of them were genotype IA. Patients with genotype IIIA showed significantly higher levels of aspartate aminotransferase, higher levels of alanine aminotransferase, and lower platelet counts than patients with genotype IA when comparing baseline laboratory data or peak/lowest laboratory data during the disease course. However, there were no differences in duration of hospital stay, incidence of cholestatic hepatitis, acute kidney injury, and acute liver failure, or mortality between them. Conclusions: A genotypic shift of the HAV was identified in Korean AHA subjects, and genotype IIIA HAV has become endemic. Although there were significant differences in the biochemical responses of AHA between genotype IA and genotype IIIA patients, we did not detect any differences in clinical outcomes such as complications or mortality.
Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases 07/2013; · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were (1) to identify the useful clinical parameters of noninvasive approach for distinguishing nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and (2) to determine whether the levels of the identified parameters are correlated with the severity of liver injury in patients with NASH.
One hundred and eight consecutive patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD (age, 39.8±13.5 years, mean±SD; males, 67.6%) were prospectively enrolled from 10 participating centers across Korea.
According to the original criteria for NAFLD subtypes, 67 patients (62.0%) had NASH (defined as steatosis with hepatocellular ballooning and/or Mallory-Denk bodies or fibrosis ≥2). Among those with NAFLD subtype 3 or 4, none had an NAFLD histologic activity score (NAS) below 3 points, 40.3% had a score of 3 or 4 points, and 59.7% had a score >4 points. Fragmented cytokeratin-18 (CK-18) levels were positively correlated with NAS (r=0.401), as well as NAS components such as lobular inflammation (r=0.387) and ballooning (r=0.231). Fragmented CK-18 was also correlated with aspartate aminotransferase (r=0.609), alanine aminotransferase (r=0.588), serum ferritin (r=0.432), and the fibrosis stage (r=0.314). A fragmented CK-18 cutoff level of 235.5 U/L yielded sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 69.0%, 64.9%, 75.5% (95% CI 62.4-85.1), and 57.1% (95% CI 42.2-70.9), respectively, for the diagnosis of NASH.
Serum fragmented CK-18 levels can be used to distinguish between NASH and NAFL. Further evaluation is required to determine whether the combined measurement of serum CK-18 and ferritin levels improves the diagnostic performance of this distinction.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2013; 19(2):120-30.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Several noninvasive methods have recently been developed for the evaluation of liver fibrosis. The accuracy of transient elastography (TE), acoustic-radiation-force impulse (ARFI) elastography, and real-time elastography (RTE) in predicting liver fibrosis were evaluated.
Seventy-four patients who had undergone a liver biopsy within the previous 6 months were submitted to evaluation with TE, ARFI, and RTE on the same day.
THERE WERE SIGNIFICANT CORRELATIONS BETWEEN FIBROSIS STAGE AND LIVER STIFFNESS MEASUREMENT (LSM) USING THE THREE TESTED METHODS: TE, r(2)=0.272, P=0.0002; ARFI, r(2)=0.225, P=0.0017; and RTE, r(2)=0.228, P=0.0015. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) for the diagnosis of significant fibrosis (≥F2, Metavir stage) by TE, ARFI, RTE, TE/platelet count (PLT), velocity of shear wave (Vs)/PLT, and elasticity score (Es)/PLT were 0.727, 0.715, 0.507, 0.876, 0.874, and 0.811, respectively. The AUROC for the diagnosis of cirrhosis by TE, ARFI, RTE, TE/PLT, Vs/PLT, and Es/PLT were 0.786, 0.807, 0.767, 0.836, 0.819, and 0.838, respectively. Comparisons of AUROC between all LSMs for predicting significant fibrosis (≥F2) produced the following results: TE vs. RTE, P=0.0069; ARFI vs. RTE, P=0.0277; and TE vs. ARFI, P=0.8836. Applying PLT, the ability of each LSM to predict fibrosis stage significantly increased: TE/PLT vs. TE, P=0.0004; Vs/PLT vs. ARFI, P=0.0022; and Es/PLT vs. RTE, P<0.0001. However, the ability to predict cirrhosis was not enhanced, combining LSM and PLT.
TE and ARFI may be better methods for predicting significant liver fibrosis than RTE. This predictive ability increased significantly when accounting for platelet count. However, all of the measures had comparable efficacies for predicting cirrhosis.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 06/2013; 19(2):156-64.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with acute hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection in the Korean population. Participants were recruited from five referral hospitals across the country in 2007 and from 11 hospitals in 2009. Patients with positive anti-HAV IgM antibody tests became the case group, while patients treated for non-contagious diseases at the same hospitals were recruited as controls. A total of 222 and 548 case-control pairs were studied in the 2007 and 2009 surveys, respectively. Data from the surveys were analyzed jointly. In a multivariate analysis, sharing the household with HAV-infected family members (OR, 6.32; 95% CI, 1.4-29.6), contact with other HAV-infected individuals (OR, 4.73; 95% CI, 2.4-9.4), overseas travel in 2007 (OR, 19.93; 95% CI, 2.3-174.4), consumption of raw shellfish (OR, 2.51; 95% CI, 1.8-3.5), drinking bottled water (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4), and occupation that involve handling food (OR, 3.30; 95% CI, 1.3-8.4) increased the risk of HAV infection. Avoiding contact with HAV-infected individuals and avoiding raw foods eating could help minimize the risk of hepatitis A infection. Immunization must be beneficial to individuals who handle food ingredients occupationally or travel overseas to HAV-endemic areas.
Journal of Korean medical science 06/2013; 28(6):908-14. · 0.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Two recent Italian studies suggested that Pegylated-interferon (PEG-IFN) alfa-2a achieves a higher sustained virological response (SVR) rate than PEG-IFN alfa-2b. We intended to compare the efficacy and safety of PEG-IFN alfa-2a with those of PEG-IFN alfa-2b in Korean patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS: This retrospective, multi-center trial was conducted on 661 treatment-naive chronic HCV patients. Patients received PEG-IFN alfa-2a (180mug/week; n=402) or PEG-IFN alfa-2b (1.5mug/kg/week; n=259) with ribavirin (800--1200 mg/day) for 24 or 48 weeks according to HCV genotypes. RESULTS: Early virologic response and sustained virologic response (SVR) rates were not significantly different between two PEG-IFN groups both in patients with HCV genotype 1 (all P-values>0.05) and 2/3 (all P-values>0.05). SVR rates were not different between two groups in each categorized baseline characteristics: age (years) (<=50 and >50), HCV viral load (IU/mL) (<=7x105 and >7x105), and hepatic fibrosis (F0-2 and F3-4) (all P-values >0.05). In additional analysis for 480 patients who sufficiently complied with treatment doses and duration (80/80/80 rule) and propensity-score matched analysis, SVR rates were not different between two groups both in patients with HCV genotype 1 and 2/3 (all P-values >0.05). Adverse event rates were similar between two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Unlike the Western data, efficacy and safety of PEG-IFN alfa-2a were similar to those of PEG-IFN alfa-2b in chronically HCV-infected Korean patients regardless of age, HCV viral load, and hepatic fibrosis.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: To evaluate the utility of the preoperative PET-CT using deformable image registration (DIR) in the treatment of patients with locally advanced breast cancer and to find appropriate radiotherapy technique for further adequate treatment of axillary nodal area. METHODS: Sixty-five breast cancer patients who had level II, III axillary or supraclavicular lymph node metastasis on 18F-FDG PET-CT and received postoperative radiotherapy after modified radical mastectomy were enrolled. One radiation oncologist contoured normal organs (axillary vessels, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head) and involved lymph nodes on PET-CT and simulation CT slices. After contouring, deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was carried out. To evaluate the performance of the DIR, Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) and Center of mass (COM) were used. We created two plans, one was the historically designed three field plan and the other was the modified plan based on the location of axillary lymph node, and we compared the doses that irradiated the axillary lymph nodes. RESULTS: The DSCs for axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head were 0.43 +/- 0.15, 0.39 +/- 0.20, 0.85 +/- 0.10, 0.72 +/- 0.20 and 0.77 +/- 0.20, respectively. The distances between the COMs of axillary artery, axillary vein, clavicular head, coracoids process and humeral head in simulation CT and from PET-CT were 13.0 +/-7.1, 20.2 +/- 11.2, 4.4 +/- 6.3, 3.7 +/- 6.7, and 9.5 +/- 25.0mm, respectively. In the historically designed plan, only 57.7% of level II lymph nodes received more than 95% of prescribed dose and the coverage was improved to 70.0% with the modified plan (p < 0.01). For level III lymph nodes, the volumes received more than 95% of prescribed dose were similar in both the plans (96.8 % vs 97.9%, p = 0.35). CONCLUSION: Deformable image registration of PET-CT on simulation CT was helpful in the identification of the location of the preoperatively involved axillary lymph node. Historically designed three-field plan was not adequate to treat the axillary level II lymph node area. Novel treatment technique based on the location of axillary lymph node from PET-CT using DIR can result in more adequate coverage of nodal area.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The distribution of hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes varies geographically. In Korea, genotypes 1 and 2 comprise more than 90% of HCV infections, while genotype 6 is very rare. This study compared the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with genotype 6 HCV infection with those infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 2.
This was a prospective, multicenter HCV cohort study that enrolled 1,173 adult patients, of which 930 underwent HCV genotype analysis, and only 9 (1.0%) were found to be infected with genotype 6 HCV. The clinical and epidemiological parameters of the genotypes were compared.
The patients with genotype 6 HCV had a mean age of 41.5 years, 77.8% were male, and they had no distinct laboratory features. A sustained virologic response (SVR) was observed in four (67%) of six patients who received antiviral therapy. Risk factors such as the presence of a tattoo (n=6, 66.7%), more than three sexual partners (n=3, 33.3%), and injection drug use (n=3, 33.3%) were more common among genotype 6 patients than among genotypes 1 or 2.
The epidemiology and treatment response of patients infected with genotype 6 HCV differed significantly from those with genotypes 1 or 2, warranting continuous monitoring.
Clinical and molecular hepatology. 03/2013; 19(1):45-50.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aim: To compare surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (PORT) with the non-surgical combination of chemotherapy and radiation therapy (CCRT) for locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tonsil by measuring treatment outcomes and treatment-related complications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The records of 114 patients with non-metastatic stage III/IV tonsillar SCC treated between July, 1998 and December, 2010 were reviewed retrospectively. Among the 114 patients, 65 received PORT and 49 received CCRT. In the PORT group, treatment included wide surgical resection of the tumor with neck dissection and administration of PORT to the primary tumor bed with a median dose of 60 Gy. In the CCRT group, a median dose of 70 Gy was delivered to the gross tumor, and 46 patients received concurrent chemotherapy with i.v. cisplatin. The median follow-up time was 58 months in the PORT group and 44 months in the CCRT group. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between PORT and CCRT in terms of 5-year locoregional recurrence-free survival (88.4% vs. 91.4%, p=0.68), distant metastasis-free survival (88.9% vs. 92.3%, p=0.60), disease-free survival (79.5% vs. 84.2%, p=0.63) or overall survival (78.9% vs. 88.9%, p=0.45). More CCRT patients than PORT patients experienced grade 3 (or higher) hematological toxicities and grade 2 pharyngitis during treatment. Chronic toxicity, manifested as swallowing difficulty, dry mouth and trismus, was similar between the two treatment groups. CONCLUSION: CCRT provides similar levels of local and distant control in patients with locally advanced tonsillar SCC as PORT, yet fails to show any superiority in preserving functions such as swallowing, saliva production, and mastication.
Anticancer research 03/2013; 33(3):1237-1243. · 1.71 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: BACKGROUNDAIMS: Genotype C is the principal type of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in Koreans and is associated with poor prognosis for peginterferon α-2a therapy. The efficacy of and compliance to peginterferon α-2a therapy were investigated in Koreans with hepatitis B in a real clinical setting.
Hepatitis B patients treated with peginterferon α-2a from 2008 to 2011 at four university hospitals were consecutively enrolled.
Eighty-eight patients were enrolled; 67 were hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive. The mean treatment period was 36.1±15.2 weeks. In 26.1% of patients, treatment was discontinued due to insufficient antiviral effects and adverse events. At 24 weeks after treatment, 10/42 (23.8%) HBeAg-positive patients achieved both HBV DNA suppression to <2,000 IU/mL and HBeAg loss/seroconversion. For HBeAg-negative patients, 10/13 (76.9%) achieved HBV DNA suppression to <2,000 IU/mL at 24 weeks after treatment. During the follow-up period, 15 (30.6%) of the 49 patients who achieved HBV DNA suppression to 2,000 IU/mL developed a breakthrough HBV DNA level of >2×10(6) IU/mL.
Peginterferon α-2a therapy in Koreans with hepatitis B in a real clinical setting resulted in a lower virologic response, as compared to Western individuals, but a favorable durability. There is a need to reduce the high rate of premature discontinuation compared to the controlled studies.
Gut and liver 03/2013; 7(2):197-205. · 1.31 Impact Factor