[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The influence of spent catalyst from catalytic cracking in fluidized bed (FCC) on the hydration of two kinds of calcium aluminate
cements (of about 40 and 70% content of alumina) was studied. Cement pastes were prepared with constant ratio of water/binder = 0.5
and with content of 0, 5 and 25% mass of addition as replacement of cement. The samples were stored at room temperature. Thermal
analysis (TG, DTG), infrared absorption (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction methods were applied to investigate changes in various
periods of hydration (up to 150 days). The compressive strength of cement mortars was also examined. On the basis of presented
results it was affirmed that in studied conditions spent FCC catalyst is a reactive addition in calcium aluminate cement (CAC)
pastes, which probably can create a new phase type C–A–S–H. It may be an interesting alternative for limitation of the negative
phenomenon of conversion of aluminate hydrates, although the degree of the influence of the mineral additive depends on the
composition of CAC and of the quantity of the used waste.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2011; 105(1):129-140. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of this work is to compare the influence of addition of waste aluminosilicate catalyst on the initial periods of hydration
of different cements, i.e. calcium aluminate cements of different composition and Portland cement, basing on the calorimetric
studies. Cement pastes containing up to 25 mass% of additive were studied, where the water/(cement+additive) ratio was 0.5.
An attempt was undertaken to explain the mechanism of action of introduced aluminosilicate in the system of hydrating cement,
particularly in the case of calcium aluminate cement pastes.
It was found that the presence of fine-grained additive caused in all studied cases the increase of the amount of released
heat in the first period after the addition of water. In the case of aluminate cements with aluminosilicate addition, a significant
reduction of induction time and faster precipitation of hydration products were observed compared to the reference sample
(without additive). In the experimental conditions, the additive caused the acceleration of aluminate cements hydration, and
the mechanism of its action is probably complex and can encompass: nucleative action of small grains and formation of new
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2009; 97(1):61-66. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In this work, the pozzolanic and hydraulic properties of ashes originating from various sources were studied in model systems
such as ash and ash-lime pastes. The sources of studied ashes were: fluidized combustion of brown coal, pulverized combustion
of brown coal and pulverized combustion of hard coal. This article is a continuation of our previously published studies on
cement pastes with mentioned ashes.
The following experimental techniques were applied: calorimetry, thermal analysis (TG, DTG) and infrared absorption (IR).
Previously drawn conclusions relating to the reactivity of ashes in an environment containing Ca2+ ions were confirmed. According to these conclusions, an ash originating from fluidized combustion of coal exhibited higher
reactivity compared to other ashes from pulverized combustion. Pozzolanic and hydraulic properties of this ash were also confirmed.
Differences in the behaviour of ashes originating from pulverized combustion of various types of coal in the presence of water
and Ca2+ rich environment were demonstrated.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 10/2008; 94(2):469-476. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was a preliminary evaluation of mineral-carbon sorbents preparation possibility by the method of
thermal decomposition of a mixture of aluminium oxide or hydroxide and acenaphthene and determination of their physicochemical
properties. The conditions of carbonization were established and the changes of physicochemical properties of obtained materials
as a function of organic substance content in the mineral-carbon mixture before the process of carbonization were tracked.
In these investigations the methods of thermal analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and benzene vapors adsorption
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2008; 93(3):763-767. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The paper describes an attempt of chemical activation of fly ash and claims the usefulness of combination of such investigation
methods as calorimetry and infrared absorption for investigations of early periods of cement hydration. The research samples
were cement pastes made with an addition of fly ash and admixtures of chemical activators, CaCl2, Na2SO4 and NaOH, whereas a cement paste without fly ash addition and a cement-fly ash paste (both without admixtures) were used
as reference samples. In order to investigate early periods of cement pastes hydration, the amount and rate of heat release
were registered, and IR spectrums were checked at appointed hydration moments.
As a result, it was shown that the combination of calorimetric and IR absorption methods in the investigations of early periods
of cement hydration was useful. It was confirmed that the use of chemical activators CaCl2, Na2SO4 and NaOH accelerated the hydration of cement pastes containing fly ash additive in early hours after adding water. The action
of activators on hydrating cement system is different for each of investigated compounds.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2008; 93(3):769-776. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Investigations of physico-chemical properties
of three kinds of fly ash and their influence on cement hydration were performed
in this work. Thermal analysis, microcalorimetry, infrared absorption and
others were used. It was confirmed that the kind of coal and combustion conditions
essentially influence physico-chemical properties of fly ash and in consequence
influence cement hydration. Investigated fly ashes show in cement system so-called
pozzolanic activity. Fly ash from combustion of brown coal in fluidized furnace
revealed better activity compared to other investigated ones. This work is
an introduction to more extensive investigation of fly ash activation.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 08/2006; 86(1):179-186. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An attempt
to obtain aluminium hydroxide that could give aluminium oxides of increased
thermal stability was made. Aluminium hydroxide was precipitated during a
hydrolysis of aluminium chloride in ammonia medium. The influence of preparative
conditions, such as a dosing rate of aluminium precursor, pH, duration of
the precipitate refluxing and temperature of calcination, on the properties
of obtained hydroxides and oxides was investigated. The materials were studied
with the following methods: thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy, low-temperature
nitrogen adsorption and adsorption–desorption of benzene vapours.
Precipitated boehmites had high values of S
determined from nitrogen adsorption (220–300 m2g–1),
good sorption capacity for benzene vapours, developed mesoporous structure
and hydrophilic character. It has been proved that a high pH value during
the precipitation of aluminium hydroxide favoured better crystallisation of
boehmite structure, higher temperature of its dehydroxylation into γ-Al2O3,
and delayed transformation of γ phase into α-Al2O3.
Aluminium oxides derived from the hydroxides precipitated at a high pH were
the most stable at high temperatures, and were characterised with the best
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2006; 85(2):351-359. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Aluminium hydroxide was precipitated
during a hydrolysis of aluminium perchlorate in ammonia medium. The materials
were studied with the following methods: thermal analysis, IR spectroscopy,
X-ray diffraction, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption and adsorption–desorption
of benzene vapours.
Freshly precipitated boehmite had a high value
of SBET=211 m2 g–1
determined from nitrogen adsorption, good sorption capacity for benzene vapours,
developed mesoporous structure and hydrophobic character. After prolonged
refluxing at elevated temperature its crystallinity increased which was accompanied
by an increase of specific surface determined from nitrogen adsorption up
to 262m2g–1 ,
decrease of sorption capacity for benzene vapours and stronger hydrophobic
character. The calcinations of all boehmites at temperature up to 1200C
resulted in formation of -Al2O3
via transition form of γ-, δ- and θ-Al2O3.
The samples of aluminium oxides obtained after calcination at 550 and 900C
were characterised with high values of specific surface area of 205–220
and 138–153 m2 g–1
, respectively. The SBET values calculated for the oxide samples derived from
aged hydroxides and calcined at 1200C are higher than for the analogous
sample prepared without the ageing step. It was concluded that the process
of ageing at elevated temperature developed thermal stability of aluminium
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2006; 86(3):751-760. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Summary An attempt was made to obtain mineral-carbon sorbents from waste products of petrochemical industry: lime from the decarbonization of river water to be used in technology and hydrocarbon wastes obtained in the treatment of industrial waste waters. The sorbents were prepared by thermal decomposition of mixtures of the mineral and carbon components. In order to optimize the preparation conditions, physicochemical studies were performed of both the mineral matrix and the mineral-carbon sorbents. Adsorption measurements involving nitrogen, water, and benzene as adsorbates were used for determining the parameters of porous structure of the obtained materials and their hydrophilic-hydrophobic properties. The properties influencing the sorptive properties of the organic compounds present in the petrochemical wastes were pointed out.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2005; 80(3):687-693. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The so-called pozzolanic activity of waste catalysts from fluidised cracking was investigated. For this purpose a series of
cement mixtures with this waste material were prepared and subsequently the pastes and mortars were produced. Waste aluminosilicate
catalyst was used both in raw form and after grinding in a ball mill for 60 min. The hydrating mixtures were subjected to
the calorimetric measurements in a non-isothermal/non-adiabatic calorimeter. After an appointed time of curing the hydrating
materials were studied by thermal analysis methods (TG, DTG, DTA). The pozzolanic activity factors were determined, basing
on the compressive strength data. The increased activity of cement — ground pozzolana systems has been thus proved. An accelerated
Ca(OH)2 consumption as well as higher strength were found for materials containing ground waste catalyst, as compared to those, mixed
with the raw one. Thus grinding was also proved to result in mechanical activation in the case of the waste catalyst from
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 06/2004; 77(1):133-142. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The aim of the work was to determine the effect of spent catalytic cracking in a fluidized bed (FBCC), catalyst used for as a partial substitute for cement or sand, and of sodium sulphate solutions of concentration 16,000 or 52,000 mg SO42−/dm3 on the mechanism of sulphate corrosion and on expansion of mortars compacted according to prENV 196-10, as well as on mechanical strength of mortars compacted according to the Polish Standard PN-EN 196-1. The observations indicate that the sulphate corrosion of the mortars proceeds via at least two different mechanisms depending on the concentration of sodium sulphate solution and on the concentration and form of pozzolanic additive used. The extent of corrosion damage depends mainly on the concentration of the aggressive solution and on the degree of compaction of the mortar. No unequivocal correlation was found between the expansion of mortars compacted according to prENV 196-10 and the mechanical strength of mortars compacted according to PN-EN 196-1. The greatest expansion was observed in mortars, which did not exhibit the lowest compressive strength. Therefore, it is questionable to use the measure of elongation, particularly in poorly compacted mortar samples, as the sole standard method for determining resistance to sulphate corrosion in sodium sulphate media.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Thermal analysis, mass spectrometry, infrared spectrophotometry, X-ray phase analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and sorption methods were used in the study of thermal transformations of the products of partial hydrolysis of hydrous aluminium nitrate in ammonia medium. It has been found that the process of aluminium nitrate hydrolysis under the conditions applied and in the presence of ammonia gives boehmite as the main product, with some admixture of a basic salt.Aluminium oxide obtained from the products of partial hydrolysis of hydrous aluminium nitrate in ammonia medium at 550C has a crystalline -Al2O3 structure. Its specific surface, as determined by low-temperature adsorption of nitrogen, exceeds 200 m2g–1. Features of the products are well developed mesopore structure and considerable ability of benzene adsorption. Calcination of the obtained aluminium oxide for 2 h at 900C reduces its specific surface to about 110 m2 g–1.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 12/2003; 75(1):113-123. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The chemical corrosion and the mechanical strength were studied in cement mortars containing an additive of FBCC under conditions
of long-term action of sodium sulphate solution or saturated brine. The observations have shown that saturated brine is a
more aggressive agent, since it leaches Ca(OH)2 and contributes to the decomposition of the C-S-H phase thus worsening the compressive strength as compared with that of
mortars kept in water. The addition of 20% FBCC inhibits the leaching process and counteracts the decrease of compressive
strength in mortars kept in brine. On the other hand, sodium sulphate solution changes favourably the mortar microstructure,
increases of the content of small pores and improves both the compressive and the flexural strengths, as compared with those
of a mortar kept in water.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2003; 74(3):931-942. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: By means of the thermogravimetric (TG) method, and differential thermal analysis (DTA) with simultaneous chemical analysis of the gaseous reaction products, X-ray diffraction phase analysis, and infrared spectroscopy, stages of decomposition of Al(NO3)3·9H2O were studied. It has been found that the thermal decomposition of Al(NO3)3·9H2O proceeds in a few stages. First stage is connected with partial dehydration of the compound without decomposition of the nitrate groups. The successive stages comprise the hydrolytic processes, which are connected with further dehydration and loss of the nitrate groups. The process proceeds with the formation of amorphous alumina.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In the present work an attempt was made to obtain mineral–carbon sorbents by thermal decompositon. The mineral matrix for
the sorbents (aluminium hydroxide) was based on petrochemical waste stream containing considerable amounts of aluminium chloride.
Reference tests were carried out with a model solution prepared with the use of analytical grade AlCl3. Atactic polypropylene and hydrocarbon mixtures obtained in the flotation of petrochemical waste waters were used as carbon-containing
The aim of this work was to determine the adsorption and structural characteristics of the complex sorbents and to check the
possibility of evaluation of their hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2002; 67(3):773-787. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The effect of waste material (catalyst used previously in catalytic cracking of petroleum in fluidized bed—fluidized bed cracking catalyst denoted as FBCC) on cement hydration kinetics was investigated in terms of fineness of this admixture. The compressive strength and microstructure of cement mortars were also examined. Variable percentage of this aluminosilicate admixture, originating from batches of quite different grain size composition, was introduced to cement pastes. Further on, cement mortars were produced using the material of higher activity, as it has been found in admixtured cement investigations. The waste was added as cement replacement or, partially, as sand replacement. The activity of waste catalyst was strongly related to the fineness—finer grains indicate better activity. In the presence of a FBCC admixture, the Ca(OH)2 content decrease in cement pastes due to the pozzolanic reaction is observed. The surface area of hydrated paste becomes higher and, simultaneously, the mean pore diameter decreases, as compared to reference sample, without admixture. The strength improvement is observed particularly when the aluminosilicate material is introduced as partial sand replacement.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The zeolitic waste material studied (fluidized bed cracking catalyst, FBCC) is characterised by a content of more than 90 wt.% of SiO2 and Al2O3, a mean grain size within 20–80 μm, and a specific surface above 100 m2/g. Its chemical composition makes it similar to some fly ashes and metakaolin. The present work was devoted to the study of the mechanism of interaction of FBCC with Portland cement and of the pozzolanic activity. Concretes were made with FBCC additions of 10% and 20% (relative to the mass of cement) used as a substitute for the sand aggregate fraction, and the following properties of the concretes were determined under nonaggressive conditions: compressive strength, porosity, water absorption, frost resistance, and steel passivation ability. It has been found that FBCC has pozzolanic properties, and its pozzolanic activity depends on its grain size. FBCC favourably modifies the porous structure of the concretes, increases their compressive strength, density, and frost resistance, and reduces water absorption. The effectiveness of FBCC increases under conditions of strong dispersion. FBCC does not deteriorate the steel passivation ability of concrete when used as a 10% additive, but at a content of 20 wt.%, it can make difficult the formation of a passive layer that conforms to the Polish standards.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The present work is an attempt to use the waste water stream, containing considerable amounts of aluminium chloride, for the
manufacture of mineral–carbon sorbents. The use of the wastewater has given a possibility of obtaining a suitable mineral
matrix of aluminium hydroxide for the sorbents. Atactic poly(propylene) (APP) have been used as the necessary carbon raw material.
The modification of aluminium hydroxide was attained by preliminary mixing with the organic component, followed by carbonisation.
Optimum conditions for obtaining Al(OH)3 have been determined and the effect of the amount of carbon matter on the properties of the materials obtained has been evaluated.
The studies have enabled to trace the changes in the structure and properties of the sorbents obtained.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 01/2001; 65(2):481-489. · 1.98 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The physicochemical properties of spent fluidized bed cracking catalyst and its influence on hydration process of cement slurry
were studied. The samples were cement slurries prepared with water/solid=0.5 and additions of used catalyst amounted to 0,
5, 10, 15, 20 and 25%with resp. to the solid. After definite time they were subjected to thermogravimetric analysis (TG, DTG,
DTA) and, in order to determine the progress of reaction with water, the heat of hydration was measured by means of isotherm
calorimetry. The studies disclosed that the spent cracking catalyst is not merely an inactive filler in cement slurries, but
it modifies the course of the hydration process. The spent catalyst is a pozzolana additive and its presence leads to a decrease
of calcium hydroxide contents in the system. The spent catalyst affect on the heat of cement hydration. Small amounts additive
accelerate the process of binding.
Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry 03/2000; 60(1):71-78. · 1.98 Impact Factor