G. D. Illingworth

University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, California, United States

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Publications (528)1796.58 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: We identify 4 unusually bright (H<~25.5) galaxies from HST and Spitzer CANDELS data with probable redshifts z~7-9. These identifications constitute the brightest-known galaxies to date at z>~7.5. As Y-band observations are not available over the full CANDELS program to perform a standard Lyman-break selection of z>7 galaxies, here we employ an alternate strategy using the deep Spitzer/IRAC data. We identify z~7.1-9.1 galaxies by selecting z>~6 galaxies from the HST CANDELS data that show quite red IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] colors, indicating a strong [OIII] line in the 4.5mu band. This selection strategy was validated using a modest sample for which we have deep Y-band coverage. Here we focus on using this criterion to select the brightest z>~7 sources. Applying the IRAC criteria to all HST-selected optical-dropout galaxies over the full ~900 arcmin**2 of the 5 CANDELS fields revealed four unusually bright z~7.1, 7.6, 7.9 and 8.6 candidates. The median [3.6]-[4.5] color of our selected z~7.1-9.1 sample is consistent with rest-frame [OIII]+Hbeta EWs of ~1600A in the [4.5] band. Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy has already been reported for one of our selected sources EGS-zs8-1, showing Lyalpha at a redshift of 7.7302$\pm$0.0006. We present similar Keck/MOSFIRE spectroscopy for a second selected galaxy with a probable 4.7sigma Lyalpha-line at a redshift of 7.4770+/-0.0008. Both have H-band magnitudes of ~25 mag and are ~0.5 mag more luminous (M(UV)~-22.0) than any previously discovered z~8 galaxy, with important implications for the UV LF. Our 3 brightest, highest redshift z>~7 galaxies all lie within the CANDELS EGS field, providing a dramatic illustration of the potential impact of field-to-field variance.
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    ABSTRACT: The deep, wide-area (900 arcmin**2) near-IR/WFC3/IR + Spitzer/IRAC observations over the CANDELS program represents a significant resource for constraining the bright end of the z~9 and z~10 luminosity functions (LFs) in the UV. We recently reported the discovery of 6 luminous z~9-10 candidates over the GOODS-North+South fields, but extending this search to the full CANDELS program was limited due to the lack of HST-depth 1.05-micron observations in the other 3 CANDELS fields. Here we attempt to significantly realize the potential of CANDELS for z=9-10 science by combining a search over all 5 fields with results from a new HST program (B9-CANDELS) designed to follow up the highest-probability z~9-10 galaxy candidates with observations at 1.05 microns. The targeted z~9-10 candidates are preselected by taking advantage of the full HST, Spitzer/IRAC S-CANDELS observations, and the deepest-available ground-based optical+near-IR observations. With our follow-up program now 91% complete, we identify 4 new high-probability z~9-10 galaxies. This brings our total sample of bright z~9-10 galaxies to 14, including several other new sources from the CANDELS GOODS + ERS fields.Through extensive simulations, we replicate the selection process for our sample (both the preselection and follow-up) and obtain an accurate estimate of the volume density of bright galaxies (M_{UV,AB}<-20) at both z~9 and z~10. The volume density of bright z~9 and z~10 galaxies that we find is 4.5(-1.3)(+2.5)x and 8(-3)(+7)x lower than found at z~8. When compared with the best-fit evolution in the UV luminosities densities from z~8 to z~4 (>0.4L*), the luminosity densities we find at z~9 and z~10 are ~2x lower than the extrapolated trends. We would expect significant additional gains in these results from the on-going 500-orbit BoRG[z910] program and by obtaining additional follow-up observations over the CANDELS-WIDE fields.
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    ABSTRACT: Thomson optical depth measurements from Planck provide new insights into the reionization of the universe. To obtain new model-independent constraints on the properties of the ionizing sources, we determine the empirical evolution of the ionising background. We use a simple two-parameter model to map out the evolution in this background at z>~6 from the new Planck optical depth tau measurements and from the constraints provided by quasar absorption spectra and the prevalence of Ly-alpha emission in z~7-8 galaxies. We find the redshift evolution in the ionising background N_{ion} required by the observations to be dlog_{10} N_{ion}/dz(z=8)=-0.19_{-0.11}^{+0.09}, largely independent of the assumed clumping factor C_{HII} and entirely independent of the identity of the ionizing sources. The trend in N_{ion} is well-matched by the evolution of the galaxy UV-luminosity density (dlog_{10} rho_{UV}/dz=-0.11+/-0.04) to a magnitude limit >~-13 mag, suggesting that galaxies are the sources that drive the reionization of the universe. The role of galaxies is further strengthened by the conversion from the UV luminosity density to N_{ion}(z) being possible for physically plausible values of the escape fraction f_{esc}, the Lyman-continuum photon production efficiency xi_{ion}, and faint-end cut-off M_{lim} to the LF. Lastly, we use the inferred evolution in the ionizing background to estimate the z~10 UV luminosity density, finding this luminosity density to be 12_{-7}^{+21}x lower than at z~6, consistent with current measurements at z~10. Quasars/AGN appear to match neither the redshift evolution nor normalization of the ionizing background. This new approach of contrasting the inferred evolution of the ionising background with that of the galaxy UV luminosity density adds to the growing observational evidence that galaxies are the sources that drive the reionization of the universe.
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    ABSTRACT: We present a spectroscopic redshift measurement of a very bright Lyman break galaxy at z=7.7302+-0.0006 using Keck/MOSFIRE. The source was pre-selected photometrically in the EGS field as a robust z~8 candidate with H=25.0 mag based on optical non-detections and a very red Spitzer/IRAC [3.6]-[4.5] broad-band color driven by high equivalent width [OIII]+Hbeta line emission. The Lyalpha line is reliably detected at >6 sigma and shows an asymmetric profile as expected for a galaxy embedded in a relatively neutral inter-galactic medium near the Planck peak of cosmic reionization. The line has a rest-frame equivalent width of EW0=21+-4 A and is extended with V_FWHM=376+89-70 km/s. The source is perhaps the brightest and most massive z~8 Lyman break galaxy in the full CANDELS and BoRG/HIPPIES surveys, having assembled already 10^(9.9+-0.2) M_sol of stars at only 650 Myr after the Big Bang. The spectroscopic redshift measurement sets a new redshift record for galaxies. This enables reliable constraints on the stellar mass, star-formation rate, formation epoch, as well as combined [OIII]+Hbeta line equivalent widths. The redshift confirms that the IRAC [4.5] photometry is very likely dominated by line emission with EW0(OIII+Hbeta)= 720-150+180 A. This detection thus adds to the evidence that extreme rest-frame optical emission lines are a ubiquitous feature of early galaxies promising very efficient spectroscopic follow-up in the future with infrared spectroscopy using JWST and, later, ELTs.
    02/2015; 804(2). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/804/2/L30
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    ABSTRACT: Detection of Lyman-Break Galaxies (LBGs) at high-redshift can be affected by gravitational lensing induced by foreground deflectors not only in galaxy clusters, but also in blank fields. We quantify the impact of strong magnification in the samples of $B$, $V$, $i$, $z$ $\&$ $Y$ LBGs ($4\lesssim z \lesssim8$) observed in the XDF and GOODS/CANDELS fields, by investigating the proximity of dropouts to foreground objects. We find that $\sim6\%$ of bright LBGs ($m_{H_{160}}<26$) at $z\sim7$ have been strongly lensed ($\mu>2$) by foreground objects. This fraction decreases from $\sim 3.5\%$ at $z\sim6$ to $\sim1.5\%$ at $z\sim4$. Since the observed fraction of strongly lensed galaxies is a function of the shape of the luminosity function (LF), it can be used to derive Schechter parameters, $\alpha$ and $M_{\star}$, independently from galaxy number counts. Our magnification bias analysis yields Schechter-function parameters in close agreement with those determined from galaxy counts albeit with larger uncertainties. Extrapolation of our analysis to $z\gtrsim 8$ suggests that future surveys with JSWT, WFIRST and EUCLID should find excess LBGs at the bright-end, even if there is an intrinsic exponential cutoff of number counts. Finally, we highlight how the magnification bias measurement near the detection limit can be used as probe of the population of galaxies too faint to be detected. Preliminary results using this novel idea suggest that the magnification bias at $M_{UV}\sim -18$ is not as strong as expected if $\alpha\lesssim -1.7$ extends well below the current detection limits in the XDF. At face value this implies a flattening of the LF at $M_{UV}\gtrsim-16.5$. However, selection effects and completeness estimates are difficult to quantify precisely. Thus, we do not rule out a steep LF extending to $M_{UV}\gtrsim -15$.
    Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 02/2015; 450(2). DOI:10.1093/mnras/stv633 · 5.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Joint HST/WFC3 and Spitzer/IRAC observations are a powerful tool to probe the buildup of early galaxies, as demonstrated by the recent IRAC detections and stellar mass estimates of several bright z~9-10 galaxies (only 500 Myr after the Big Bang). However, the vast majority of galaxies in the reionization epoch have not been individually detected with IRAC, as extragalactic surveys have mostly focused on medium-deep and wide surveys. IRAC detections are crucial for understanding the evolution of the first galaxies, providing constraints on stellar masses, star formation histories, emission line strengths, and ages. We therefore propose to complete Spitzer's legacy with an ultradeep survey in the CANDELS/GOODS South and North fields at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to 27.1, 26.7 mag (AB,5sigma). Ultradeep data over substantial areas are needed to detect normal galaxies at z>7, provide good statistics, and mitigate field-to-field variance. We demonstrate using pilot ultradeep data from cycle 10 on a small area in GOODS-S, that we can successfully recover IRAC photometry to these limits. GREATS will result in the IRAC detection of 200 galaxies at 7
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    ABSTRACT: We search the complete Hubble Frontier Field dataset of Abell 2744 and its parallel field for z~10 sources to further refine the evolution of the cosmic star-formation rate density (SFRD) at z>8. We independently confirm two images of the recently discovered triply-imaged z~9.8 source by Zitrin et al. (2014) and set an upper limit for similar z~10 galaxies with red colors of J_125-H_160>1.2 in the parallel field of Abell 2744. We utilize extensive simulations to derive the effective selection volume of Lyman-break galaxies at z~10, both in the lensed cluster field and in the adjacent parallel field. Particular care is taken to include position-dependent lensing shear to accurately account for the expected sizes and morphologies of highly-magnified sources. We show that both source blending and shear reduce the completeness at a given observed magnitude in the cluster, particularly near the critical curves. These effects have a significant, but largely overlooked, impact on the detectability of high-redshift sources behind clusters, and substantially reduce the expected number of highly-magnified sources. The detections and limits from both pointings result in a SFRD which is higher by 0.4+-0.4 dex than previous estimates at z~10 from blank fields. Nevertheless, the combination of these new results with all other estimates remain consistent with a rapidly declining SFRD in the 170 Myr from z~8 to z~10 as predicted by cosmological simulations and dark-matter halo evolution in LambdaCDM. Once biases introduced by magnification dependent completeness are accounted for, the full six cluster and parallel Frontier Field program will be an extremely powerful new dataset to probe the evolution of the galaxy population at z>8 before the advent of the JWST.
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    ABSTRACT: Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) samples observed during reionization ($z\gtrsim6$) with Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 are reaching sizes sufficient to characterize their clustering properties. Using a combined catalog from the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field and CANDELS surveys, containing $N=743$ LBG candidates at z>6.5 at a mean redshift of $z=7.2$, we detect a clear clustering signal in the angular correlation function (ACF) at $\sim4\sigma$, corresponding to a real-space correlation length $r_{0}=6.7^{+0.9}_{-1.0}h^{-1}$cMpc. The derived galaxy bias $b=8.6^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$ is that of dark-matter halos of $M=10^{11.1^{+0.2}_{-0.3}}$M$_{\odot}$ at $z=7.2$, and highlights that galaxies below the current detection limit ($M_{AB}\sim-17.7$) are expected in lower-mass halos ($M\sim10^{8}-10^{10.5}$M$_{\odot}$). We compute the ACF of LBGs at $z\sim3.8-z\sim5.9$ in the same surveys. A trend of increasing bias is found from $z=3.8$ ($b\sim3.0$) to $z=7.2$ ($b\sim8.6$), broadly consistent with galaxies at fixed luminosity being hosted in dark-matter halos of similar mass at $4<z<6$, followed by a slight rise in halo masses at $z\sim7$ ($\sim2\sigma$ confidence). Separating the data at the median luminosity of the $z=7.2$ sample ($M_{UV}=-19.4$) shows higher clustering at $z=5.9$ for bright galaxies ($r_{0}=5.5^{+1.4}_{-1.5}h^{-1}$cMpc, $b=6.2^{+1.2}_{-1.5}$) compared to faint galaxies ($r_{0}=1.9^{+1.1}_{-1.0}h^{-1}$cMpc, $b=2.7\pm1.2$) implying a constant mass-to-light ratio $\frac{dlogM}{dlogL}\sim1.2^{+1.8}_{-0.8}$. A similar trend is present in the $z=7.2$ sample with larger uncertainty. Finally, our bias measurements allow us to investigate the fraction of dark-matter halos hosting UV-bright galaxies (the duty-cycle, $\epsilon_{DC}$). At $z=7.2$ values near unity are preferred, which may be explained by the shortened halo assembly time at high-redshift.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 793(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/1/17 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a small sample of six $z\sim9-10$ candidates was discovered in CANDELS that are $\sim10-20\times$ more luminous than any of the previous $z\sim9-10$ galaxies identified over the HUDF/XDF and CLASH fields. We test the nature of these sources by comparing their sizes with the expected sizes of luminous galaxies at $z\sim9-10$. Using galfit to derive sizes from the CANDELS F160W images of these candidates, we find a mean size of 0.16" $\pm$ 0.06" (or $0.6\pm0.3$ kpc at $z\sim9-10$). This is much smaller than the 0.59" mean size found for lower redshift IRAC-red interlopers, and handsomely matches the 0.16 (0.6 kpc) size expected from extrapolating lower redshift measurements to $z\sim9-10$. Assuming the bright sample is at $z\sim9-10$, we use this sample to extend current constraints on the size-luminosity, size-mass relation, and size evolution of galaxies to $z\sim10$. We find that the $z\sim9-10$ candidate galaxies have similar sizes and luminosities as their $z\sim7$ counterparts. They have star-formation-rate surface densities in the range of $\Sigma_{SFR} = 1-10 ~ M_\odot ~ yr^{-1} ~ kpc^{-2}$, similar to those measured for lower-redshift ($z = 6-8$). The stellar mass-size relation is uncertain, but also similar to those inferred for galaxies at z=6, 7 and 8. In combination with previous size measurements at z=4-7, we find a size evolution of $(1+z)^{-m}$ with $m = 1.0 \pm 0.1$ for $> 0.3L_* (z=3)$ galaxies, consistent with the evolution previously derived from $2 < z < 8$ galaxies.
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    ABSTRACT: The remarkable HST datasets from the CANDELS, HUDF09, HUDF12, ERS, and BORG/HIPPIES programs have allowed us to map out the evolution of the UV LF from z~10 to z~4. We develop new color criteria that more optimally utilize the full wavelength coverage from the optical+near-IR observations over our search fields, while simultaneously minimizing the incompleteness and eliminating redshift gaps. We have identified 5991, 3391, 940, 598, 225, and 6 galaxy candidates at z~4, z~5, z~6, z~7, z~8, and z~10, respectively from the ~1000 arcmin**2 area covered by these datasets. The large z~4-8 samples we have identified in the five CANDELS fields allow us to assess the cosmic variance; the largest variations are apparent at z>=7. Our new LF determinations at z~4 and z~5 span a 6-mag baseline (-22.5 to -16 AB mag). These determinations agree well with previous estimates, but the larger samples and the larger volumes probed here result in a more reliable sampling of >L* galaxies and allow us to reassess the form of the UV LFs. Our new LF results strengthen our earlier findings to 4.5 sigma significance for a steeper UV LF at z>4, with alpha evolving from alpha=-1.64+/-0.04 at z~4 to alpha=-2.06+/-0.12 at z~7. The observed steepening of the UV LF is consistent with that expected from the evolution of the halo mass function. With our improved constraints at the bright end, we find less evolution in the characteristic luminosity M* over the redshift range z~4 to z~7 consistent with current models; the observed evolution in the LF is now largely represented by changes in phi*. Even with the much larger sample of bright galaxies, we find no evidence for the LF having a non-Schechter-like form at z~4-8. A simple conditional LF model based on halo growth and a modest evolution in the M/L of halos provides a good representation of the evolution of the UV LF.
    The Astrophysical Journal 03/2014; 803(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/803/1/34 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present K-band spectra of rest-frame optical emission lines for 24 star-forming galaxies at z~3.2-3.7 using MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope. Strong rest-frame optical [O III] and Hbeta emission lines were detected in 18 LBGs. The median flux ratio of [O III]5007 to Hbeta is 5.1+/-0.5, a factor of 5-10x higher than in local galaxies with similar stellar masses. The observed Hbeta luminosities are in good agreement with expectations from the estimated star-formation rates, and none of our sources are detected in deep X-ray stacks, ruling out significant contamination by active galactic nuclei. Combining our sample with a variety of LBGs from the literature, including 49 galaxies selected in a very similar manner, we find a high median ratio of [OIII]/Hbeta = 4.8+0.8-1.7. This high ratio seems to be an ubiquitous feature of z~3-4 LBGs, very different from typical local star-forming galaxies at similar stellar masses. The only comparable systems at z~0 are those with similarly high specific star-formation rates, though ~5x lower stellar masses. High specific star-formation rates either result in a much higher ionization parameter or other unusual conditions for the interstellar medium, which result in a much higher [OIII]/Hbeta line ratio. This implies a strong relation between a global property of a galaxy, the specific star-formation rate, and the local conditions of ISM in star-forming regions.
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    ABSTRACT: We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0<z<2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z~0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M=6.5x10^10 M\solar) to nearby massive ellipticals (M=1.5x10^11 M\solar). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M=6.5x10^9 M\solar). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10^12 and 10^13 M\solar, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 789(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/789/2/164 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of $\sim$1500 H160-selected photometric galaxies detected to a limiting magnitude of 27.8 in the HUDF, using imaging from the HST WFC3/IR camera in combination with archival UV, optical, and NIR imaging. We fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range $1<z<6$. By selecting samples of galaxies at a constant cumulative number density, we explore the co-evolution of stellar masses and star formation rates from z$\sim$6. We find a steady increase in the SFRs of galaxies at constant number density from z$\sim$6 to z$\sim$3. The peak epoch of star formation is found to shift to later times for galaxies with increasing number densities, in agreement with the expectations from cosmic downsizing. The observed SFRs can fully account for the mass growth to z$\sim$2 amongst galaxies with cumulative number densities greater than 10$^{-3.5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. For galaxies with a lower constant number density we find the observed stellar masses are $\sim$3 times greater than that which may be accounted for by the observed star formation alone at late times, implying that growth from mergers plays an important role at $z<2$. We additionally observe a decreasing sSFR, equivalent to approximately one order of magnitude, from z$\sim$6 to z$\sim$2 amongst galaxies with number densities less than 10$^{-3.5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ along with significant evidence that at any redshift the sSFR is higher for galaxies at higher number density. The combination of these findings can qualitatively explain the previous findings of a sSFR plateau at high redshift. Tracing the evolution of the fraction of quiescent galaxies for samples matched in cumulative number density over this redshift range, we find no unambiguous examples of quiescent galaxies at $z>4$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 780(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/780/1/34 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultra-deep Spitzer IUDF images have enabled the detection of a dozen individual z~8 galaxies in one IRAC field over the HUDF. This remarkable result demonstrated what can be done by combining deep matched HST WFC3/IR and Spitzer IRAC images. Obtaining large, statistically-robust samples of z~7-9 galaxies in the reionization epoch requires much larger Spitzer areal coverage to match the current deep HST data in the GOODS fields. Large samples of high-redshift galaxies with IRAC measurements would allow unbiased estimates of mass-to-light ratios, stellar masses, star formation histories, and provide age constraints. We propose to observe the CANDELS-Deep areas in GOODS-South and GOODS-North at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to 27.5 mag (AB, 3sigma) in 8 deep IRAC fields, reducing cosmic variance and guaranteeing IRAC detection of nearly every individual source found in the deep H<27.8 catalogs. Individual detections are essential for correcting for strong nebular emission lines. After modeling neighboring sources, clean IRAC photometry is recovered for ~80% of all sources. This will quadruple the number of IRAC-detected galaxies at z~7-9 to over 200 galaxies, many with significantly enhanced S/N. For these 200 z~7-9 galaxies rest-frame optical emission lines and rest-frame UV-optical colors can be measured, allowing us to investigate trends with luminosity, redshift, and far-UV slope to characterize the early build-up of galaxies. Our sample of individual detections will reach to ~10e8 Msun at z~4 and sample >50% of the total stellar mass density to z~8. The combined HST+Spitzer imaging will provide a unique legacy data set, unparalleled until the launch of JWST 5+ years from now, and will provide insurance as no space mission is 100% guaranteed. The star formation histories and mass densities of typical galaxies at all redshifts back to z~9-10 can be characterized through such a legacy dataset. This will be a stunning demonstration of the capabilities of Spitzer.
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of four surprisingly bright (H_160 ~ 26 - 27 mag AB) galaxy candidates at z~9-10 in the complete HST CANDELS WFC3/IR GOODS-N imaging data, doubling the number of z~10 galaxy candidates that are known, just 500 Myr after the Big Bang. These sources were identified in a search over the full CANDELS-Deep dataset, building on our previous analysis of the HUDF09/XDF fields and GOODS-S. Three of these four galaxies are significantly detected at 4.5-6.2sigma in the very deep Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 micron data. Furthermore, the brightest of our candidates (at z=10.2+-0.4) is robustly detected also at 3.6 micron (6.9sigma), revealing a flat UV spectral energy distribution with a slope beta=-2.0+-0.2, consistent with demonstrated trends with luminosity at high redshift. The abundance of these luminous candidates suggests that the luminosity function evolves more significantly in phi_* than in L_* at z>~8. Despite the discovery of these luminous candidates, the cosmic star formation rate density for galaxies with SFR >0.7 M_sun yr^-1 shows an order-of-magnitude increase in only 170 Myr from z ~ 10 to z ~ 8, consistent with previous results. Based on the IRAC detections, we derive galaxy stellar masses at z~10, finding that these luminous objects are typically 10^9 M_sun. This allows for a first estimate of the cosmic stellar mass density at z~10 resulting in log rho* = 4.7^+0.5_-0.9 M_sun Mpc^-3 for galaxies brighter than M_UV~-18. The remarkable brightness, and hence luminosity, of these z~9-10 candidates highlights the opportunity for deep spectroscopy to determine their redshift and nature, and demonstrates the value of additional search fields to understand star-formation in the very early universe.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2013; 786(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/786/2/108 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the UV-continuum slope beta for over 4000 high-redshift galaxies over a wide range of redshifts z~4-8 and luminosities from the HST HUDF/XDF, HUDF09-1, HUDF09-2, ERS, CANDELS-N, and CANDELS-S data sets. Our new beta results reach very faint levels at z~4 (-15.5 mag: 0.006 L*(z=3)), z~5 (-16.5 mag: 0.014L*(z=3)), and z~6 and z~7 (-17 mag: 0.025 L*(z=3)). Inconsistencies between previous studies led us to conduct a comprehensive review of systematic errors and develop a new technique for measuring beta that is robust against biases that arise from the impact of noise. We demonstrate, by object-by-object comparisons, that all previous studies, including our own and those done on the latest HUDF12 dataset, suffer from small systematic errors in beta. We find that after correcting for the systematic errors (typically d(beta) ~0.1-0.2) all beta results at z~7 from different groups are in excellent agreement. The mean beta we measure for faint (-18 mag: 0.1L*(z=3)) z~4, z~5, z~6, and z~7 galaxies is -2.03+/-0.03+/-0.06 (random and systematic errors), -2.14+/-0.06+/-0.06, -2.24+/-0.11+/-0.08, and -2.33+/-0.16+/-0.13, respectively. Our new beta values are redder than we have reported in the past, but bluer than other recent results. Our previously reported trend of bluer beta's at lower luminosities is confirmed, as is the evolution to bluer beta's at high redshifts. beta appears to show only a mild luminosity dependence faintward of M(UV,AB) ~ -19 mag, suggesting that the mean beta asymptotes to ~ -2.2 to -2.4 for faint z>~4 galaxies. At z~7, the observed beta's suggest non-zero, but low dust extinction, and they agree well with values predicted in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations.
    The Astrophysical Journal 06/2013; 793(2). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/793/2/115 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) combines data from ten years of observations with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Wide-Field Camera 3 Infra-Red (WFC3/IR) into the deepest image of the sky ever in the optical/near-IR. Since the initial observations on the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) in 2003, numerous surveys and programs, including supernova followup, HUDF09, CANDELS, and HUDF12 have contributed additional imaging data across the HUDF region. Yet these have never been combined and made available as one complete ultra-deep optical and near-infrared image dataset. We do so now for the eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) program. Our new and improved processing techniques provide higher quality reductions of the total dataset. All WFC3 near-IR and optical ACS data sets have been fully combined and accurately matched, resulting in the deepest imaging ever taken at these wavelengths ranging from 29.1 to 30.3 AB mag (5sigma in a 0.35" diameter aperture) in 9 filters. The gains in the optical for the four filters done in the original ACS HUDF correspond to a typical improvement of 0.15 mag, with gains of 0.25 mag in the deepest areas. Such gains are equivalent to adding ~130 to ~240 orbits of ACS data to the HUDF. Improved processing alone results in a typical gain of ~0.1 mag. Our 5sigma (optical+near-IR) SExtractor catalogs reveal about 14140 sources in the full field and about 7121 galaxies in the deepest part of the XDF (the HUDF09 region). The XDF is the deepest image of the universe ever taken, reaching, in the combined image for a flat f_nu source, to 31.2 AB mag 5sigma (32.9 at 1sigma) in a 0.35" diameter aperture.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 05/2013; DOI:10.1088/0067-0049/209/1/6 · 14.14 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg2 to a depth of 26 AB mag (3σ) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 ± 1.0 and 4.4 ± 0.8 nW m–2 sr–1 at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(1):80. DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/769/1/80 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive analysis of z>8 galaxies based on ultra-deep WFC3/IR data. We constrain the evolution of the UV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity densities from z~11 to z~8 by exploiting all the WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field from the HUDF09 and the new HUDF12 program, in addition to the HUDF09 parallel field data, as well as wider area WFC3/IR imaging over GOODS-South. Galaxies are selected based on the Lyman Break Technique in three samples centered around z~9, z~10 and z~11, with seven z~9 galaxy candidates, and one each at z~10 and z~11. We confirm a new z~10 candidate (with z=9.8+-0.6) that was not convincingly identified in our first z~10 sample. The deeper data over the HUDF confirms all our previous z>~7.5 candidates as genuine high-redshift candidates, and extends our samples to higher redshift and fainter limits (H_160~29.8 mag). We perform one of the first estimates of the z~9 UV LF and improve our previous constraints at z~10. Extrapolating the lower redshift UV LF evolution should have revealed 17 z~9 and 9 z~10 sources, i.e., a factor ~3x and 9x larger than observed. The inferred star-formation rate density (SFRD) in galaxies above 0.7 M_sun/yr decreases by 0.6+-0.2 dex from z~8 to z~9, in good agreement with previous estimates. The low number of sources found at z>8 is consistent with a very rapid build-up of galaxies across z~10 to z~8. From a combination of all current measurements, we find a best estimate of a factor 10x decrease in the SFRD from z~8 to z~10, following (1+z)^(-11.4+-3.1). Our measurements thus confirm our previous finding of an accelerated evolution beyond z~8, and signify a rapid build-up of galaxies with M_UV<-17.7 within only ~200 Myr from z~10 to z~8, in the heart of cosmic reionization.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 773(1). DOI:10.1088/0004-637X/773/1/75 · 6.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep WFC3 grism observations of the candidate z~12 galaxy UDFj-39546284 in the HST Ultra Deep Field (UDF), by combining spectroscopic data from the 3D-HST and CANDELS surveys. The total exposure time is 40.5 ks and the spectrum covers 1.10 < {\lambda} < 1.65{\mu}m. We search for faint emission lines by cross-correlating the 2D G141 spectrum with the observed H160 morphology, a technique that is unique to slitless spectroscopy at HST resolution. We find a 2.7{\sigma} detection of an emission line at 1.599 {\mu}m---just redward of the JH140 filter---with flux 3.5 +/- 1.3x10-18 erg/s/cm2. Assuming the line is real, it contributes 110 +/- 40% of the observed H160 flux and has an observed equivalent width > 7300 {\AA}. If the line is confirmed, it could be Ly-{\alpha} at z = 12.12. However, a more plausible interpretation, given current results, could be a lower redshift feature such as [O III]{\lambda}4959,5007 at z = 2.19. We find two other 3D-HST [O III] emitters within 1000 km/s of that redshift in the GOODS-South field. Additional support for this interpretation comes from the discovery of a bright "[O III] blob" with a secure G141 grism redshift of z = 1.605. This object has a strikingly large observed equivalent width of nearly 9000 {\AA} that results in similar "dropout" colors as UDFj-39546284.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2013; 765(1). DOI:10.1088/2041-8205/765/1/L2 · 5.60 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

19k Citations
1,796.58 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 1925–2015
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2002–2014
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Astronomy
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1990–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Concepción
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
  • 1997–2009
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1986–2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 2004
    • NASA
      Вашингтон, West Virginia, United States
  • 1987–2003
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
  • 1983–1999
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994–1996
    • University of Groningen
      • Kapteyn Astronomical Institute
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
  • 1985–1996
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 1990–1994
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1992
    • Durham University
      Durham, England, United Kingdom
  • 1982
    • Government of British Columbia, Canada
      Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada