[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Model organisms are an important tool for the development and validation of analytical approaches for proteomics and for the study of basic mechanisms of biological processes. The Initiative on Model Organism Proteomics (iMOP) organized a session during the 11th HUPO world congress in Boston in 2012, highlighting the potential of proteomics studies in model organism for the elucidation of important mechanisms regulating the interaction of humans with its environment. Major subjects were the use of model organisms for the study of molecular events triggering the interaction of host organisms with the surrounding microbiota and the elucidation of the complex influence of nutrition on the health of human beings.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers.
Nucleic Acids Research 11/2012; · 8.81 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Although protein expression is regulated both temporally and spatially, most proteins have an intrinsic, "typical" range of functionally effective abundance levels. These extend from a few molecules per cell for signaling proteins, to millions of molecules for structural proteins. When addressing fundamental questions related to protein evolution, translation and folding, but also in routine laboratory work, a simple rough estimate of the average wild type abundance of each detectable protein in an organism is often desirable. Here, we introduce a meta-resource dedicated to integrating information on absolute protein abundance levels; we place particular emphasis on deep coverage, consistent post-processing and comparability across different organisms. Publicly available experimental data are mapped onto a common namespace and, in the case of tandem mass spectrometry data, re-processed using a standardized spectral counting pipeline. By aggregating and averaging over the various samples, conditions and cell-types, the resulting integrated data set achieves increased coverage and a high dynamic range. We score and rank each contributing, individual data set by assessing its consistency against externally provided protein-network information, and demonstrate that our weighted integration exhibits more consistency than the data sets individually. The current PaxDb-release 2.1 (at http://pax-db.org/) presents whole-organism data as well as tissue-resolved data, and covers 85,000 proteins in 12 model organisms. All values can be seamlessly compared across organisms via pre-computed orthology relationships.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The community working on model organisms is growing steadily and the number of model organisms for which proteome data are being generated is continuously increasing. To standardize efforts and to make optimal use of proteomics data acquired from model organisms, a new Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO) initiative on model organism proteomes (iMOP) was approved at the HUPO Ninth Annual World Congress in Sydney, 2010. iMOP will seek to stimulate scientific exchange and disseminate HUPO best practices. The needs of model organism researchers for central databases will be better represented, catalyzing the integration of proteomics and organism-specific databases. Full details of iMOP activities, members, tools and resources can be found at our website http://www.imop.uzh.ch/ and new members are invited to join us.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: iMOP--the Initiative on Model Organism Proteomes--was accepted as a new HUPO initiative at the Ninth HUPO meeting in Sydney in 2010. A goal of iMOP is to integrate research groups working on a great diversity of species into a model organism community. At the Tenth HUPO meeting in Geneva this variety was reflected in the iMOP session on Tuesday September 6, 2011. The presentations covered the quantitative proteome database PaxDb, proteomics projects studying farm animals, Arabidopsis thaliana, as well as host-pathogen interactions.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has been used with much success to study a number of biological processes. Although mostly known for its powerful forward and reverse genetics, work from many different groups over the past years has allowed this model organism to develop into a respectable system for proteomics studies as well. Large-scale survey studies led to improved genome annotation and to the generation of proteome catalogs, which set the stage for subsequent targeted proteomics studies. A number of focused comparative studies contributed to a better understanding of insulin signaling, spermatogenesis, oogenesis, and differential gene expression during development. In addition, C. elegans subproteomes and posttranslational modifications like glycosylation and phosphorylation have been identified. Here we describe the history of C. elegans proteomics, and provide a survey of the different methods that have been applied for relative and absolute quantification in comparative and global protein profiling studies in the worm. These studies suggest that C. elegans will provide a rich trove for "worm proteomicists".
Journal of proteomics 10/2010; 73(11):2186-97. · 5.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Efficient experimental strategies are needed to validate computationally predicted microRNA (miRNA) target genes. Here we present a large-scale targeted proteomics approach to validate predicted miRNA targets in Caenorhabditis elegans. Using selected reaction monitoring (SRM), we quantified 161 proteins of interest in extracts from wild-type and let-7 mutant worms. We demonstrate by independent experimental downstream analyses such as genetic interaction, as well as polysomal profiling and luciferase assays, that validation by targeted proteomics substantially enriched for biologically relevant let-7 interactors. For example, we found that the zinc finger protein ZTF-7 was a bona fide let-7 miRNA target. We also validated predicted miR-58 targets, demonstrating that this approach is adaptable to other miRNAs. We propose that targeted mass spectrometry can be applied generally to validate candidate lists generated by computational methods or in large-scale experiments, and that the described strategy should be readily adaptable to other organisms.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genome-wide, absolute quantification of expressed proteins is not yet within reach for most eukaryotes. However, large numbers of MS-based protein identifications have been deposited in databases, together with information on the observation frequencies of each peptide spectrum ("spectral counts"). We have conducted a meta-analysis using several million peptide observations from five model eukaryotes, establishing a consistent, semi-quantitative analysis pipeline. By inferring and comparing protein abundances across orthologs, we observe: (i) the accuracy of spectral counting predictions increases with sampling depth and can rival that of direct biochemical measurements, (ii) the quantitative makeup of the consistently observed core proteome in eukaryotes is remarkably stable, with abundance correlations exceeding R(S)=0.7 at an evolutionary distance greater than 1000 million years, and (iii) some groups of proteins are more constrained than others. We argue that our observations reveal stabilizing selection: central parts of the eukaryotic proteome appear to be expressed at well-balanced, near-optimal abundance levels. This is consistent with our further observations that essential proteins show lower abundance variations than non-essential proteins, and that gene families that tend to undergo gene duplications are less well constrained than families that keep a single-copy status.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Comprehensive characterization of a proteome is a fundamental goal in proteomics. To achieve saturation coverage of a proteome or specific subproteome via tandem mass spectrometric identification of tryptic protein sample digests, proteomics data sets are growing dramatically in size and heterogeneity. The trend toward very large integrated data sets poses so far unsolved challenges to control the uncertainty of protein identifications going beyond well established confidence measures for peptide-spectrum matches. We present MAYU, a novel strategy that reliably estimates false discovery rates for protein identifications in large scale data sets. We validated and applied MAYU using various large proteomics data sets. The data show that the size of the data set has an important and previously underestimated impact on the reliability of protein identifications. We particularly found that protein false discovery rates are significantly elevated compared with those of peptide-spectrum matches. The function provided by MAYU is critical to control the quality of proteome data repositories and thereby to enhance any study relying on these data sources. The MAYU software is available as standalone software and also integrated into the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is a popular model system in genetics, not least because a majority of human disease genes are conserved in C. elegans. To generate a comprehensive inventory of its expressed proteome, we performed extensive shotgun proteomics and identified more than half of all predicted C. elegans proteins. This allowed us to confirm and extend genome annotations, characterize the role of operons in C. elegans, and semiquantitatively infer abundance levels for thousands of proteins. Furthermore, for the first time to our knowledge, we were able to compare two animal proteomes (C. elegans and Drosophila melanogaster). We found that the abundances of orthologous proteins in metazoans correlate remarkably well, better than protein abundance versus transcript abundance within each organism or transcript abundances across organisms; this suggests that changes in transcript abundance may have been partially offset during evolution by opposing changes in protein abundance.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Understanding how proteins and their complex interaction networks convert the genomic information into a dynamic living organism is a fundamental challenge in biological sciences. As an important step towards understanding the systems biology of a complex eukaryote, we cataloged 63% of the predicted Drosophila melanogaster proteome by detecting 9,124 proteins from 498,000 redundant and 72,281 distinct peptide identifications. This unprecedented high proteome coverage for a complex eukaryote was achieved by combining sample diversity, multidimensional biochemical fractionation and analysis-driven experimentation feedback loops, whereby data collection is guided by statistical analysis of prior data. We show that high-quality proteomics data provide crucial information to amend genome annotation and to confirm many predicted gene models. We also present experimentally identified proteotypic peptides matching approximately 50% of D. melanogaster gene models. This library of proteotypic peptides should enable fast, targeted and quantitative proteomic studies to elucidate the systems biology of this model organism.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Synaptosomes are isolated synapses produced by subcellular fractionation of brain tissue. They contain the complete presynaptic terminal, including mitochondria and synaptic vesicles, and portions of the postsynaptic side, including the postsynaptic membrane and the postsynaptic density (PSyD). A proteomic characterisation of synaptosomes isolated from mouse brain was performed employing the isotope-coded affinity tag (ICAT) method and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). After isotopic labelling and tryptic digestion, peptides were fractionated by cation exchange chromatography and cysteine-containing peptides were isolated by affinity chromatography. The peptides were identified by microcapillary liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation MS/MS (muLC-ESI MS/MS). In two experiments, peptides representing a total of 1131 database entries were identified. They are involved in different presynaptic and postsynaptic functions, including synaptic vesicle exocytosis for neurotransmitter release, vesicle endocytosis for synaptic vesicle recycling, as well as postsynaptic receptors and proteins constituting the PSyD. Moreover, a large number of soluble and membrane-bound molecules serving functions in synaptic signal transduction and metabolism were detected. The results provide an inventory of the synaptic proteome and confirm the suitability of the ICAT method for the assessment of synaptic structure, function and plasticity.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In a screen for proteins released from synapse-forming spinal cord neurons, we found the proteolytically cleaved N-terminal fragment of a transmembrane protein localized in the postsynaptic membrane of both excitatory and inhibitory synapses. We termed this protein calsyntenin-1, because it binds synaptic Ca2+ with its cytoplasmic domain. By binding Ca2+, calsyntenin-1 may modulate Ca2+-mediated postsynaptic signals. Proteolytic cleavage of calsyntenin-1 in its extracellular moiety generates a transmembrane stump that is internalized and accumulated in the spine apparatus of spine synapses. Therefore, the synaptic Ca2+ modulation by calsyntenin-1 may be subject to regulation by extracellular proteolysis in the synaptic cleft. Thus, calsyntenin-1 may link extracellular proteolysis in the synaptic cleft and postsynaptic Ca2+ signaling.
Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience 02/2001; · 3.73 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroserpin is an axonally secreted serine proteinase inhibitor that is expressed in neurons during embryogenesis and in the adult nervous system. To identify target proteinases, we used a eucaryotic expression system based on the mouse myeloma cell line J558L and vectors including a promoter from an Ig-kappa-variable region, an Ig-kappa enhancer, and the exon encoding the Ig-kappa constant region (C kappa) and produced recombinant neuroserpin as a wild-type protein or as a fusion protein with C kappa. We investigated the capability of recombinant neuroserpin to form SDS-stable complexes with, and to reduce the amidolytic activity of, a variety of serine proteinases in vitro. Consistent with its primary structure at the reactive site, neuroserpin exhibited inhibitory activity against trypsin-like proteinases. Although neuroserpin bound and inactivated plasminogen activators and plasmin, no interaction was observed with thrombin. A reactive site mutant of neuroserpin neither formed complexes with nor inhibited the amidolytic activity of any of the tested proteinases. Kinetic analysis of the inhibitory activity revealed neuroserpin to be a slow binding inhibitor of plasminogen activators and plasmin. Thus, we postulate that neuroserpin could represent a regulatory element of extracellular proteolytic events in the nervous system mediated by plasminogen activators or plasmin.
Journal of Biological Chemistry 02/1998; 273(4):2312-21. · 4.60 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Neuroserpin is a novel serine protease inhibitor of the serpin family. It has been reported as a 55-kDa glycoprotein that is secreted from the axons of cultured central and peripheral nervous system neurons. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analyses at different developmental stages of the chicken revealed that neuroserpin is predominantly expressed in the nervous system and that most cells expressing neuroserpin can be qualified as bona fide neurons. We have isolated the full-length cDNA for human neuroserpin from a fetal retina cDNA library. The open reading frame of the cDNA of human neuroserpin, like that of its chicken counterpart, encodes a protein of 410 amino acids. The human and the chicken neuroserpin exhibit an amino acid sequence identity of 80%. Northern blot analysis of human organs demonstrated predominant expression of neuroserpin in the brain. By fluorescence in situ hybridization the human neuroserpin gene (HGMW-approved symbol PI12) was mapped to region q26 of chromosome 3.