Yan Zhang

Sun Yat-Sen University, Shengcheng, Guangdong, China

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Publications (9)25.38 Total impact

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To address difficulty in isolating the adhered periarterial vein in microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy, we introduced the transfixing microsuture method as well as to evaluate the impact of this technical modification on the surgical success of varicocele repair. We retrospectively evaluated 4 patients with a mean age of 31.5 years who underwent subinguinal varicocelectomy with transfixion of the difficult-to-isolate periarterial vein (a 9-0 transfixing microsuture was placed transversely through the periarterial vein as near to the adjacent border between the testicular artery and adherent vein as possible; then, it was knotted to nick or completely ligate the lumen.) The incidence of recurrence or persistence, postoperative hydrocele formation, sperm improvement, and symptom release was analyzed. In 4 cases, the periarterial vein transfixing procedures were performed with a mean follow-up of 6 months. No postoperative recurrence or hydrocele was identified postoperatively. One patient reported no symptom improvement, but there was significant improvement in the symptoms and/or semen parameters in the other 3 patients. Postoperative ultrasonography evaluation revealed that there was no postoperative varicocele recurrence or persistence, no hydrocele formation, and no testicular atrophy. When the adhered periarterial vein is difficult to isolate and ligate, transfixing the vein with a microsuture in microsurgical subinguinal varicocelectomy is a viable compromise that reduces the incidence of postoperative recurrence or persistence without serious complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
    Urology 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2014.12.043 · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • The Journal of Urology 04/2014; 191(4-4, Supplement):e745 -. DOI:10.1016/j.juro.2014.02.2060 · 3.75 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose Many authors reported that microsurgical varicocelectomy was among the best treatment modalities for varicocele. However, the difference in intraoperative anatomic detail between macroscopic and microsurgical varicocele repair in the same spermatic cord has not been critically discussed. Methods Between August 2010 and February 2011, 32 men with 42 sides’ grade 2–3 varicocele were enrolled in this study. One surgeon firstly mimicked the modified open varicocelectomy by identifying, isolating, and marking the presumed internal spermatic veins, lymphatics, and arteries. Another surgeon then checked the same spermatic cord using operating microscope to investigate the number of missed veins, to be ligated lymphatics and arteries in the “imitative” open varicocelectomy. Results There were significant differences in the average number of internal spermatic arteries (1.67 vs. 0.91), internal spermatic veins (6.45 vs. 4.31), and lymphatics (2.93 vs. 1.17) between microscopic and macroscopic procedure (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, respectively). Meanwhile, an average of 2.14 ± 1.26 internal spermatic veins was missed; among them, 1.63 ± 1.32 internal spermatic veins adherent to the preserved testicular artery were overlooked. The number of 0.69 ± 0.84 lymphatics and 0.74 ± 0.74 arteries were to be ligated in “macroscopic varicocelectomy.” A number of 1.07 ± 1.11 lymphatics were neither identified nor ligated. In addition, in 2 cases, the vasal vessels of the vas deferens were to be ligated at macroscopic procedure. Conclusions Microsurgical varicocelectomy could preserve more internal spermatic arteries and lymphatic and ligate more veins which may interpret the superiority of microsurgical varicocele repair.
    World Journal of Urology 09/2012; 31(3). DOI:10.1007/s00345-012-0950-x · 3.42 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: CpG-oligonucleotides (CpG-ODNs), mimicking bacterial DNA, have recently been shown to stimulate prostate cancer invasion in vitro via Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9). Since cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), frequently overexpressed in multiple tumor types including prostate cancer, is a causal factor for tumor development, invasion and metastasis, an interesting question is raised whether TLR9 regulates COX-2 expression in prostate cancer cells. To address this question, herein we examined COX-2 expression in PC-3 cells stimulated with different doses and time courses of CpG-ODNs. The regulatory role of NF-kappaB in TLR9-mediated COX-2 expression was also investigated. CpG-ODN was found to up-regulate the expression of COX-2 in PC-3 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but have little impact on COX-1 expression. Moreover, CpG-ODN also promoted nuclear translocation and activation of NF-kappaB, which appeared to be required for COX-2 induction by CpG-ODN. Overall, TLR9 up-regulates COX-2 expression in prostate cancer cells, at least partially through the activation of NF-kappaB, which may be implicated in tumor invasion and metastasis.
    Molecular Biology Reports 08/2009; 37(4):1849-55. DOI:10.1007/s11033-009-9620-5 · 1.96 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The common surgery for venous leakage was not very successful; unsatisfactory long-term results have reduced the indications for venous surgery for erectile dysfunction (ED). To assess the outcomes of embedding the deep dorsal vein of the penis (EDDVP), a new surgical technique used in patients with penile deep dorsal venous leakage of ED. Between December 2001 and November 2007, 17 patients diagnosed with penile deep dorsal venous leakage of ED underwent embedding the deep dorsal vein of the penis. All cases were available for follow up by using the abridged 5-item version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF-5) scoring system and penile color Doppler ultrasound. Dynamic cavernosography were also assessed in three patients at 3 months postoperatively. After surgery, 14 patients were able to achieve satisfactory intercourse and three had sufficient erection after oral sildenafil (50-100 mg). The IIEF-5 scoring changed from a preoperative mean IIEF-5 score of 8.8 +/- 3.9 to 20.8 +/- 4.1 (P < 0.05). Peak systolic velocity (average of right and left cavernosal arteries) changed from 41.9 +/- 7.7 cm/second to 44.2 +/- 9.2 cm/second (P > 0.05), resistance index changed from 0.79 +/- 0.1 to 1.00 +/- 0.0 (P < 0.05), and venous velocity changed from 8.4 +/- 4.0 cm/second to 0.0 +/- 0.0 cm/second (P < 0.05). Dynamic cavernosography demonstrated a smooth flow of the deep dorsal vein during the flaccid phase. During the tumescent phase, the deep dorsal vein of the penis was compressed between the dilated sinusoidal spaces and the tunica albuginea and resulted in venous drainage blockade. And then the hardness of erection was improved and maintained. The new surgical technique of EDDVP is a simple operative procedure, which seems to be efficient in the treatment of penile deep dorsal venous leakage of ED.
    Journal of Sexual Medicine 05/2009; 6(5):1467-73. DOI:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01080.x · 3.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Recent observations suggest an implication of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in tumor lymphangiogenesis through an upregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression. However, it is unclear whether COX-2 is also associated with VEGF-C expression, tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis in human prostate cancer. COX-2 and VEGF-C expression were examined in tumor tissues from 58 prostate cancer patients using immunohistochemical staining. We also analyzed the association of COX-2 and VEGF-C expression with tumor lymphangiogenesis quantified as lymphatic vessel density (LVD), lymph node metastasis, and patients' biochemical progression-free survival (b-PFS). High expression of either COX-2 or VEGF-C was correlated with tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis, as well as poor b-PFS. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between expression of COX-2 and VEGF-C (r = 0.631, p <0.001). COX-2 is positively associated with VEGF-C expression, tumor lymphangiogenesis and lymphatic metastasis in prostate cancer. These findings suggest that COX-2 may play a pivotal role in lymphangiogenesis and lymph node metastasis of prostate cancer via the regulation of VEGF-C expression.
    Archives of medical research 05/2009; 40(4):268-75. DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2009.03.002 · 2.41 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The lack of curative therapies for advanced prostate cancer (PCa) has prompted a search for novel treatments such as immunotherapy. In this study, we analyzed whether dendritic cells (DCs) from healthy donors transduced with a PSMA-encoding adenovirus (Ad-PSMA) and cocultured with autologous cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) can induce a strong specific immune response against PCa cells in vitro. Ad-PSMA was constructed by DNA recombination. DCs and CIKs were prepared by cytokines induction from peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and flow cytometry was used to measure the phenotypes of DCs and CIKs. DCs were transduced with Ad-PSMA and then cocultured with autologous CIKs. The cytotoxicity of the cocultured cells against specific target LNCaP cells and control targets DU145 and PC3 cells was analyzed by a 4-h LDH release assay. DCs were transduced with Ad-PSMA with transfection efficiency of 70% and the transduction did not alter typical morphology of mature DCs. The PSMA protein was effectively expressed in DCs, which were transfected with Ad-PSMA. Ad-PSMA-transduced DCs stimulated CIKs strongly to lyse about 75% of PSMA-expressing PCa cells. Furthermore, the cocultivation of Ad-PSMA-transduced DCs with CIKs could significantly increase the production of interferon-gamma after restimulated with PSMA peptide mixtures. The data demonstrate that DCs, which were transduced with a PSMA-expressing adenovirus and cocultured with autologous CIKs, induce a PSMA-specific, strong immune response against PCa cells. Therefore, this approach may have a potential for an adoptive immunotherapy for patients with advanced PCa.
    Urologic Oncology 02/2008; 27(1):26-32. DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2007.09.003 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we evaluated antitumor effects of allotumour RNA-transfected dendritic cells (DCs) cocultured with autologous cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) on hormone-refractory prostate cancer. The cocultured cells enhanced prostate cancer cytolysis from 26% (CIKs-induced cytolysis) to 80.8%. They also increased the productions of CD4(+) Th1 (IFN-γ(+)IL-4(-), 55.52%) and CD8(+) T (IFN-γ(+), 69.59%) cells determined by intracellular cytokines IFN-γ /IL-4 staining and reduced the rate of CD4(+) CD25(+) cells from 18.72% (in CIKs) to 9.72%. The cocultured cells significantly inhibited tumor growth in SCID mouse and induced cancer cells necrosis and apoptosis. Our study indicates that tumor RNA-pulsed DCs cocultured with autologous CIKs significantly enhance antitumor immunity, which can be induced by increased CD4(+) Th1 and CD8(+) T cells and decreased CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T(reg)) cells. This provides a potential immunotherapy strategy for HRPC.
    Cancer Investigation 11/2007; 25(7):527-34. DOI:10.1080/07357900701511789 · 2.06 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify differential protein expression in penile tissue in a rat model of erectile dysfunction (ED) at an early stage after bilateral cavernosal nerve (CN) neurectomy, using proteomic techniques. Twelve male adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two equal groups, one having bilateral CN resection and one a control group. The penises were harvested 7 days after CN resection. Total protein was separated into >1250 protein spots by two-dimensional electrophoresis using pH 3-10 nonlinear immobilized pH gradient strips. Differential expression of proteins was analysed using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry and database searching. Thirty-two proteins were significantly changed in the denervated penis, of which 25 (including nine up-regulated and 16 down-regulated) with cytoskeletal functions, and pathophysiological functions related to energy metabolism and oxidative stress, were identified. Examples include transgelin, creatine kinase B, annexin-1 and galactin-7. The expression of several important proteins participating in pathophysiological processes of penile tissue are changed early after bilateral CN neurectomy. These changes might give new insights into the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in neurogenic ED development, and indicate potential therapeutic targets.
    BJU International 07/2007; 99(6):1500-5. DOI:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2007.06775.x · 3.13 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

43 Citations
25.38 Total Impact Points


  • 2007–2012
    • Sun Yat-Sen University
      Shengcheng, Guangdong, China
  • 2009
    • Sun Yat-Sen University of Medical Sciences
      • Department of Urology
      Huicheng, Guangdong, China