Yan Zhang

Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, United States

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Publications (35)256.74 Total impact

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    ABSTRACT: Trace elements are essential for human metabolism and dysregulation of their homoeostasis is associated with numerous disorders. Here we characterize mechanisms that regulate trace elements in human cells by designing and performing a genome-wide high-throughput siRNA/ionomics screen, and examining top hits in cellular and biochemical assays. The screen reveals high stability of the ionomes, especially the zinc ionome, and yields known regulators and novel candidates. We further uncover fundamental differences in the regulation of different trace elements. Specifically, selenium levels are controlled through the selenocysteine machinery and expression of abundant selenoproteins; copper balance is affected by lipid metabolism and requires machinery involved in protein trafficking and post-translational modifications; and the iron levels are influenced by iron import and expression of the iron/haeme-containing enzymes. Our approach can be applied to a variety of disease models and/or nutritional conditions, and the generated data set opens new directions for studies of human trace element metabolism.
    Nature Communications 02/2014; 5:3301. · 10.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The trace element selenium (Se) is required for the biosynthesis of selenocysteine (Sec), the 21st amino acid in the genetic code, but its role in the ecology of harmful algal blooms (HABs) is unknown. Here, we examined the role of Se in the biology and ecology of the harmful pelagophyte, Aureococcus anophagefferens, through cell culture, genomic analyses, and ecosystem studies. This organism has the largest and the most diverse selenoproteome identified to date that consists of at least 59 selenoproteins, including known eukaryotic selenoproteins, selenoproteins previously only detected in bacteria, and novel selenoproteins. The A. anophagefferens selenoproteome was dominated by the thioredoxin fold proteins and oxidoreductase functions were assigned to the majority of detected selenoproteins. Insertion of Sec in these proteins was supported by a unique Sec insertion sequence. Se was required for the growth of A. anophagefferens as cultures grew maximally at nanomolar Se concentrations. In a coastal ecosystem, dissolved Se concentrations were elevated before and after A. anophagefferens blooms, but were reduced by >95% during the peak of blooms to 0.05 nM. Consistent with this pattern, enrichment of seawater with selenite before and after a bloom did not affect the growth of A. anophagefferens, but enrichment during the peak of the bloom significantly increased population growth rates. These findings demonstrate that Se inventories, which can be anthropogenically enriched, can support proliferation of HABs, such as A. anophagefferens through its synthesis of a large arsenal of Se-dependent oxidoreductases that fine-tune cellular redox homeostasis.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 March 2013; doi:10.1038/ismej.2013.25.
    The ISME Journal 03/2013; · 8.95 Impact Factor
  • Vadim N Gladyshev, Yan Zhang
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    ABSTRACT: Biological trace metals are needed in small quantities, but used by all living organisms. They are employed in key cellular functions in a variety of biological processes, resulting in the various degree of dependence of organisms on metals. Most effort in the field has been placed on experimental studies of metal utilization pathways and metal-dependent proteins. On the other hand, systemic level analyses of metalloproteomes (or metallomes) have been limited for most metals. In this chapter, we focus on the recent advances in comparative genomics, which provides many insights into evolution and function of metal utilization. These studies suggested that iron and zinc are widely used in biology (presumably by all organisms), whereas some other metals such as copper, molybdenum, nickel, and cobalt, show scattered occurrence in various groups of organisms. For these metals, most user proteins are well characterized and their dependence on a specific element is evolutionarily conserved. We also discuss evolutionary dynamics of the dependence of user proteins on different metals. Overall, comparative genomics analysis of metallomes provides a foundation for the systemic level understanding of metal utilization as well as for investigating the general features, functions, and evolutionary dynamics of metal use in the three domains of life.
    Metal ions in life sciences. 01/2013; 12:529-80.
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    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Methionine (Met) residues in proteins can be readily oxidized by reactive oxygen species to Met sulfoxide (MetO). MetO is a promising physiological marker of oxidative stress and its inefficient repair by MetO reductases (Msrs) has been linked to neurodegeneration and aging. Conventional methods of assaying MetO formation and reduction rely on chromatographic or mass spectrometry procedures, but the use of Met-rich proteins (MRPs) may offer a more streamlined alternative. RESULTS: We carried out a computational search of completely sequenced genomes for MRPs deficient in cysteine (Cys) residues and identified several proteins containing 20% or more Met residues. We used these MRPs to examine Met oxidation and MetO reduction by in-gel shift assays and immunoblot assays with antibodies generated against various oxidized MRPs. The oxidation of Cys-free MRPs by hydrogen peroxide could be conveniently monitored by SDS-PAGE and was specific for Met, as evidenced by quantitative reduction of these proteins with Msrs in DTT- and thioredoxin-dependent assays. We found that hypochlorite was especially efficient in oxidizing MRPs. Finally, we further developed a procedure wherein antibodies made against oxidized MRPs were isolated on affinity resins containing same or other oxidized or reduced MRPs. This procedure yielded reagents specific for MetO in these proteins, but proved to be ineffective in developing antibodies with broad MetO specificity. CONCLUSION: Our data show that MRPs provide a convenient tool for characterization of Met oxidation, MetO reduction and Msr activities, and could be used for various aspects of redox biology involving reversible Met oxidation.
    BMC Biochemistry 10/2012; 13(1):21. · 1.78 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals due to its presence in proteins in the form of selenocysteine (Sec). Human genome codes for 25 Sec-containing protein genes, and mouse and rat genomes for 24. We characterized the selenoproteomes of 44 sequenced vertebrates by applying gene prediction and phylogenetic reconstruction methods, supplemented with the analyses of gene structures, alternative splicing isoforms, untranslated regions, SECIS elements, and pseudogenes. In total, we detected 45 selenoprotein subfamilies. 28 of them were found in mammals, and 41 in bony fishes. We define the ancestral vertebrate (28 proteins) and mammalian (25 proteins) selenoproteomes, and describe how they evolved along lineages through gene duplication (20 events), gene loss (10 events) and replacement of Sec with cysteine (12 events). We show that an intronless selenophosphate synthetase 2 gene evolved in early mammals and replaced functionally the original multiexon gene in placental mammals, whereas both genes remain in marsupials. Mammalian thioredoxin reductase 1 and thioredoxin-glutathione reductase evolved from an ancestral glutaredoxin-domain containing enzyme, still present in fish. Selenoprotein V and GPx6 evolved specifically in placental mammals from duplications of SelW and GPx3, respectively, and GPx6 lost Sec several times independently. Bony fishes were characterized by duplications of several selenoprotein families (GPx1, GPx3, GPx4, Dio3, MsrB1, SelJ, SelO, SelT, SelU1, and SelW2). Finally, we report identification of new isoforms for several selenoproteins and describe unusually conserved selenoprotein pseudogenes. This analysis represents the first comprehensive survey of the vertebrate and mammal selenoproteomes, and depicts their evolution along lineages. It also provides a wealth of information on these selenoproteins and their forms.
    PLoS ONE 01/2012; 7(3):e33066. · 3.73 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenoprotein K (SelK) is an 11-kDa endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein of unknown function. Herein, we defined a new eukaryotic protein family that includes SelK, selenoprotein S (SelS), and distantly related proteins. Comparative genomics analyses indicate that this family is the most widespread eukaryotic selenoprotein family. A biochemical search for proteins that interact with SelK revealed ER-associated degradation (ERAD) components (p97 ATPase, Derlins, and SelS). In this complex, SelK showed higher affinity for Derlin-1, whereas SelS had higher affinity for Derlin-2, suggesting that these selenoproteins could determine the nature of the substrate translocated through the Derlin channel. SelK co-precipitated with soluble glycosylated ERAD substrates and was involved in their degradation. Its gene contained a functional ER stress response element, and its expression was up-regulated by conditions that induce the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the ER. Components of the oligosaccharyltransferase complex (ribophorins, OST48, and STT3A) and an ER chaperone, calnexin, were found to bind SelK. A glycosylated form of SelK was also detected, reflecting its association with the oligosaccharyltransferase complex. These data suggest that SelK is involved in the Derlin-dependent ERAD of glycosylated misfolded proteins and that the function defined by the prototypic SelK is the widespread function of selenium in eukaryotes.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 12/2011; 286(50):42937-48. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Cysteine (Cys) peroxiredoxins (Prxs), which include mammalian Prxs I–IV, possess two conserved Cys residues that are readily oxidized by H2O2 to form a disulfide. In the case of Prx I–III, the disulfide is reduced by thioredoxin, thus enabling these proteins to function as peroxidases. Prx IV was shown previously to be synthesized as a 31-kDa polypeptide with an NH2-terminal signal peptide that is subsequently cleaved to generate a 27-kDa form of the protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. A form of Prx IV, larger than 27 kDa revealed by immunoblot analysis was suggested to represent the unprocessed, 31-kDa form, but this larger form was detected only in spermatids of the postpubertal testis. We now show that the larger form of Prx IV (here designated Prx IV-L) detected in the testis is actually a product of alternative transcription of the Prx IV gene that is encoded by newly identified exon 1A together with exons 2–7 that are shared with the 27-kDa form (designated Prx IV-S). Prx IV-L was detected in spermatids but not in mature sperm, it could form disulfide-linked dimers but not higher order oligomers via oxidation, and it was resistant to hyperoxidation unless additional reductant was added, suggesting that its peroxidase activity is limited in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Prx IV-S gene is present in all vertebrates examined, whereas the Prx IV-L gene was detected only in placental mammals. We suggest that Prx IV-L functions as an H2O2 sensor that mediates protein thiol oxidation required for the maturation of spermatozoa in placental mammals.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2011; 286(45):39002-39012. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 2-Cysteine (Cys) peroxiredoxins (Prxs), which include mammalian Prxs I-IV, possess two conserved Cys residues that are readily oxidized by H(2)O(2) to form a disulfide. In the case of Prx I-III, the disulfide is reduced by thioredoxin, thus enabling these proteins to function as peroxidases. Prx IV was shown previously to be synthesized as a 31-kDa polypeptide with an NH(2)-terminal signal peptide that is subsequently cleaved to generate a 27-kDa form of the protein that is localized to the endoplasmic reticulum. A form of Prx IV, larger than 27 kDa revealed by immunoblot analysis was suggested to represent the unprocessed, 31-kDa form, but this larger form was detected only in spermatids of the postpubertal testis. We now show that the larger form of Prx IV (here designated Prx IV-L) detected in the testis is actually a product of alternative transcription of the Prx IV gene that is encoded by newly identified exon 1A together with exons 2-7 that are shared with the 27-kDa form (designated Prx IV-S). Prx IV-L was detected in spermatids but not in mature sperm, it could form disulfide-linked dimers but not higher order oligomers via oxidation, and it was resistant to hyperoxidation unless additional reductant was added, suggesting that its peroxidase activity is limited in vivo. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Prx IV-S gene is present in all vertebrates examined, whereas the Prx IV-L gene was detected only in placental mammals. We suggest that Prx IV-L functions as an H(2)O(2) sensor that mediates protein thiol oxidation required for the maturation of spermatozoa in placental mammals.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 08/2011; 286(45):39002-12. · 4.65 Impact Factor
  • Yan Zhang, Vadim N Gladyshev
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    ABSTRACT: Biological trace elements are needed in small quantities but are used by all living organisms. A growing list of trace element-dependent proteins and trace element utilization pathways highlights the importance of these elements for life. In this minireview, we focus on recent advances in comparative genomics of trace elements and explore the evolutionary dynamics of the dependence of user proteins on these elements. Many zinc protein families evolved representatives that lack this metal, whereas selenocysteine in proteins is dynamically exchanged with cysteine. Several other elements, such as molybdenum and nickel, have a limited number of user protein families, but they are strictly dependent on these metals. Comparative genomics of trace elements provides a foundation for investigating the fundamental properties, functions, and evolutionary dynamics of trace element dependence in biology.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 05/2011; 286(27):23623-9. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The trace element molybdenum (Mo) is the catalytic component of important enzymes involved in global nitrogen, sulfur, and carbon metabolism in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. With the exception of nitrogenase, Mo is complexed by a pterin compound thus forming the biologically active molybdenum cofactor (Moco) at the catalytic sites of molybdoenzymes. The physiological roles and biochemical functions of many molybdoenzymes have been characterized. However, our understanding of the occurrence and evolution of Mo utilization is limited. This article focuses on recent advances in comparative genomics of Mo utilization in the three domains of life. We begin with a brief introduction of Mo transport systems, the Moco biosynthesis pathway, the role of posttranslational modifications, and enzymes that utilize Mo. Then, we proceed to recent computational and comparative genomics studies of Mo utilization, including a discussion on novel Moco-binding proteins that contain the C-terminal domain of the Moco sulfurase and that are suggested to represent a new family of molybdoenzymes. As most molybdoenzymes need additional cofactors for their catalytic activity, we also discuss interactions between Mo metabolism and other trace elements and finish with an analysis of factors that may influence evolution of Mo utilization.
    Coordination Chemistry Reviews 05/2011; 255(9-10):1206-1217. · 11.02 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Harmful algal blooms (HABs) cause significant economic and ecological damage worldwide. Despite considerable efforts, a comprehensive understanding of the factors that promote these blooms has been lacking, because the biochemical pathways that facilitate their dominance relative to other phytoplankton within specific environments have not been identified. Here, biogeochemical measurements showed that the harmful alga Aureococcus anophagefferens outcompeted co-occurring phytoplankton in estuaries with elevated levels of dissolved organic matter and turbidity and low levels of dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We subsequently sequenced the genome of A. anophagefferens and compared its gene complement with those of six competing phytoplankton species identified through metaproteomics. Using an ecogenomic approach, we specifically focused on gene sets that may facilitate dominance within the environmental conditions present during blooms. A. anophagefferens possesses a larger genome (56 Mbp) and has more genes involved in light harvesting, organic carbon and nitrogen use, and encoding selenium- and metal-requiring enzymes than competing phytoplankton. Genes for the synthesis of microbial deterrents likely permit the proliferation of this species, with reduced mortality losses during blooms. Collectively, these findings suggest that anthropogenic activities resulting in elevated levels of turbidity, organic matter, and metals have opened a niche within coastal ecosystems that ideally suits the unique genetic capacity of A. anophagefferens and thus, has facilitated the proliferation of this and potentially other HABs.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/2011; 108(11):4352-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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    Yan Zhang, Vadim N Gladyshev
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    ABSTRACT: Biological trace elements are required for numerous biological processes and by all organisms. We describe a database, dbTEU (DataBase of Trace Element Utilization), that features known transporters and user proteins for five trace elements (copper, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt and selenium) and represents sequenced organisms from the three domains of life. The manually curated dbTEU currently includes approximately 16,500 proteins from >700 organisms, and offers interactive trace element, protein, organism and sequence search and browse tools. Availability and Implementation: dbTEU is freely available at http://gladyshevlab.bwh.harvard.edu/trace_element/
    Bioinformatics 03/2010; 26(5):700-2. · 5.47 Impact Factor
  • Yan Zhang, Vadim N Gladyshev
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    ABSTRACT: Trace elements are used by all organisms and provide proteins with unique coordination and catalytic and electron transfer properties. Although many trace element-containing proteins are well characterized, little is known about the general trends in trace element utilization. We carried out comparative genomic analyses of copper, molybdenum, nickel, cobalt (in the form of vitamin B(12)), and selenium (in the form of selenocysteine) in 747 sequenced organisms at the following levels: (i) transporters and transport-related proteins, (ii) cofactor biosynthesis traits, and (iii) trace element-dependent proteins. Few organisms were found to utilize all five trace elements, whereas many symbionts, parasites, and yeasts used only one or none of these elements. Investigation of metalloproteomes and selenoproteomes revealed examples of increased utilization of proteins that use copper in land plants, cobalt in Dehalococcoides and Dictyostelium, and selenium in fish and algae, whereas nematodes were found to have great diversity of copper transporters. These analyses also characterized trace element metabolism in common model organisms and suggested new model organisms for experimental studies of individual trace elements. Mismatches in the occurrence of user proteins and corresponding transport systems revealed deficiencies in our understanding of trace element biology. Biological interactions among some trace elements were observed; however, such links were limited, and trace elements generally had unique utilization patterns. Finally, environmental factors, such as oxygen requirement and habitat, correlated with the utilization of certain trace elements. These data provide insights into the general features of utilization and evolution of trace elements in the three domains of life.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/2009; 285(5):3393-405. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Selenium is an essential trace element in mammals. The major biological form of this micronutrient is the amino acid selenocysteine, which is present in the active sites of selenoenzymes. Seven of 25 mammalian selenoproteins have been identified as residents of the endoplasmic reticulum, including the 15-kDa selenoprotein, type 2 iodothyronine deiodinase and selenoproteins K, M, N, S, and T. Most of these proteins are poorly characterized. However, recent studies implicate some of them in quality control of protein folding in the ER, retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the ER to the cytosol, metabolism of the thyroid hormone, and regulation of calcium homeostasis. In addition, some of these proteins are involved in regulation of glucose metabolism and inflammation. This review discusses evolution and structure-function relations of the ER-resident selenoproteins and summarizes recent findings on these proteins, which reveal the emerging important role of selenium and selenoproteins in ER function.
    Antioxidants & Redox Signaling 09/2009; 12(7):839-49. · 8.20 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: 'Recoding' is a term used to describe non-standard read-out of the genetic code, and encompasses such phenomena as programmed ribosomal frameshifting, stop codon readthrough, selenocysteine insertion and translational bypassing. Although only a small proportion of genes utilize recoding in protein synthesis, accurate annotation of 'recoded' genes lags far behind annotation of 'standard' genes. In order to address this issue, provide a service to researchers in the field, and offer training data for developers of gene-annotation software, we have gathered together known cases of recoding within the Recode database. Recode-2 is an improved and updated version of the database. It provides access to detailed information on genes known to utilize translational recoding and allows complex search queries, browsing of recoding data and enhanced visualization of annotated sequence elements. At present, the Recode-2 database stores information on approximately 1500 genes that are known to utilize recoding in their expression--a factor of approximately three increase over the previous version of the database. Recode-2 is available at http://recode.ucc.ie.
    Nucleic Acids Research 09/2009; 38(Database issue):D69-74. · 8.28 Impact Factor
  • Yan Zhang, Vadim N Gladyshev
    Chemical Reviews 06/2009; 109(10):4828-61. · 41.30 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) are trace elements required for a variety of biological processes. Ni is directly coordinated by proteins, whereas Co is mainly used as a component of vitamin B12. Although a number of Ni and Co-dependent enzymes have been characterized, systematic evolutionary analyses of utilization of these metals are limited. We carried out comparative genomic analyses to examine occurrence and evolutionary dynamics of the use of Ni and Co at the level of (i) transport systems, and (ii) metalloproteomes. Our data show that both metals are widely used in bacteria and archaea. Cbi/NikMNQO is the most common prokaryotic Ni/Co transporter, while Ni-dependent urease and Ni-Fe hydrogenase, and B12-dependent methionine synthase (MetH), ribonucleotide reductase and methylmalonyl-CoA mutase are the most widespread metalloproteins for Ni and Co, respectively. Occurrence of other metalloenzymes showed a mosaic distribution and a new B12-dependent protein family was predicted. Deltaproteobacteria and Methanosarcina generally have larger Ni- and Co-dependent proteomes. On the other hand, utilization of these two metals is limited in eukaryotes, and very few of these organisms utilize both of them. The Ni-utilizing eukaryotes are mostly fungi (except saccharomycotina) and plants, whereas most B12-utilizing organisms are animals. The NiCoT transporter family is the most widespread eukaryotic Ni transporter, and eukaryotic urease and MetH are the most common Ni- and B12-dependent enzymes, respectively. Finally, investigation of environmental and other conditions and identity of organisms that show dependence on Ni or Co revealed that host-associated organisms (particularly obligate intracellular parasites and endosymbionts) have a tendency for loss of Ni/Co utilization. Our data provide information on the evolutionary dynamics of Ni and Co utilization and highlight widespread use of these metals in the three domains of life, yet only a limited number of user proteins.
    BMC Genomics 03/2009; 10:78. · 4.40 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Methionine sulfoxide reductases (Msrs) are oxidoreductases that catalyze thiol-dependent reduction of oxidized methionines. MsrA and MsrB are the best known Msrs that repair methionine-S-sulfoxide (Met-S-SO) and methionine-R-sulfoxide (Met-R-SO) residues in proteins, respectively. In addition, an Escherichia coli enzyme specific for free Met-R-SO, designated fRMsr, was recently discovered. In this work, we carried out comparative genomic and experimental analyses to examine occurrence, evolution, and function of fRMsr. This protein is present in single copies and two mutually exclusive subtypes in about half of prokaryotes and unicellular eukaryotes but is missing in higher plants and animals. A Saccharomyces cerevisiae fRMsr homolog was found to reduce free Met-R-SO but not free Met-S-SO or dabsyl-Met-R-SO. fRMsr was responsible for growth of yeast cells on Met-R-SO, and the double fRMsr/MsrA mutant could not grow on a mixture of methionine sulfoxides. However, in the presence of methionine, even the triple fRMsr/MsrA/MsrB mutant was viable. In addition, fRMsr deletion strain showed an increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and a decreased life span, whereas overexpression of fRMsr conferred higher resistance to oxidants. Molecular modeling and cysteine residue targeting by thioredoxin pointed to Cys(101) as catalytic and Cys(125) as resolving residues in yeast fRMsr. These residues as well as a third Cys, resolving Cys(91), clustered in the structure, and each was required for the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The data show that fRMsr is the main enzyme responsible for the reduction of free Met-R-SO in S. cerevisiae.
    Journal of Biological Chemistry 01/2009; 284(7):4354-64. · 4.65 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Synthesis of selenoproteins depends on decoding of the UGA stop codon as the amino acid selenocysteine (Sec). This process requires the presence of a Sec insertion sequence element (SECIS) in the 3'-untranslated region of selenoprotein mRNAs and its interaction with the SECIS binding protein 2 (SBP2). In humans, mutations in the SBP2-encoding gene Sec insertion sequence binding protein 2 (SECISBP2) that alter the amino acid sequence or cause splicing defects lead to abnormal thyroid hormone metabolism. Herein, we present the first in silico and in vivo functional characterization of alternative splicing of SECISBP2. We report a complex splicing pattern in the 5'-region of human SECISBP2, wherein at least eight splice variants encode five isoforms with varying N-terminal sequence. One of the isoforms, mtSBP2, contains a mitochondrial targeting sequence and localizes to mitochondria. Using a minigene-based in vivo splicing assay we characterized the splicing efficiency of several alternative transcripts, and show that the splicing event that creates mtSBP2 can be modulated by antisense oligonucleotides. Moreover, we show that full-length SBP2 and some alternatively spliced variants are subject to a coordinated transcriptional and translational regulation in response to ultraviolet type A irradiation-induced stress. Overall, our data broadens the functional scope of a housekeeping protein essential to selenium metabolism.
    Nucleic Acids Research 12/2008; 36(22):7192-206. · 8.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Translational read-through of the UGA stop codon is an evolutionarily conserved feature that most prominently represents the basis of selenoprotein biosynthesis. It requires a specific cis-acting stem loop control element, termed SECIS, which is located in the 3'-untranslated region of eukaryotic selenoprotein mRNAs. In a search for novel factors underlying the SECIS-directed UGA read-through process, we identified an evolutionary conserved GTPase-activating protein, termed GAPsec. We show that the activity of the Drosophila GAPsec (dGAPsec) is necessary to support SECIS-dependent UGA read-through activity in flies and the mouse homolog mGAPsec in mice tissue culture cells. However, selenoprotein biosynthesis is not impaired in flies that lack dGAPsec activity. The results indicate that GAPsec is part of a novel SECIS-dependent translational read-through system that does not involve selenocysteine incorporation.
    The FASEB Journal 10/2008; 23(1):107-13. · 5.70 Impact Factor

Publication Stats

790 Citations
256.74 Total Impact Points

Institutions

  • 2013
    • Stony Brook University
      • School of Marine and Atmospheric Sciences
      Stony Brook, NY, United States
  • 2010–2013
    • Harvard Medical School
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, Massachusetts, United States
  • 2009–2013
    • Brigham and Women's Hospital
      • Department of Medicine
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2011
    • Boston Children's Hospital
      • Division of Genetics
      Boston, MA, United States
  • 2005–2009
    • University of Nebraska at Lincoln
      • Department of Biochemistry
      Lincoln, NE, United States
  • 2008
    • Yeungnam University
      • Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
      Onyang, South Chungcheong, South Korea