ABSTRACT: The evidence for a role of tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking, and body mass index (BMI) in the etiology of small intestine cancer is based mainly on case-control studies from Europe and United States.
We harmonized the data across 12 cohort studies from mainland China, Japan, Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan, comprising over 500,000 subjects followed for an average of 10.6 years. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for BMI and (only among men) tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking.
A total of 134 incident cases were observed (49 adenocarcinoma, 11 carcinoid, 46 other histologic types, and 28 of unknown histology). There was a statistically non-significant trend toward increased HR in subjects with high BMI [HR for BMI>27.5 kg/m2, compared with 22.6-25.0, 1.50; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.76-2.96]. No association was suggested for tobacco smoking; men drinking>400 g of ethanol per week had an HR of 1.57 (95% CI 0.66-3.70), compared with abstainers.
Our study supports the hypothesis that elevated BMI may be a risk factor for small intestine cancer. An etiologic role of alcohol drinking was suggested. Our results reinforce the existing evidence that the epidemiology of small intestine cancer resembles that of colorectal cancer.
Annals of Oncology 12/2011; 23(7):1894-8. · 6.43 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: The role of dietary patterns in metabolic syndrome has not been adequately investigated in Asian women. We aimed to identify dietary patterns and to evaluate the cross-sectional relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean women.
In a cross-sectional study of 4984 women aged 30-79 years, dietary patterns were derived from 16 food groups using factor analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program (ATPIII NCEP) criteria as having three or more risk factors using a modified obesity index. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between dietary pattern and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Three dietary patterns (Western, healthy and traditional) were identified. Higher consumption of the healthy pattern was inversely associated with metabolic syndrome (OR [95% CI] for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.58 [0.50-0.91]; P for trend = 0.012) and most components of metabolic syndrome. In a stratified analysis by menopausal status, the inverse association of the healthy dietary pattern and metabolic syndrome was statistically significant only among postmenopausal women (OR [95% CI] for highest vs. lowest quartile: 0.60 [0.40-0.86]; P for trend = 0.004). The Western and traditional patterns showed no association with metabolic syndrome, but were related to some individual risk factors for metabolic syndrome.
These results suggest that the healthy dietary pattern is associated with a reduced risk for metabolic syndrome in Korean women, particularly in postmenopausal women.
Nutrition, metabolism, and cardiovascular diseases: NMCD 11/2011; 21(11):893-900. · 3.52 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Although high soy consumption may be associated with lower breast cancer risk in Asian populations, findings from epidemiological studies have been inconsistent.
We investigated the effects of soy intake on breast cancer risk among Korean women according to their menopausal and hormone receptor status.
We conducted a case-control study with 358 incident breast cancer patients and 360 age-matched controls with no history of malignant neoplasm. Dietary consumption of soy products was examined using a 103-item food frequency questionnaire.
The estimated mean intakes of total soy and isoflavones from this study population were 76.5 g per day and 15.0 mg per day, respectively. Using a multivariate logistic regression model, we found a significant inverse association between soy intake and breast cancer risk, with a dose-response relationship (odds ratios (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) for the highest vs the lowest intake quartile: 0.36 (0.20-0.64)). When the data were stratified by menopausal status, the protective effect was observed only among postmenopausal women (OR (95% CI) for the highest vs the lowest intake quartile: 0.08 (0.03-0.22)). The association between soy and breast cancer risk did not differ according to estrogen receptor (ER)/progesterone receptor (PR) status, but the estimated intake of soy isoflavones showed an inverse association only among postmenopausal women with ER+/PR+ tumors.
Our findings suggest that high consumption of soy might be related to lower risk of breast cancer and that the effect of soy intake could vary depending on several factors.
European journal of clinical nutrition 09/2010; 64(9):924-32. · 3.07 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Postmenopausal women were assessed to determine the association between dietary intake of various food groups and low bone mineral density. Among dietary factors, high consumption of protein-containing food and dairy products was associated with a reduced risk for low bone mineral density.
There have been several studies regarding the correlation between bone mineral density and dietary intake. In this study, we assessed the association between dietary habit and low bone mineral density among Korean postmenopausal women.
Bone mineral density of the lumbar spine was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 2,501 subjects. A brief food frequency questionnaire, which included 16 food items, was used in this cross-sectional survey.
After adjusting for other risk factors related to low bone mineral density, a high intake frequency of protein-source food was associated with a lower risk for osteopenia (odds ratio (OR), 0.68; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.54-0.87 for high vs. low intake frequency; p for trend, 0.02) and osteoporosis (OR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.39-0.83 for high vs. low intake frequency; p for trend, 0.003), and a high intake frequency of dairy food was associated with a decreased risk for osteopenia (OR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.57-0.94 for high vs. low intake frequency; p for trend, 0.018).
These results suggest that adequate nutrient intake is essential to maintain bone health in postmenopausal women.
Osteoporosis International 09/2009; 21(6):947-55. · 4.58 Impact Factor
ABSTRACT: Folate, a water-soluble B vitamin and one of the major micronutrients in vegetables, is known as an essential factor for the de novo biosynthesis of purines and thymidylate, and it plays an important role in DNA synthesis and replication. Thus, folate deficiency results in ineffective DNA synthesis, and has been shown to induce the initiation and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). Recently, the incidence of CRC in Korea has increased markedly in both men and women; this trend may be related to the adoption of a more 'westernized' lifestyle, including dietary habits.
A hospital-based case-control study was conducted to examine the relationship between folate intake and the risk of CRC within a Korean population.
A total of 596 cases and 509 controls, aged 30-79 years, were recruited from two university hospitals. Site- and sex-specific odds ratios (ORs) were estimated using logistic regression models.
Cases were more frequently found to have a family history of CRC among first-degree relatives, to consume more alcohol, to be more likely current smokers and less likely to participate in vigorous physical activity than the controls. In the overall data for men and women combined, multivariate ORs (95% confidence interval (CI), P for trend) comparing the highest vs the lowest quartile of dietary folate intake were: 0.47 (0.32-0.69, <0.001) for CRC, 0.42 (0.26-0.69, <0.001) for colon cancer and 0.48 (0.28-0.81, 0.007) for rectal cancer. An inverse association was also found in women with dietary folate intake: 0.36 (0.20-0.64, <0.001) for CRC, 0.34 (0.16-0.70, 0.001) for colon cancer and 0.30 (0.12-0.74, 0.026) for rectal cancer, but not in men. In addition, the total folate intake of women was strongly associated with a reduced risk of rectal cancer (OR, 0.38; 95% CI, 0.17-0.88; P for trend=0.04).
We found a statistically significant relationship between higher dietary folate intake and reduced risk of CRC, colon cancer and rectal cancer in women. A significant association is indicated between higher total folate intake and reduced risk of rectal cancer in women.
European journal of clinical nutrition 06/2009; 63(9):1057-64. · 3.07 Impact Factor