G. D. Illingworth

Leiden University, Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands

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Publications (513)1803.7 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) samples observed during reionization ($z\gtrsim6$) with Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field Camera 3 are reaching sizes sufficient to characterize their clustering properties. Using a combined catalog from the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field and CANDELS surveys, containing $N=743$ LBG candidates at z>6.5 at a mean redshift of $z=7.2$, we detect a clear clustering signal in the angular correlation function (ACF) at $\sim4\sigma$, corresponding to a real-space correlation length $r_{0}=6.7^{+0.9}_{-1.0}h^{-1}$cMpc. The derived galaxy bias $b=8.6^{+0.9}_{-1.0}$ is that of dark-matter halos of $M=10^{11.1^{+0.2}_{-0.3}}$M$_{\odot}$ at $z=7.2$, and highlights that galaxies below the current detection limit ($M_{AB}\sim-17.7$) are expected in lower-mass halos ($M\sim10^{8}-10^{10.5}$M$_{\odot}$). We compute the ACF of LBGs at $z\sim3.8-z\sim5.9$ in the same surveys. A trend of increasing bias is found from $z=3.8$ ($b\sim3.0$) to $z=7.2$ ($b\sim8.6$), broadly consistent with galaxies at fixed luminosity being hosted in dark-matter halos of similar mass at $4<z<6$, followed by a slight rise in halo masses at $z\sim7$ ($\sim2\sigma$ confidence). Separating the data at the median luminosity of the $z=7.2$ sample ($M_{UV}=-19.4$) shows higher clustering at $z=5.9$ for bright galaxies ($r_{0}=5.5^{+1.4}_{-1.5}h^{-1}$cMpc, $b=6.2^{+1.2}_{-1.5}$) compared to faint galaxies ($r_{0}=1.9^{+1.1}_{-1.0}h^{-1}$cMpc, $b=2.7\pm1.2$) implying a constant mass-to-light ratio $\frac{dlogM}{dlogL}\sim1.2^{+1.8}_{-0.8}$. A similar trend is present in the $z=7.2$ sample with larger uncertainty. Finally, our bias measurements allow us to investigate the fraction of dark-matter halos hosting UV-bright galaxies (the duty-cycle, $\epsilon_{DC}$). At $z=7.2$ values near unity are preferred, which may be explained by the shortened halo assembly time at high-redshift.
    The Astrophysical Journal 07/2014; 793(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recently, a small sample of six $z\sim9-10$ candidates was discovered in CANDELS that are $\sim10-20\times$ more luminous than any of the previous $z\sim9-10$ galaxies identified over the HUDF/XDF and CLASH fields. We test the nature of these sources by comparing their sizes with the expected sizes of luminous galaxies at $z\sim9-10$. Using galfit to derive sizes from the CANDELS F160W images of these candidates, we find a mean size of 0.16" $\pm$ 0.06" (or $0.6\pm0.3$ kpc at $z\sim9-10$). This is much smaller than the 0.59" mean size found for lower redshift IRAC-red interlopers, and handsomely matches the 0.16 (0.6 kpc) size expected from extrapolating lower redshift measurements to $z\sim9-10$. Assuming the bright sample is at $z\sim9-10$, we use this sample to extend current constraints on the size-luminosity, size-mass relation, and size evolution of galaxies to $z\sim10$. We find that the $z\sim9-10$ candidate galaxies have similar sizes and luminosities as their $z\sim7$ counterparts. They have star-formation-rate surface densities in the range of $\Sigma_{SFR} = 1-10 ~ M_\odot ~ yr^{-1} ~ kpc^{-2}$, similar to those measured for lower-redshift ($z = 6-8$). The stellar mass-size relation is uncertain, but also similar to those inferred for galaxies at z=6, 7 and 8. In combination with previous size measurements at z=4-7, we find a size evolution of $(1+z)^{-m}$ with $m = 1.0 \pm 0.1$ for $> 0.3L_* (z=3)$ galaxies, consistent with the evolution previously derived from $2 < z < 8$ galaxies.
    06/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: The remarkable HST datasets from the CANDELS, HUDF09, HUDF12, ERS, and BORG/HIPPIES programs have allowed us to map out the evolution of the UV LF from z~10 to z~4. We develop new color criteria that more optimally utilize the full wavelength coverage from the optical+near-IR observations over our search fields, while simultaneously minimizing the incompleteness and eliminating redshift gaps. We have identified 5991, 3391, 940, 598, 225, and 6 galaxy candidates at z~4, z~5, z~6, z~7, z~8, and z~10, respectively from the ~1000 arcmin**2 area covered by these datasets. The large z~4-8 samples we have identified in the five CANDELS fields allow us to assess the cosmic variance; the largest variations are apparent at z>=7. Our new LF determinations at z~4 and z~5 span a 6-mag baseline (-22.5 to -16 AB mag). These determinations agree well with previous estimates, but the larger samples and the larger volumes probed here result in a more reliable sampling of >L* galaxies and allow us to reassess the form of the UV LFs. Our new LF results strengthen our earlier findings to 4.5 sigma significance for a steeper UV LF at z>4, with alpha evolving from alpha=-1.64+/-0.04 at z~4 to alpha=-2.06+/-0.12 at z~7. The observed steepening of the UV LF is consistent with that expected from the evolution of the halo mass function. With our improved constraints at the bright end, we find less evolution in the characteristic luminosity M* over the redshift range z~4 to z~7 consistent with current models; the observed evolution in the LF is now largely represented by changes in phi*. Even with the much larger sample of bright galaxies, we find no evidence for the LF having a non-Schechter-like form at z~4-8. A simple conditional LF model based on halo growth and a modest evolution in the M/L of halos provides a good representation of the evolution of the UV LF.
    03/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present K-band spectra of rest-frame optical emission lines for 24 star-forming galaxies at z~3.2-3.7 using MOSFIRE on the Keck 1 telescope. Strong rest-frame optical [O III] and Hbeta emission lines were detected in 18 LBGs. The median flux ratio of [O III]5007 to Hbeta is 5.1+/-0.5, a factor of 5-10x higher than in local galaxies with similar stellar masses. The observed Hbeta luminosities are in good agreement with expectations from the estimated star-formation rates, and none of our sources are detected in deep X-ray stacks, ruling out significant contamination by active galactic nuclei. Combining our sample with a variety of LBGs from the literature, including 49 galaxies selected in a very similar manner, we find a high median ratio of [OIII]/Hbeta = 4.8+0.8-1.7. This high ratio seems to be an ubiquitous feature of z~3-4 LBGs, very different from typical local star-forming galaxies at similar stellar masses. The only comparable systems at z~0 are those with similarly high specific star-formation rates, though ~5x lower stellar masses. High specific star-formation rates either result in a much higher ionization parameter or other unusual conditions for the interstellar medium, which result in a much higher [OIII]/Hbeta line ratio. This implies a strong relation between a global property of a galaxy, the specific star-formation rate, and the local conditions of ISM in star-forming regions.
    01/2014;
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    ABSTRACT: We present direct observational evidence for star formation quenching in galaxy groups in the redshift range 0<z<2.5. We utilize a large sample of nearly 6000 groups, selected by fixed cumulative number density from three photometric catalogs, to follow the evolving quiescent fractions of central and satellite galaxies over roughly 11 Gyr. At z~0, central galaxies in our sample range in stellar mass from Milky Way/M31 analogs (M=6.5x10^10 M\solar) to nearby massive ellipticals (M=1.5x10^11 M\solar). Satellite galaxies in the same groups reach masses as low as twice that of the Large Magellanic Cloud (M=6.5x10^9 M\solar). Using statistical background subtraction, we measure the average rest-frame colors of galaxies in our groups and calculate the evolving quiescent fractions of centrals and satellites over seven redshift bins. Our analysis shows clear evidence for star formation quenching in group halos, with a different quenching onset for centrals and their satellite galaxies. Using halo mass estimates for our central galaxies, we find that star formation shuts off in centrals when typical halo masses reach between 10^12 and 10^13 M\solar, consistent with predictions from the halo quenching model. In contrast, satellite galaxies in the same groups most likely undergo quenching by environmental processes, whose onset is delayed with respect to their central galaxy. Although star formation is suppressed in all galaxies over time, the processes that govern quenching are different for centrals and satellites. While mass plays an important role in determining the star formation activity of central galaxies, quenching in satellite galaxies is dominated by the environment in which they reside.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2014; 789(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present an analysis of $\sim$1500 H160-selected photometric galaxies detected to a limiting magnitude of 27.8 in the HUDF, using imaging from the HST WFC3/IR camera in combination with archival UV, optical, and NIR imaging. We fit photometric redshifts and stellar population estimates for all galaxies with well-determined Spitzer IRAC fluxes, allowing for the determination of the cumulative mass function within the range $1<z<6$. By selecting samples of galaxies at a constant cumulative number density, we explore the co-evolution of stellar masses and star formation rates from z$\sim$6. We find a steady increase in the SFRs of galaxies at constant number density from z$\sim$6 to z$\sim$3. The peak epoch of star formation is found to shift to later times for galaxies with increasing number densities, in agreement with the expectations from cosmic downsizing. The observed SFRs can fully account for the mass growth to z$\sim$2 amongst galaxies with cumulative number densities greater than 10$^{-3.5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. For galaxies with a lower constant number density we find the observed stellar masses are $\sim$3 times greater than that which may be accounted for by the observed star formation alone at late times, implying that growth from mergers plays an important role at $z<2$. We additionally observe a decreasing sSFR, equivalent to approximately one order of magnitude, from z$\sim$6 to z$\sim$2 amongst galaxies with number densities less than 10$^{-3.5}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ along with significant evidence that at any redshift the sSFR is higher for galaxies at higher number density. The combination of these findings can qualitatively explain the previous findings of a sSFR plateau at high redshift. Tracing the evolution of the fraction of quiescent galaxies for samples matched in cumulative number density over this redshift range, we find no unambiguous examples of quiescent galaxies at $z>4$.
    The Astrophysical Journal 10/2013; 780(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Ultra-deep Spitzer IUDF images have enabled the detection of a dozen individual z~8 galaxies in one IRAC field over the HUDF. This remarkable result demonstrated what can be done by combining deep matched HST WFC3/IR and Spitzer IRAC images. Obtaining large, statistically-robust samples of z~7-9 galaxies in the reionization epoch requires much larger Spitzer areal coverage to match the current deep HST data in the GOODS fields. Large samples of high-redshift galaxies with IRAC measurements would allow unbiased estimates of mass-to-light ratios, stellar masses, star formation histories, and provide age constraints. We propose to observe the CANDELS-Deep areas in GOODS-South and GOODS-North at 3.6 and 4.5 micron to 27.5 mag (AB, 3sigma) in 8 deep IRAC fields, reducing cosmic variance and guaranteeing IRAC detection of nearly every individual source found in the deep H<27.8 catalogs. Individual detections are essential for correcting for strong nebular emission lines. After modeling neighboring sources, clean IRAC photometry is recovered for ~80% of all sources. This will quadruple the number of IRAC-detected galaxies at z~7-9 to over 200 galaxies, many with significantly enhanced S/N. For these 200 z~7-9 galaxies rest-frame optical emission lines and rest-frame UV-optical colors can be measured, allowing us to investigate trends with luminosity, redshift, and far-UV slope to characterize the early build-up of galaxies. Our sample of individual detections will reach to ~10e8 Msun at z~4 and sample >50% of the total stellar mass density to z~8. The combined HST+Spitzer imaging will provide a unique legacy data set, unparalleled until the launch of JWST 5+ years from now, and will provide insurance as no space mission is 100% guaranteed. The star formation histories and mass densities of typical galaxies at all redshifts back to z~9-10 can be characterized through such a legacy dataset. This will be a stunning demonstration of the capabilities of Spitzer.
    Spitzer Proposal. 10/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: We present the discovery of four surprisingly bright (H_160 ~ 26 - 27 mag AB) galaxy candidates at z~9-10 in the complete HST CANDELS WFC3/IR GOODS-N imaging data, doubling the number of z~10 galaxy candidates that are known, just 500 Myr after the Big Bang. These sources were identified in a search over the full CANDELS-Deep dataset, building on our previous analysis of the HUDF09/XDF fields and GOODS-S. Three of these four galaxies are significantly detected at 4.5-6.2sigma in the very deep Spitzer/IRAC 4.5 micron data. Furthermore, the brightest of our candidates (at z=10.2+-0.4) is robustly detected also at 3.6 micron (6.9sigma), revealing a flat UV spectral energy distribution with a slope beta=-2.0+-0.2, consistent with demonstrated trends with luminosity at high redshift. The abundance of these luminous candidates suggests that the luminosity function evolves more significantly in phi_* than in L_* at z>~8. Despite the discovery of these luminous candidates, the cosmic star formation rate density for galaxies with SFR >0.7 M_sun yr^-1 shows an order-of-magnitude increase in only 170 Myr from z ~ 10 to z ~ 8, consistent with previous results. Based on the IRAC detections, we derive galaxy stellar masses at z~10, finding that these luminous objects are typically 10^9 M_sun. This allows for a first estimate of the cosmic stellar mass density at z~10 resulting in log rho* = 4.7^+0.5_-0.9 M_sun Mpc^-3 for galaxies brighter than M_UV~-18. The remarkable brightness, and hence luminosity, of these z~9-10 candidates highlights the opportunity for deep spectroscopy to determine their redshift and nature, and demonstrates the value of additional search fields to understand star-formation in the very early universe.
    09/2013; 786(2).
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    ABSTRACT: We measure the UV-continuum slope beta for over 4000 high-redshift galaxies over a wide range of redshifts z~4-8 and luminosities from the HST HUDF/XDF, HUDF09-1, HUDF09-2, ERS, CANDELS-N, and CANDELS-S data sets. Our new beta results reach very faint levels at z~4 (-15.5 mag: 0.006 L*(z=3)), z~5 (-16.5 mag: 0.014L*(z=3)), and z~6 and z~7 (-17 mag: 0.025 L*(z=3)). Inconsistencies between previous studies led us to conduct a comprehensive review of systematic errors and develop a new technique for measuring beta that is robust against biases that arise from the impact of noise. We demonstrate, by object-by-object comparisons, that all previous studies, including our own and those done on the latest HUDF12 dataset, suffer from small systematic errors in beta. We find that after correcting for the systematic errors (typically d(beta) ~0.1-0.2) all beta results at z~7 from different groups are in excellent agreement. The mean beta we measure for faint (-18 mag: 0.1L*(z=3)) z~4, z~5, z~6, and z~7 galaxies is -2.03+/-0.03+/-0.06 (random and systematic errors), -2.14+/-0.06+/-0.06, -2.24+/-0.11+/-0.08, and -2.33+/-0.16+/-0.13, respectively. Our new beta values are redder than we have reported in the past, but bluer than other recent results. Our previously reported trend of bluer beta's at lower luminosities is confirmed, as is the evolution to bluer beta's at high redshifts. beta appears to show only a mild luminosity dependence faintward of M(UV,AB) ~ -19 mag, suggesting that the mean beta asymptotes to ~ -2.2 to -2.4 for faint z>~4 galaxies. At z~7, the observed beta's suggest non-zero, but low dust extinction, and they agree well with values predicted in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations.
    06/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: The eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) combines data from ten years of observations with the HST Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Wide-Field Camera 3 Infra-Red (WFC3/IR) into the deepest image of the sky ever in the optical/near-IR. Since the initial observations on the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field (HUDF) in 2003, numerous surveys and programs, including supernova followup, HUDF09, CANDELS, and HUDF12 have contributed additional imaging data across the HUDF region. Yet these have never been combined and made available as one complete ultra-deep optical and near-infrared image dataset. We do so now for the eXtreme Deep Field (XDF) program. Our new and improved processing techniques provide higher quality reductions of the total dataset. All WFC3 near-IR and optical ACS data sets have been fully combined and accurately matched, resulting in the deepest imaging ever taken at these wavelengths ranging from 29.1 to 30.3 AB mag (5sigma in a 0.35" diameter aperture) in 9 filters. The gains in the optical for the four filters done in the original ACS HUDF correspond to a typical improvement of 0.15 mag, with gains of 0.25 mag in the deepest areas. Such gains are equivalent to adding ~130 to ~240 orbits of ACS data to the HUDF. Improved processing alone results in a typical gain of ~0.1 mag. Our 5sigma (optical+near-IR) SExtractor catalogs reveal about 14140 sources in the full field and about 7121 galaxies in the deepest part of the XDF (the HUDF09 region). The XDF is the deepest image of the universe ever taken, reaching, in the combined image for a flat f_nu source, to 31.2 AB mag 5sigma (32.9 at 1sigma) in a 0.35" diameter aperture.
    The Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series 05/2013; · 16.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The Spitzer Extended Deep Survey (SEDS) is a very deep infrared survey within five well-known extragalactic science fields: the UKIDSS Ultra-Deep Survey, the Extended Chandra Deep Field South, COSMOS, the Hubble Deep Field North, and the Extended Groth Strip. SEDS covers a total area of 1.46 deg2 to a depth of 26 AB mag (3σ) in both of the warm Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) bands at 3.6 and 4.5 μm. Because of its uniform depth of coverage in so many widely-separated fields, SEDS is subject to roughly 25% smaller errors due to cosmic variance than a single-field survey of the same size. SEDS was designed to detect and characterize galaxies from intermediate to high redshifts (z = 2-7) with a built-in means of assessing the impact of cosmic variance on the individual fields. Because the full SEDS depth was accumulated in at least three separate visits to each field, typically with six-month intervals between visits, SEDS also furnishes an opportunity to assess the infrared variability of faint objects. This paper describes the SEDS survey design, processing, and publicly-available data products. Deep IRAC counts for the more than 300,000 galaxies detected by SEDS are consistent with models based on known galaxy populations. Discrete IRAC sources contribute 5.6 ± 1.0 and 4.4 ± 0.8 nW m–2 sr–1 at 3.6 and 4.5 μm to the diffuse cosmic infrared background (CIB). IRAC sources cannot contribute more than half of the total CIB flux estimated from DIRBE data. Barring an unexpected error in the DIRBE flux estimates, half the CIB flux must therefore come from a diffuse component.
    The Astrophysical Journal 05/2013; 769(1):80. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a comprehensive analysis of z>8 galaxies based on ultra-deep WFC3/IR data. We constrain the evolution of the UV luminosity function (LF) and luminosity densities from z~11 to z~8 by exploiting all the WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra-Deep Field from the HUDF09 and the new HUDF12 program, in addition to the HUDF09 parallel field data, as well as wider area WFC3/IR imaging over GOODS-South. Galaxies are selected based on the Lyman Break Technique in three samples centered around z~9, z~10 and z~11, with seven z~9 galaxy candidates, and one each at z~10 and z~11. We confirm a new z~10 candidate (with z=9.8+-0.6) that was not convincingly identified in our first z~10 sample. The deeper data over the HUDF confirms all our previous z>~7.5 candidates as genuine high-redshift candidates, and extends our samples to higher redshift and fainter limits (H_160~29.8 mag). We perform one of the first estimates of the z~9 UV LF and improve our previous constraints at z~10. Extrapolating the lower redshift UV LF evolution should have revealed 17 z~9 and 9 z~10 sources, i.e., a factor ~3x and 9x larger than observed. The inferred star-formation rate density (SFRD) in galaxies above 0.7 M_sun/yr decreases by 0.6+-0.2 dex from z~8 to z~9, in good agreement with previous estimates. The low number of sources found at z>8 is consistent with a very rapid build-up of galaxies across z~10 to z~8. From a combination of all current measurements, we find a best estimate of a factor 10x decrease in the SFRD from z~8 to z~10, following (1+z)^(-11.4+-3.1). Our measurements thus confirm our previous finding of an accelerated evolution beyond z~8, and signify a rapid build-up of galaxies with M_UV<-17.7 within only ~200 Myr from z~10 to z~8, in the heart of cosmic reionization.
    The Astrophysical Journal 01/2013; 773(1). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present deep WFC3 grism observations of the candidate z~12 galaxy UDFj-39546284 in the HST Ultra Deep Field (UDF), by combining spectroscopic data from the 3D-HST and CANDELS surveys. The total exposure time is 40.5 ks and the spectrum covers 1.10 < {\lambda} < 1.65{\mu}m. We search for faint emission lines by cross-correlating the 2D G141 spectrum with the observed H160 morphology, a technique that is unique to slitless spectroscopy at HST resolution. We find a 2.7{\sigma} detection of an emission line at 1.599 {\mu}m---just redward of the JH140 filter---with flux 3.5 +/- 1.3x10-18 erg/s/cm2. Assuming the line is real, it contributes 110 +/- 40% of the observed H160 flux and has an observed equivalent width > 7300 {\AA}. If the line is confirmed, it could be Ly-{\alpha} at z = 12.12. However, a more plausible interpretation, given current results, could be a lower redshift feature such as [O III]{\lambda}4959,5007 at z = 2.19. We find two other 3D-HST [O III] emitters within 1000 km/s of that redshift in the GOODS-South field. Additional support for this interpretation comes from the discovery of a bright "[O III] blob" with a secure G141 grism redshift of z = 1.605. This object has a strikingly large observed equivalent width of nearly 9000 {\AA} that results in similar "dropout" colors as UDFj-39546284.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 01/2013; 765(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
  • Pascal Oesch, I. Labbe, R. Bouwens, G. D. Illingworth, XDF
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    ABSTRACT: The HST WFC3/IR camera has enabled remarkable progress over the last two years in the study of the first generations of galaxies. We can now identify large samples of galaxies in the heart of cosmic reionization, at z=7-8, and even get a first glimpse out to 10. However, HST only samples the rest-frame UV light of galaxies at z>4, providing extremely limited information on the stellar masses of these early sources. Fortunately, several Spitzer programs have complemented the deep HST fields, such as the HUDF09 and CANDELS fields, with deep Spitzer/IRAC [3.6] and [4.5] imaging. In particular, our IUDF10 Spitzer program brought the IRAC imaging over the HUDF to a total exposure time of 120h, reaching to ~27.0 mag (3sigma AB mag total). These data allow for reliable stellar mass estimates of galaxies out to 8. In this talk, I will present some of our recent results on the stellar mass build-up of galaxies in the first 2Gyr from the combination of HST and Spitzer data over the HUDF09, XDF and CANDELS fields.
    01/2013;
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    ABSTRACT: Ultra-deep WFC3/IR observations on the HUDF from the HUDF09 program revealed just one plausible z~10 candidate UDFj-39546284. UDFj-39546284 had all the properties expected of a galaxy at z~10 showing (1) no detection in the deep ACS+WFC3 imaging data blueward of the F160W band, exhibiting (2) a blue spectral slope redward of the break, and showing (3) no prominent detection in deep IRAC observations. The new, similarly deep WFC3/IR HUDF12 F160W observations over the HUDF09/XDF allow us to further assess this candidate. These observations show that this candidate, previously only detected at ~5.9 sigma in a single band, clearly corresponds to a real source. It is detected at ~5.3 sigma in the new H-band data and at ~7.8 sigma in the full 85-orbit H-band stack. Interestingly, the non-detection of the source (<1 sigma) in the new F140W observations suggests a higher redshift. Formally, the best-fit redshift of the source utilizing all the WFC3+ACS (and IRAC+K-band) observations is 11.8+/-0.3. However, we consider the z~12 interpretation somewhat unlikely, since the source would either need to be ~20x more luminous than expected or show very high-EW Ly-alpha emission (which seems improbable given the extensive neutral gas prevalent early in the reionization epoch). Lower-redshift solutions fail if only continuum models are allowed. Plausible lower-redshift solutions require that the H-band flux be dominated by line emission such as Halpha or [OIII] with extreme EWs. The tentative detection of line emission at 1.6 microns in UDFj-39546284 in a companion paper suggests that such emission may have already been found.
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 11/2012; 765(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present a study of rest-frame UV-to-optical color distributions for z~4 galaxies based on the combination of deep HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data with Spitzer/IRAC imaging. In particular, we use new, ultra-deep data from the IRAC Ultradeep Field program (IUDF10). Our sample contains a total of ~2600 galaxies selected as B-dropout Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in the HUDF and one of its deep parallel fields, the HUDF09-2, as well as GOODS-North and South. This sample is used to investigate the UV continuum slopes beta and Balmer break colors (J_125-[4.5]) as a function of rest-frame optical luminosity. The [4.5] filter is chosen to avoid potential contamination by strong rest-frame optical emission lines. We find that galaxies at M_z<-21.5 (roughly corresponding to L*[z~4]) are significantly redder than their lower luminosity counterparts. The UV continuum slopes and the J_125-[4.5] colors are well correlated. The most simple explanation for this correlation is that the dust reddening at these redshifts is better described by an SMC-like extinction curve, rather than the typically assumed Calzetti reddening. After correcting for dust, we find that the galaxy population shows mean stellar population ages in the range 10^8.5 to 10^9 yr, with a dispersion of ~0.5 dex, and only weak trends as a function of luminosity. In contrast to some results from the literature, we find that only a small fraction of galaxies shows Balmer break colors which are consistent with extremely young ages, younger than 100 Myr. Under the assumption of smooth star-formation histories, this fraction is only 12-19% for galaxies at M_z<-19.75. Our results are consistent with a gradual build-up of stars and dust in galaxies at z>4, with only a small fraction of stars being formed in short, intense bursts of star-formation.
    The Astrophysical Journal 11/2012; 772(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Using new ultradeep Spitzer/IRAC photometry from the IRAC Ultradeep Field program (IUDF), we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z~8, only 650Myr after the Big Bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage at 3.6 micron and 4.5 micron to ~120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ~28 (AB,1 sigma). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct >3 sigma IRAC detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at > 5 sigma. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z~8 are markedly redder than those at z~7, observed only 130Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [OIII]4959,5007+Hbeta) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z~7 and z~8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of W([OIII]4959,5007+Hbeta) = 670 (+260,-170) Angstrom contributing 0.56 (+0.16,-0.11) mag to the 4.5 micron filter at z~8. The corresponding W(Halpha) = 430 (+160,-110) Angstrom implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR = 11 (+11,-5) Gyr^-1 and a stellar population age of 100 (+100,-50) Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by x3, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to rho*(z=8,MUV<-18)=0.6 (+0.4,-0.3) x 10^6 Msun Mpc^-3.
    The Astrophysical Journal 09/2012; · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We present stellar mass surface density profiles of a mass-selected sample of 177 galaxies at 0.5 < z < 2.5, obtained using very deep HST optical and near-infrared data over the GOODS-South field, including recent CANDELS data. Accurate stellar mass surface density profiles have been measured for the first time for a complete sample of high-redshift galaxies more massive than 10^10.7 M_sun. The key advantage of this study compared to previous work is that the surface brightness profiles are deconvolved for PSF smoothing, allowing accurate measurements of the structure of the galaxies. The surface brightness profiles account for contributions from complex galaxy structures such as rings and faint outer disks. Mass profiles are derived using radial rest-frame u-g color profiles and a well-established empirical relation between these colors and the stellar mass-to-light ratio. We derive stellar half-mass radii from the mass profiles, and find that these are on average ~25% smaller than rest-frame g band half-light radii. This average size difference of 25% is the same at all redshifts, and does not correlate with stellar mass, specific star formation rate, effective surface density, Sersic index, or galaxy size. Although on average the difference between half-mass size and half-light size is modest, for approximately 10% of massive galaxies this difference is more than a factor two. These extreme galaxies are mostly extended, disk-like systems with large central bulges. These results are robust, but could be impacted if the central dust extinction becomes high. ALMA observations can be used to explore this possibility. These results provide added support for galaxy growth scenarios wherein massive galaxies at these epochs grow by accretion onto their outer regions.
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 763(2). · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: We use the ultra-deep HUDF09 and the deep Early Release Science data from the HST WFC3/IR camera, along with the wide-area Spitzer/IRAC data from GOODS-S to derive spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of star-forming galaxies from the rest-frame UV to the optical over a wide luminosity range (M 1500 ~ –21 to M 1500 ~ –18) from z ~ 7 to z ~ 4. The sample contains ~400 z ~ 4, ~120 z ~ 5, ~60 z ~ 6, and 36 z ~ 7 galaxies. Median stacking enables the first comprehensive SED study of very faint high-z galaxies at multiple redshifts (e.g., [3.6] = 27.4 ± 0.1 AB mag for the M 1500 ~ –18 sources at z ~ 4). At z ~ 4, we study the stacked SEDs over a range of 5 mag reaching down to ~0.06L*z = 4. We use all available SEDs and template fits to derive rest-frame UV-to-optical colors (U – V) at all redshifts and luminosities. We find that this color does not vary significantly with redshift at a fixed luminosity. The UV-to-optical color does show a weak trend with luminosity, becoming redder at higher luminosities. This is most likely due to dust. At z 5, we find blue [3.6]-[4.5] colors ~ –0.3 mag that are most likely due to rest-frame optical emission lines contributing to the flux in the IRAC filter bandpasses. Such contributions would lower both ages and masses by ~2 ×. The scatter in our derived SEDs remains large, but the results are most consistent with a lack of any evolution in the SEDs with redshift at a given luminosity. The uniformity of the SEDs suggests a self-similar mode of evolution over a timespan from 0.7 Gyr to 1.5 Gyr after the big bang that encompasses very substantial growth in the stellar mass density in the universe (from ~4 × 106 to ~2 × 107M ☉ Mpc–3).
    The Astrophysical Journal 08/2012; 755(2):148. · 6.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: For the first time, we study the evolution of the stellar mass-size relation for star-forming galaxies from z ~ 4 to z ~ 7 from Hubble-WFC3/IR camera observations of the HUDF and Early Release Science (ERS) field. The sizes are measured by determining the best fit model to galaxy images in the rest-frame 2100 \AA \ with the stellar masses estimated from SED fitting to rest-frame optical (from Spitzer/IRAC) and UV fluxes. We show that the stellar mass-size relation of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) persists, at least to z ~ 5, and the median size of LBGs at a given stellar mass increases towards lower redshifts. For galaxies with stellar masses of 9.5<Log(M*/Msun)<10.4 sizes evolve as $(1+z)^{-1.20\pm0.11}$. This evolution is very similar for galaxies with lower stellar masses of 8.6<Log(M*/Msun)<9.5 which is $r_{e} \propto (1+z)^{-1.18\pm0.10}$, in agreement with simple theoretical galaxy formation models at high z. Our results are consistent with previous measurements of the LBGs mass-size relation at lower redshifts (z ~ 1-3).
    The Astrophysical Journal Letters 07/2012; 756(1). · 6.35 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

13k Citations
1,803.70 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2007–2014
    • Leiden University
      • Leiden Observartory
      Leyden, South Holland, Netherlands
  • 1990–2013
    • Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics
      • Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
    • Harvard University
      Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
  • 1925–2013
    • University of California, Santa Cruz
      • Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 2011
    • University of Concepción
      Ciudad de Concepcion, Biobío, Chile
  • 2010
    • University of Colorado
      Denver, Colorado, United States
  • 1997–2009
    • University of California Observatories
      Santa Cruz, California, United States
  • 1993–2008
    • Johns Hopkins University
      • Department of Physics and Astronomy
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States
  • 1996–2007
    • The University of Arizona
      • Department of Astronomy
      Tucson, Arizona, United States
  • 2003
    • National Research Council Canada
      Ottawa, Ontario, Canada
  • 2002
    • University of Florida
      • Department of Astronomy
      Gainesville, Florida, United States
  • 1999–2001
    • Carnegie Institution for Science
      • Department of Terrestrial Magnetism
      Washington, West Virginia, United States
    • University of Cambridge
      • Institute of Astronomy
      Cambridge, England, United Kingdom
  • 1994
    • University of Groningen
      Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands
    • Max Planck Institute for Astronomy
      Heidelburg, Baden-Württemberg, Germany
    • California Institute of Technology
      • Infrared Processing and Analysis Center
      Pasadena, CA, United States
  • 1992–1993
    • Arizona State University
      Phoenix, Arizona, United States
  • 1986–1987
    • Space Telescope Science Institute
      Baltimore, Maryland, United States