M M Al-Eknah

King Faisal University, Al Hadā, Makkah, Saudi Arabia

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Publications (24)21.55 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Fifteen parturient camels given chlortetracycline (CTC) as intrauterine pessaries (3 g/head) were divided into the control group (n = 5), which remained untreated, oxytocin-treated group (50 IU, intramuscular; n = 5), and cloprostenol-treated group (Estrumate, 500 μg, intramuscular; n = 5). Serum samples were collected at 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours after treatment and CTC was determined. The CTC appeared in blood within 1 hour. The maximum concentration of CTC was detected in blood after 72 (543.58 ± 117.85 μg/L), 8 (520.48 ± 13.65 μg/L), and 1 hour (831.98 ± 111.01 μg/L) of administration in control, oxytocin-, and PGF2α-treated camels, respectively. There was a high significant effect of time (P < 0.001) and treatment-by-time interaction (P < 0.001) on serum CTC concentration. In the control group, there was a significant (P < 0.05) increase in CTC concentrations at 72 hours compared to the other times. In the oxytocin group, there was a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in CTC concentrations at 24, 48, and 72 hours compared to its level after 1 or 8 hours. In PGF2α, there was a significant (P < 0.001) decrease in CTC concentrations at 2, 4, 8, 24, 48, and 72 hours compared to its level after 1 hour. Treatment contrast at different time points showed a significant (P < 0.001) increase in CTC concentration after 1 hour in the PGF2α-treated group compared to oxytocin and control groups. By 72 hours, CTC concentrations were significantly (P < 0.05) lower in PGF2α and oxytocin groups than in the control group. In conclusion, serum CTC concentration in dromedary camels increases within 1 hour after intrauterine administration and remains elevated for at least 72 hours in control, oxytocin-, and PGF2α-treated animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Theriogenology 05/2015; 84(4). DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2015.04.028 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    Mohamed A.B. Mandour · Salah A. Al-Shami · Marzook M. Al-Eknah
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    ABSTRACT: Under tropical environments cow’s body condition at calving may influence productivity and health performance. Therefore, the current research evaluated the impact of body condition score (BCS) at calving on milk production traits and health problems of primiparous and multiparous cows raised under two cooling systems in semi-arid environment. Milk yield parameters and health disorders data at different parities were obtained from 1700 Holstein cows, which were managed under Korral Kool (KKC) and fan (FC) cooling systems in Saudi Arabia. The results revealed that KKC system induced high level of milk production improvement (305TM, days in milk, daily milk yield) (P<0.05) compared to FC, especially in multiparous cows. There was an advantage of the high BCS group under KKC system over the FC system for peak yield and period. Cows from both cooling systems having moderate BCS outdid the other groups for total milk yield. Low BCS primiparous cows reared under KKC system were the most to suffer from stillbirth (18%), and calving ease (26.1%) in winter, while high BCS were the most to be treated for mastitis (8.5% in summer). On the other hand, spring calved multiparous cows raised under FC system suffered more from lameness (21.57% - high BCS) and milk fever (4.4% - moderate BCS). Further, cows having moderate BCS kept under KKC system had the highest incidence of lameness (62.2%), and abomasum displacement (4.4%). In conclusion, achieving correct BCS at calving and cooling system is important to avoid calving subsequent lactation performance and metabolic disease losses.
    02/2015; 14(1). DOI:10.4081/ijas.2015.3690
  • I.M. Ghoneim · M.M. Waheed · Mohammed I. Adam · M.M. Al-Eknah
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    ABSTRACT: Thirteen dromedaries were used to study the relationship between the size of the dominant follicle, vaginal electrical resistance (VER), sexual receptivity, and serum concentrations of oestradiol-17β (E2) and progesterone (P4) throughout the follicular phase. On a daily basis, the animals experienced teasing with a vasectomised camel, trans-rectal ultrasound examination of the ovaries, and measurement of VER and blood collection for serum E2 and P4. Results revealed no significant differences between the mean VER in the animals that had a follicle of 5–10 mm (group I, n = 11), 11–15 mm (group II, n = 12) and 16–20 mm (group III, n = 13). The VER did not correlate with the follicular size. The E2 concentrations in the animals in groups II (60.14 pg/ml) and III (66.52 pg/ml) were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those of animals in group I (48.31 pg/ml). E2 was positively correlated (r = 0.50; P < 0.05) with the overall size of the follicles. The P4 concentration was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the animals of group II than in those in groups I and III. Serum P4 concentrations were inversely correlated (r = −0.40; P < 0.05) with the overall size of the follicles. Complete sexual receptivity was reported in 63.64%, 16.67% and 76.92% of the animals in groups I, II and III, respectively. In group III, significant (P < 0.05) complete sexual receptivity was confirmed. However, 23.08% of the animals were incompletely receptive. In conclusion, impedometric characteristics of the vaginal mucosa were not a reliable method for predicting the dominant follicular size during the follicular phase in dromedary camels.
    Animal Reproduction Science 01/2015; 154. DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2015.01.003 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: A series of five factorial arranged experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of different management during semen collection on the microbial quality (bacterial load, type of microbes and frequency of isolation) of dromedaries’ semen. Microbial analysis of seventy-nine fresh ejaculates from twenty-two camels showed the presence of nine variant colonies. The most prevalent organisms in the dromedary semen were species of Staphylococcus, Bacillus and Streptococcus. One yeast species was represented among the isolates. The middle aged camels (9–13 years) had significantly (P > 0.05) higher mean bacterial loads than young (4–8 years) and old aged (14–18 years) animals. The mean bacterial populations of ejaculates collected by an electro-ejaculator were significantly (P > 0.05) higher than those collected by an artificial vagina. Candida spp. was identified in 53.8% of the samples collected by an electro-ejaculator and was not detected in ejaculates collected by an artificial vagina. The mean semen bacterial load detected during the breeding season was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that collected during the non-breeding season. No fungi were isolated from semen samples collected in the non-breeding season. The difference between the mean semen bacterial loads in the first and the second ejaculate was highly significant (P < 0.01). The preputial wash significantly (P < 0.01) reduced the bacterial load. This study revealed that the microbial contamination of dromedaries’ semen is found in different intensities during different management procedures of semen collection.
    Animal Reproduction Science 10/2014; 149(3-4). DOI:10.1016/j.anireprosci.2014.07.021 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current work was carried out to study some biochemical and hematological picture associated with pyometra and endormetritis in dromedary camels. The study involved 67 animals suffered from endometritis, 61 animals suffered from pyometra and 28 normal fertile female dromedaries. The hematological analysis revealed that, the Hemoglobin (Hb) values were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in affected than normal animals. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) did not differ significantly among dromedaries of the three groups. The cellular components of blood did not vary significantly in the studied animals. The serum analysis of albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase N-acetylcysteine (CK-NAC), glucose, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and total protein showed no significance difference in the studied groups. Uric acid decreased significantly (P<0.05) in affected animals than control.
    Journal of Camel Practice and Research 06/2014; 21:99-102. · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The study involved 67 animals suffered from endometritis, 61 animals suffered from pyometra and 28 normal fertile female dromedaries. The haematological analysis revealed that the haemoglobin (Hb) values were significantly (P <0.05) higher in affected than normal animals. Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (map did not differ significantly among dromedaries of the 3 groups. The cellular components of blood did not vary significantly. The serum analysis of albumin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total bilirubin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), calcium, cholesterol, creatine kinase N-acetylcysteine (CK-NAC), glucose, inorganic phosphorus, magnesium and total protein showed no significant difference. Uric acid decreased significantly (P<0.05) in affected animals than control.
    Journal of Camel Practice and Research 06/2014; 21(1):99. DOI:10.5958/2277-8934.2014.00019.8 · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: This study was designed to explore the safety and side effects of the different extracts (water, ethanolic and methanolic) of Achillea fragrantissima given acutely or on repeated doses (125 and 250 mg/kg) in rats. Acute and subchronic toxicity, as well as reproductive (fertility, embryotoxicity and teratogenecity, peri-and postnatal study) effects were recorded on treated and control rats. Daily administration of the plant extract revealed no significant changes on the body weights, heart rates, and other physiological parameters. The plant extract induced a significant increase in total proteins and globulins in rats. It did not induce any abnormal liver and kidney functional changes as demonstrated by serum biochemical analysis in rats. Interestingly, the plant extract induced a significant decrease in alkaline phosphatase (ALP), urea and creatinine. Significant decrease in blood glucose level was detected in animals receiving 250 mg/kg of the extract. The plant extract did not affect fertility. Dosed males showed comparable data with the controls when dosed at 250 mg/kg b.wt. It did not cause any embryotoxic, teratogenic or any deleterious effects on the dosed females and their offspring. Litter size, survival rate and weight gain were comparable between groups. In conclusion, A. fragrantissima extract is a well tolerated substance and had a wide safety margin. The tested plant extracts did not induce any toxic effects even on repeated administration in rats for 2 months. Additionally, no evidences of impaired fertility, or teratogenic potentials at higher doses up to several times the recommended maximum human doses were detected.
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    ABSTRACT: The objective of this work was to study the biochemical and haematological indices of three coat color breed groups, black, brown and white, of Saudi dromedary camels. Twenty, one hundred and fifty seven and thirty two samples were collected from each of the three groups, respectively. Normal hematological (RBC: erythrocyte count, PCV: packed cell volume, Hb: hemoglobin concentration, MCV: mean corpuscular volume, MCH: mean corpuscular haemoglobin and MCHC: mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration) and biochemical parameters (mineral indices: calcium “Ca”, magnesium “Mg” and phosphorous “P” and organic indices: T.protein ‘’T.P’’, Albumin ‘’Alb’’, glucose “Glu”, cholesterol “Chol”, and urea “urea” and enzymes: aspartate aminotransferase “AST”, creatinine kinase “CK”, alanine amino transferase “ALAT” and alkaline phosphatase ‘’ALP’’) have been determined in three coat color breeds of Saudi Arabia camels (Camelus dromedaries). Statistical analysis showed some significant differences between the three breeds. In conclusion, There are few variations between the present findings and those from previous workers that may be attributed to the breed differences, nutrition, and husbandry or assay methodology besides the obvious differences in physical characteristics, such as hair color, there are basic metabolic differences, since this experiment was conducted within the critical thermal high zone for the three breeds. Findings of the current study provide baseline values that may be used by clinicians for the main breeds of camels in Saudi Arabia.
  • I M Ghoneim · M M Waheed · S M El-Bahr · A.K. Alhaider · M M Al-Eknah
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    ABSTRACT: The current study was carried out to compare some biochemical and hormonal constituents in follicular fluids from oversized follicles, preovulatory follicles, and serum in camels (Camelus dromedarius). Follicular fluids from oversized follicles (N = 10), preovulatory follicles (N = 10), and sera were harvested from 20 dromedaries. The follicular fluids and sera were subjected to biochemical and hormonal analysis. The results indicated no significant differences in the concentrations of ascorbic acid, glucose, cholesterol, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase between follicular fluid from oversized follicles and preovulatory follicles. In addition, there were no significant variations in the level of ascorbic acid, glucose, cholesterol, and acid phosphatase in the serum of animals with oversized follicles and those with preovulatory follicles. Serum alkaline phosphatase was significantly greater (P < 0.05) in camels with oversized follicles. The concentrations of estradiol-17β (E2) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in the follicular fluid of oversized follicles were significantly lower (P < 0.01) than that from preovulatory follicles. There were no differences in the concentrations of progesterone, tri-iodothyronine, and thyroxin between follicular fluid from oversized follicles and that of preovulatory follicles. The concentrations of E2, progesterone, tri-iodothyronine, thyroxin, cortisol, and IGF-1 were not different in the serum of camels with oversized follicles and camels with preovulatory follicles. The current study revealed that the significant differences of biochemical and hormonal constituents between follicular fluids from oversized follicles and preovulatory follicles were restricted on E2 and IGF-1. Relaying on the aforementioned outcome we can suggest that oversized follicle phenomenon is a form of follicular atresia of anovulatory follicles.
    Theriogenology 01/2013; 79(4). DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.11.019 · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • I M Ghoneim · M M Waheed · M M Al-Eknah · S M El-Bahr
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of immunization against gonadotrophin releasing hormone (GnRH) on sexual behavior, total scrotal size, semen characteristics and serum concentrations of testosterone, was evaluated for 24 wks in sexually mature camels (Camelus dromedarius). Eight bull camels were randomly divided into a treatment and control group. Four male camels were immunized using 2 mg GnRH - tandem-dimer conjugated to ovalbumin, (Pepscan Systems, the Netherlands) administered subcutaneously, 4 wks apart. Control male camels received the same amount of saline solution. Significant decline in serum testosterone level was observed in three immunized camels out of four, whereas one camel showed no effect. The testosterone levels reached to <1.0 ng/mL serum by week 4 after booster injection and remained suppressed through the course of the study. The total testicular volume was not affected until the end of the experiment. In treated animals, the sexual behavior negatively affected after the booster injection. Anti-GnRH vaccine had a seriously detrimental effect on the acrosin amidase activity and normal acrosome percentages in treated male camels. It is concluded that the vaccine was effective in reducing serum testosterone levels and libido, and it had a serious harmful effect on the acrosin amidase activity and percentages of spermatozoa with normal acrosome. The immunogen did not affect the total testicular volume.
    Theriogenology 07/2012; 78(5):1102-9. DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2012.05.005 · 1.80 Impact Factor
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    M M Waheed · M M Al-Eknah · S M El-Bahr
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    ABSTRACT: Testicles were isolated from thirty five apparently healthy dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius), aged between 5 to 18 years, in a local slaughterhouse during the rutting season. Epididymal fluid was collected from one epididymis for determination of twelve biochemical and antioxidant parameters using ELISA commercial kits. Spermatozoa were harvested from each region of the other epididymis (head, body and tail) and stored in SHOTOR®, Green buffer® + 20% egg yolk and INRA-96® extenders at 5 and 30 °C. Results revealed that, in the epididymal fluid, concentrations of testosterone, glucose, albumin, total protein, cholesterol, fatty acids, iron, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 5.19 ± 1.69 ng/mL, 3.10 ± 0.41 mmol/L, 6.26 ± 1.26 g/dL, 0.50 ± 0.07 mg/dL, 1.74 ± 0.09 mmol/L, 6.62 ± 0.81 nmol/ul, 926.20 ± 100.18 ug/dL, 51.17 ± 7.74 mIU/ml, and 143.16 ± 18.67 mIU/ml, respectively. The antioxidants activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in the epididymal fluid were 121.55 ± 6.57 nmol/min/ml, 59.35 ± 10.98 nmol/min/ml and 0.18 ± 0.03 U/ml, respectively. Epididymal sperm motility and concentration were higher (P < 0.05) in the body and tail than the head. The viability indices of total and forward sperm motility, at 5 and 30 °C, obtained from the tail region were superior (P < 0.05) in both SHOTOR® and INRA-96® extenders than Green buffer extender. It may be concluded that INRA-96® extender is the best for storing dromedary epididymal spermatozoa at 5 and 30 °C.
    Theriogenology 07/2011; 76(6):1126-33. DOI:10.1016/j.theriogenology.2011.05.021 · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • M.M. Waheed · I.M. Ghoneim · M.M. Al-Eknah · A.K. Al-haider
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    ABSTRACT: The present study was designed to compare between Tris-fructose yolk and Green buffer-yolk extenders on preserving dromedary camel spermatozoa at 5°C. Forty eight ejaculates were collected from seven mature dromedary camels using a modified bull artificial vagina with a neoprene liner and a camel collecting glass. Two aliquots from each ejaculate were extended 1:1 in the Tris-fructose egg yolk and Green buffer-yolk extenders. The percentage of progressively motile spermatozoa was determined after dilution at 35°C, after cooling to 5°C and after 24, 48 and 72 hours in both extenders and the viability indices were computed. Smears from the extended semen stained with Spermac® and vital stain were examined for abnormal acrosome %, live sperm % and percentages of sperm abnormalities. The Green buffer-yolk extender was superior to Tris – fructose yolk in the mean values of motility at 0 and 24 hours (P<0.01) of preservation at 5ºC. No motile spermatozoa were observed in Tris-fructose yolk extender at 48 hours of storage at 5ºC. Green buffer-yolk was more beneficial (P<0.05) to camel spermatozoa than the Tris-fructose yolk extender in the percentage of abnormal acrosome and the percentage of live sperm at 24 and 48 hours of chilled storage of semen. There was a highly significant (P<0.01) difference in the rate of increase of abnormal acrosome between the Tris – fructose yolk (193.00 %) and Green buffer-yolk (79.01%) extenders. Key words: Acrosome, dromedary, extender
    Journal of Camel Practice and Research 12/2010; 17(1):217-220. · 0.09 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Sections of camel uterus stained with immunoperoxidase for demonstration of estrogen and progesterone receptors showed that receptors for the two hormones were confined to epithelial nuclei. Staining intensity was stronger for progesterone receptors during estrus and pregnancy but weaker for estrogen receptors during pregnancy. In ovariectomized camels intramuscular administration of estradiol benzoate at a dose of 5 mg animal -1 increased uterine progesterone and estrogen receptor concentrations. Administration of progesterone at a dose of 100 mg per animal decreased steroid receptor concentrations. It is suggested that in the camel, uterine steroid receptors are up-regulated by estradiol and down-regulated by progesterone.
    01/2010; 4(1):5-8. DOI:10.3923/rjpharm.2010.5.8
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    ABSTRACT: Bilateral ovariectomy was performed in three parous, non-pregnant camels. Intrauterine and intraabdominal pressure changes were recorded using balloon-tipped catheters. Uterine contractions were induced and maintained in the ovariectomized camels by daily intramuscular injections of 5 mg oestradiol benzoate throughout the experimental period. The frequency of uterine contractions varied from 6 to 9 per minute, whereas the amplitude varied from 2 to 3 kPa in all the animals. Inducing hypocalcaemia to a level of 0.5 mmol/L by Na2EDTA reduced the amplitude of the contractions to below 1 kPa (p < 0.001). The frequency of the contractions was not affected.
    Veterinary Research Communications 02/1997; 21(1):45-50. DOI:10.1023/B:VERC.0000009700.44186.99 · 1.24 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: During oestrous cycles of the camel, spontaneous uterine contractions were correlated significantly with plasma oestradiol-17 beta concentration. Ovariectomy in the camel resulted in a decreased plasma concentration of oestradiol-17 beta (< 15 pg ml-1) and progesterone (< 0.1 ng ml-1) and caused complete cessation of uterine activity. Daily administration of oestradiol benzoate (5 mg, intramuscularly) increased the plasma concentration of oestradiol-17 beta (> 45 pg ml-1) and increased the frequency and amplitude of uterine activity. Coadministration of progesterone (100 mg, intramuscularly) increased the plasma concentration of progesterone (> 4 ng ml-1) and increased the frequency but not amplitude of uterine activity. It is suggested that uterine activity in the camel is correlated with the circulating levels of oestradiol-17 beta and progesterone.
    Research in Veterinary Science 12/1993; 55(3):382-4. DOI:10.1016/0034-5288(93)90113-T · 1.41 Impact Factor
  • Marzook M. Al-Eknah · E.A. Dafalla · A.M. Homeida · A.K.A. Galil · A.Y. Al-Taher
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    ABSTRACT: Spontaneous uterine activity was studied in three cyclical female camels implanted with balloon-tipped catheters connected to pressure transducers. Another camel was not operated upon. The frequency of contractions in both horns varied from zero to a maximum of 90 h−1, whereas the amplitude of contractions varied from zero to a maximum of 3.5 kPa during the experimental period. Uterine activity was higher in the left horn. Concentrations of oestradiol-17β increased as the follicle grew in size in the non-operated camel. The pattern of uterine activity was correlated with the circulating levels of oestradiol-17β (r=0.83, P<0.001, n=3). It was concluded that uterine activity in the camel is dependent on oestrogen level.
    Animal Reproduction Science 07/1993; 32(1-2-32):91-97. DOI:10.1016/0378-4320(93)90060-5 · 1.51 Impact Factor
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    A M Homeida · M M Al-Eknah
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    ABSTRACT: Early corpus luteum development in nonpregnant and pregnant goats was characterized by a steady increase in peripheral plasma concentrations of progesterone and a high release of prostacyclin (PGI-2) but low release of prostaglandin F-2 alpha (PGF-2 alpha). Jugular administration of oxytocin antagonist (OXA) (0.2 microgram/kg/day) on the day of oestrus and for 3 days thereafter to cyclic and mated goats, significantly (P less than 0.001) inhibited progesterone and prostaglandin secretion and reduced conception rate. Co-administration of PGI-2 (200 micrograms/day) with OXA resulted in a steady increase of progesterone and establishment of pregnancy, but co-administration of PGF-2 alpha (175 micrograms/day) with OXA had no effect. It is suggested that oxytocin is required for early development of the corpus luteum and such effects may be mediated via PGI-2 production.
    J Reprod Fertil 02/1992; 94(1):279-85. DOI:10.1530/jrf.0.0940279
  • M M Al-Eknah · A M Homeida · A.K.A. Galil · A.E. Elbashir
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    ABSTRACT: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of oxytocin administration on plasma progesterone concentration and cervical mucus content of protein and acid and alkaline phosphatase activity in the goat. Oxytocin administered to goats (100 IU, S.C. daily) between Days 3 and 6 of estrous cycle induced estrus and resulted in a corresponding decrease in the levels of plasma progesterone, as well as in the contents of protein and in acid and alkaline phosphatase in the cervical mucus. Administration of indomethacin (10 mg/kg body weight, S.C.) inhibited oxytocin-induced estrus and changes in progesterone, protein and enzymes. It is suggested that oxytocin-induced changes are mediated via the production and release of prostaglandin F2alpha (PGF2alpha).
    Theriogenology 08/1991; 36(1):143-8. DOI:10.1016/0093-691X(91)90443-H · 1.80 Impact Factor
  • M M al-Eknah · A M Homeida
    Veterinary Research Communications 02/1991; 15(1):45-55. DOI:10.1007/BF00497789 · 1.24 Impact Factor
  • M M al-Eknah · D E Noakes
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    ABSTRACT: Uterine activity was monitored in three, 2-year-old nulliparous Ayrshire heifers using intrauterine balloon-tipped catheters and pressure transducers during the oestrous cycle, after ovariectomy and following the intravenous infusion of progesterone and oestradiol-17 beta. During the oestrous cycle uterine activity, as measured by the frequency and amplitude of contractions, was greatest around oestrus and declined during the luteal phase of the cycle; there was a close correlation with peripheral progesterone concentrations. In two animals after bilateral ovariectomy spontaneous uterine activity persisted, whilst in the third animal the uterus was quiescent. In the first two heifers intravenous progesterone infusions reduced the spontaneous uterine activity, eventually completely abolishing it. There was evidence of a dose response effect at the two infusion rates. Oestradiol benzoate infusions initially inhibited spontaneous uterine activity before stimulating contractions with some evidence of a dose relationship. As demonstrated in normal cyclical and steroid-infused animals, uterine activity appears to be under the influence of both hormones although the influence of progesterone is greater.
    British Veterinary Journal 07/1989; 145(4):328-36. DOI:10.1016/0007-1935(89)90030-4

Publication Stats

40 Citations
21.55 Total Impact Points


  • 1991–2015
    • King Faisal University
      • • Department of Clinical Studies
      • • College of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Resources
      Al Hadā, Makkah, Saudi Arabia
  • 1988–1989
    • Royal Veterinary College
      Londinium, England, United Kingdom